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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 30.8 years (captivity)
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Sometimes lone males are found outside the unimale social systems that the monkeys establish. Researchers believe the males disperse to create new troops. Research is now being done to see if females leave as well, to create new troops. (Riverbanks 2001)

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Stein, J. 2002. "Cercopithecus neglectus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_neglectus.html
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Joshua Stein, Fresno City College
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Behavior

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Communication between Debrazza's monkeys is both vocal and visual. Visual communication includes staring as a threat, sometimes with the mouth open but the lips covering the teeth. Another threat display is bobbing the head up and down. To reduce aggression in certain situations the lips are retracted showing clenched teeth. As an expression of tension or as another threat display, yawning by adult males is performed to show the canines.

Vocal communication consists of low boom calls to communicate territorialiy, and isolation calls often given by infant or juvenile monkeys when they become separated from the troop.

In addition to these, there is communication through tactile signals. These are likely to be especially important during mating, as well as between mothers and their offspring.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Stein, J. 2002. "Cercopithecus neglectus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_neglectus.html
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Conservation Status

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Debrazza's monkeys are neither endangered nor threatened. However, in 1975, Ethiopia started protecting them from being hunted and trapped. Threats to these monkeys include the pet trade, habitat destruction from deforestation, range fragmentation from increasing human populations, and cultivation, mainly of coffee plantations in Ethiopia. These monkeys can also be found protected on the Dja Reserve in Cameroon.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix ii

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Benefits

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There are no negative effects of Debrazza's monkeys on human economies.

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Stein, J. 2002. "Cercopithecus neglectus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_neglectus.html
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Benefits

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Debrazza's monkeys are hunted for their flesh in Zaire and Cameroon. They have also been widely collected for zoos, mainly from areas of Uganda and Kenya. From 1968 to 1973, 152 Debrazza's monkeys were imported into the United States and from 1965 to 1975, 373 were imported into the British Isles.

Positive Impacts: pet trade ; food ; research and education

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Stein, J. 2002. "Cercopithecus neglectus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_neglectus.html
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Associations

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As a prey species, it is likely that these small primates have some impact on predator populations. In addition, because they are largely frugivorous, they probably play some role in seed dispersal.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

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Stein, J. 2002. "Cercopithecus neglectus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_neglectus.html
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Trophic Strategy

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Debrazza's monkeys are omnivorous, but primarily eat fruit. Other items in their diet include leaves, flowers, mushrooms, beetles, termites, and worms.

Animal Foods: insects; terrestrial worms

Plant Foods: leaves; fruit; flowers

Other Foods: fungus

Primary Diet: omnivore

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Stein, J. 2002. "Cercopithecus neglectus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_neglectus.html
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Joshua Stein, Fresno City College
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Distribution

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The range of Debrazza's monkey, Cercopithecus neglectus, is a large triangle bordered by southern Ethiopia to the Northeast, Cameroon to the Northwest, and northern Angola to the south. This species is more common in easten Africa and less regularly observed on the continent's western side.

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

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Stein, J. 2002. "Cercopithecus neglectus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_neglectus.html
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Habitat

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Debrazza's monkeys are found in forests, swamps, and seasonally flooded areas. They exist predominantly in the closed canopy, preferring dense vegetation, and are generally found within 1 km (.62 miles) of rivers in humid forests.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest

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Stein, J. 2002. "Cercopithecus neglectus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_neglectus.html
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Life Expectancy

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The longevity of C. neglectus has not been reported, but other species within the genus Cercopithecus have been reported to live in excess of 30 years in captivity. Lifespans in the wild are likely to be somewhat shorter. It is reasonable to assume that Debrazza's monkeys are like the other members of their genus in regard to lifespan.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
30 years.

Average lifespan
Sex: female
Status: captivity:
23.0 years.

Average lifespan
Sex: female
Status: captivity:
26.3 years.

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Stein, J. 2002. "Cercopithecus neglectus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_neglectus.html
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Morphology

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This species shows marked sexual dimorphism in size. Male Debrazza's monkeys weigh up to 7 kg, three more than the average female, which weighs 4 kg. Lengths range from 40 to 63.5 cm. Females and males are gray with black extremities and tail. The shape of the head is round, with a long white beard, white muzzle, and an orange crown. The thighs and rumps have white stripes. Legs are long, and the tail is non-prehensile.

Male Debrazza's monkeys have a distinct blue scrotum. In addition, both males and females have well-developed cheek pouches and the most robust feet of all of the guenons.

Range mass: 4 to 7 kg.

Range length: 40 to 63.5 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

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Stein, J. 2002. "Cercopithecus neglectus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_neglectus.html
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Associations

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Like other small forest monkeys, it is likely that Debrazza's monkeys fall prey to chimpanzees, leopards, various avian predators, and snakes.

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Stein, J. 2002. "Cercopithecus neglectus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_neglectus.html
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Joshua Stein, Fresno City College
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Reproduction

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The sexual dimporphism in size of this species suggests that breeding is probably polygynous. In most guenons, females remain in their natal group all of their lives, whereas males disperse around the time they reach sexual maturity. Males typically compete to control access to a group of females (Nowak, 1999). However, this species is reported to sometimes be found in pairs with young, indicating that there may be some monogamy (Oregon Zoo, 2005).

When it is time to mate, females solicit copulation by presenting themselves. During copulation, the female pouts by sticking her lower lip forward while keeping her lips closed.

Mating System: polygynous

Debrazza's monkeys reach sexual maturity at 5 to 6 years of age. The breedng interval is long, but the gestation period is 5 to 6 months. Single births are normal, although twins are produced on rare occasions. The known breeding season in the equatorial rain forest is from February to March. Otherwise, breeding occurs when food is available.

Becuase females nurse their young for a year, it is unlikey that females are able to produce more than one young per year, even under good conditions. Young begin to eat solid food around the age of 2 months.

Breeding interval: The exact breeding interval is not known.

Breeding season: The known breeding season in the equatorial rain forest is from February to March.

Range number of offspring: 1 to 2.

Range gestation period: 5 to 6 months.

Average weaning age: 12 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 5 to 6 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 5 to 6 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Average birth mass: 260 g.

Average number of offspring: 1.

When born, the young are furred with eyes open. Newborns are able to cling to their mother's fur, but are comletely dependent upon her for food, comfort, grooming, and protection. Females nurse and care for their young until they become independent, sometime around the age of 1 year. Young females stay with their mothers a long as they live, whereas males leave when they are sexually mature.

The role of males in parental care has not been described. Although most parental care is clearly the responsibility of the mother, fathers may aid in protecting the young born to them in the social group from predators or from infanticidal males. Although infanticide has not been reported for this species, it does occur in other guenons.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); post-independence association with parents; extended period of juvenile learning

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Stein, J. 2002. "Cercopithecus neglectus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cercopithecus_neglectus.html
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Joshua Stein, Fresno City College
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Biology

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Despite being widespread, De Brazza's monkey is generally shy and inconspicuous, only rarely announcing its presence with deep, booming group calls (1) (5). This species is mostly arboreal, but unlike other guenons, which usually stay in the tree canopy, it is often found moving through the forest understory or along the ground (6). The diet consists mainly of fruits and seeds, although leaves, mushrooms and small reptiles and insects may also be consumed (4) (5). As foraging usually takes place in exposed areas, food is stored in cheek pouches, and only eaten when the monkeys return to a safe location (4). Throughout much of its range, this species lives in polygynous groups of between eight and ten individuals, but in certain regions, such as Gabon, De Brazza's monkeys can be found in small, monogamous family groups, comprising a male-female pair and their offspring (2) (6). Interestingly, De Brazza's monkey is the only guenon species that forms these strong breeding pair bonds (5). Although groups maintain small territories that they mark out with saliva and scent, they do not appear to show any aggression towards other groups of De Brazza's monkey that enter these areas (4) (5). In contrast, when encroachment is made by a different species of monkey, De Brazza's monkeys may become extremely hostile, with the entire group becoming involved in forcibly ejecting the intruder (4). De Brazza's monkey breeds throughout the year, with the female usually giving birth to a single infant after a gestation period of around 168 to 187 days. In order to reduce the risk of predation, the vulnerable infant clings tightly to the mother's stomach. Weaning takes place after around one year, but the young begin to try solid food after about two months of age. De Brazza's monkeys become sexually mature at around age five or six, and may live for up to 22 years in the wild (4). De Brazza's monkey is preyed upon by numerous animals, such as large African eagles, leopards, and other primates—including humans (7). When a group is threatened, the females and the young generally hide in the undergrowth, while the male climbs a tree and makes loud calls in an attempt to distract the predator (6).
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Conservation

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De Brazza's monkey occurs in a number of protected areas across its range, thereby safeguarding, to some extent, against habitat loss (1). The recent discovery of this species in the Lesio-Louna and south-west Lefini Reserves in the Democratic Republic of Congo, has shown that conservation activities targeted towards reintroducing gorillas to the region have also helped the local De Brazza's monkey population to recover from years of heavy hunting (8). De Brazza's monkey is listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), and therefore any international trade is strictly controlled through maximum export quotas (3). In addition, in many African countries, hunting of this species requires authorisation (1) (9), while in Ethiopia it is prohibited altogether (7). Despite these controls, the bushmeat trade for De Brazza's monkey—along with many other species—continues to grow (4). In order to combat this, a consortium of conservation organisations called the Bushmeat Crisis Task Force has been established. By working with governments, organisations and the general public, they aim to eliminate unsustainable and illegal bushmeat hunting practices worldwide (10).
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Description

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De Brazza's monkey is one of the most distinctive species of guenon, a collective name for members of a large group of African monkeys belonging to the genus Cercopithecus (4). The head is adorned with a striking orange-red crescent shaped patch on the brow, and the face has a white muzzle extending into a long, white beard. The coat is mostly finely speckled grey and white, with black limbs and tail. Other distinguishing features include a white thigh stripe and rump and, in the male, a bright blue scrotum (2) (4).
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Habitat

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De Brazza's monkey generally occupies forested regions close to rivers and waterways, including dense swamp forest, lowland tropical forest, and mountain forest up to elevations of 2,200 metres (1) (2).
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Range

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One of the most widespread guenon species, the range of De Brazza's monkey extends from Cameroon, southwards, through northern Gabon, and Congo to northern Angola, and eastwards through much of the Democratic Republic of Congo and southern Central African Republic to eastern Uganda. Fragmented populations are also found in western Ethiopia, extreme southern Sudan and eastern Kenya (1).
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Status

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Classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1) and listed on Appendix II of CITES (3).
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Threats

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Although De Brazza's monkey is widespread, it is never found in abundance in any part of its range, and in many regions appears to be undergoing a decline. The main threat to this species is habitat loss due to ongoing forest clearance for agriculture and timber (1). In addition, De Brazza's monkey is also hunted for food, and may become increasingly targeted due to the expansion of the bushmeat trade (1) (4).
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De Brazza's monkey

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De Brazza's monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus) is an Old World monkey endemic to the riverine and swamp forests of central Africa. The largest species in the guenon family, it is one of the most widespread arboreal African primates. Aside from size, it can be differentiated from other cercopithecus monkeys by its orange diadem and white beard. Due to its cryptic nature, the species is not well documented in all of its habitats but has shown unique traits such as pair-bonding and aggressive behavior towards other guenons.

Etymology

Locally known as swamp monkeys, these primates are named after the Italian naturalist and explorer Giacomo Savorgnan di Brazzà.[3][4] Their scientific species name, neglectus, which means to pay no attention to, was given to them because of their ability to hide from both humans and predators.[5]

Description

 src=
A female De Brazza's monkey grooms a male.

The De Brazza's monkey is the most sexually dimorphic species of guenon; males weigh around 7 kilograms, while females weigh around 4 kilograms. Adults have grey agouti fur with a reddish-brown back, black limbs and tail, and a white rump. Both sexes have cheek pouches they use to carry food while they forage.[6][7] Males have a distinct blue scrotum, while females have a red perianal region and visible nipples. Juveniles lack the darker colors on the extremities that is characteristic of adults, but retain the whites stripes and red rump while infants are a uniform brown agouti with only a small beard. The white muzzle and beard, along with an orange crescent on its forehead and white stripes on its thighs distinguish it from other guenons.[6][8]

Ecology

Distribution and habitat

De Brazza's monkeys range across the swamps, bamboo and dry mountain forests of Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, South Sudan, Nigeria and Uganda and possibly Tanzania though reports have not been confirmed.[9][2][10] Troops are found almost exclusively near water, rarely venturing farther than 1 km away from a river or tributary. As a result they can sometimes be seen swimming.[6][7] The monkeys prefer dense forest and vegetation, only venturing into more open forest to feed. They are mainly arboreal, but descends to the ground to feed on herbaceous plants.[6][2] Due to its cryptic nature there is no accurate population estimate for the species over its entire range.[8]

Diet

The diet of De Brazza's monkeys consists mostly of herbaceous plants found on the forest floor, and fruits when available. These are supplemented with insects, seeds, and other food sources when primary foods are scarce.[7]

Predators

Predators of the De Brazza's monkey include the crowned eagle, leopard, humans, and common chimpanzees. Though rare, dogs and pythons may also predate on juvenile De Brazza's. The typical predator response is to curl up in a tight ball against the side of a tree with the orange crown and white stripes on the thighs hidden and wait silently for the predator to leave. Individuals will only move if the predator approaches their position, and even then they move quietly and slowly to try and escape notice.[7]

Behavior

 src=
Mother with young

The lifespan of the De Brazza's monkey is thought to correspond similarly to other members of Cercopithecus which live up to 22 years in the wild and 30 years in captivity.[8] Its cryptic nature makes the De Brazza's monkey hard to observe in the wild. Troop sizes are small for a guenon, ranging from 2-10 individuals on average.[11] In some areas of Western Africa, such as Gabon and Cameroon, small pair-bonded groups of a male, female, and infants and juveniles have been observed. In Eastern Africa, the DeBrazza's monkeys live in single male, multi-female groups. Solitary males do not create bachelor groups and will occasionally depose an alpha male to take over access to the females.[7]

Male De Brazza's monkey communicates with booming sounds. These are usually heard early in the morning when the male calls out to establish his territory, though he will also use this call to bring the group back together if they get separated.[6][7] When attacked by predators, males will give an alarm call. In the case of crowned eagles, males will emit a short bark before attacking the eagle to scare it off. Females have also been observed to give alarms calls and growl at humans. Otherwise, female vocalizations are limited to quiet croaks given when feeding or resting. Infants and juveniles will give shrill squeals of distress when separated from their mothers or the group.[7] Given the cryptic nature of this species, hearing their calls is sometimes the only way to know they are present.[12] Unlike other guenons, which often form polyspecific associations to decrease predation and increase foraging, DeBrazza's monkeys will be aggressive towards other species and have only been known to tolerate some colobine species which do not compete with them for resources.[7]

Reproduction

Female De Brazza's monkeys reach sexual maturity around 5 years of age, while males do not reach maturity until closer to 6 years of age.[13] Most juveniles males will leave their natal group before they reach maturity.[7] The breeding season lasts from February to March, but females can also go into estrous during times of high food availability.[6] Gestation lasts between 5 to 6 months, and an infant stays close to its mother for the first year of its life at which point it is weaned.[6][13] Females usually have one infant at a time, though twins have been born on rare occasions, with a year long inter-birth interval.[13]

Conservation

The De Brazza's monkey is listed as least concern by the IUCN Red List.[8] The main threats to DeBrazza's monkeys are deforestation due to logging and agriculture, and bushmeat hunting.[14][15] There are several captive population housed in zoos across Europe and North America. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) manages captive population under a species survival plan. This is unique because the species is not listed as vulnerable or endangered, but has been sponsored by the AZA to proactively prevent need for reactive conservation in the future.[16] More data is needed to fully assess the conservation needs of this species.[8]

References

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 157. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b c Struhsaker, S.; Oates, J. F.; Hart, J. & Butynski, T. M. (2008). "Cercopithecus neglectus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T4223A10680717. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T4223A10680717.en.
  3. ^ Mammal species of the world : a taxonomic and geographic reference. Wilson, Don E., Reeder, DeeAnn M. (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 2005. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4. OCLC 57557352.CS1 maint: others (link)
  4. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2009-11-18), "De Brazza", The Eponym Dictionary of Mammals, JHU Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-9533-3, retrieved 2021-06-16
  5. ^ "DeBrazza's Monkey". Capron Park Zoo.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Stein, J. (2002). "Cercopithecus neglectus". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2012-04-30.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wahome, J. M.; Rowell, T. E.; Tsingalia, H. M. (June 1993). "The natural history of de Brazza's monkey in Kenya". International Journal of Primatology. 14 (3): 445–466. doi:10.1007/bf02192776.
  8. ^ a b c d e "DeBrazza's monkey: Cercopithecus neglectus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019-02-03. 2019-02-03. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  9. ^ Karere G. Mugambi, Mbaruk A. Suleman & Wilbur Ottichilo; Thomas M. Butynski (1997). "The vanishing De Brazza's monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus Schlegel) in Kenya". International Journal of Primatology. 18 (6): 995–1004. doi:10.1023/A:1026352331577.
  10. ^ Butynski, Thomas M.; Jong, Yvonne A. de (2019). "Primates of Africa's Coastal Deltas and Their Conservation". Primates in Flooded Habitats. pp. 244–258. doi:10.1017/9781316466780.031. ISBN 9781316466780.
  11. ^ Mugambi, Karere G.; Butynski, Thomas M.; Suleman, Mbaruk A.; Ottichilo, Wilbur (1997). "The Vanishing De Brazza's Monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus Schlegel) in Kenya". International Journal of Primatology. 18 (6): 995–1004. doi:10.1023/A:1026352331577.
  12. ^ Maisels, Fiona; Bout, Nicolas; Inkamba-Inkulu, Clement; Pearson, Liz; Aczel, Paul; Ambahe, Rufin; Ambassa, Edgar; Fotso, Roger (January 2007). "New Northwestern and Southwestern Range Limits of De Brazza's Monkey, Mbam et Djerem National Park, Cameroon, and Bateke Plateau, Gabon and Congo". Primate Conservation. 22 (1): 107–110. doi:10.1896/052.022.0109. hdl:1893/19763.
  13. ^ a b c "Cercopithecus neglectus de brazza's Monkey : Fr. Cercopithèque de Brazza; Ger. Brazza-Meerkatze". Mammals of Africa : Primates. 2013. doi:10.5040/9781472926920.0059. ISBN 978-1-4729-2692-0.
  14. ^ King, Tony (November 2008). "Detectability and Conservation of De Brazza's Monkey ( Cercopithecus neglectus ) in the Lesio-Louna and South-West Lefini Reserves, Bateke Plateau, Republic of Congo". Primate Conservation. 23 (1): 39–44. doi:10.1896/052.023.0104.
  15. ^ Aghokeng, Avelin F.; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Loul, Severin; Liegeois, Florian; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine (April 2010). "Extensive survey on the prevalence and genetic diversity of SIVs in primate bushmeat provides insights into risks for potential new cross-species transmissions". Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 10 (3): 386–396. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2009.04.014. PMC 2844463. PMID 19393772.
  16. ^ "AZA Species Survival Plan© Profile: De Brazza's Monkey". www.umich.edu. Retrieved 2019-12-04.

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De Brazza's monkey: Brief Summary

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De Brazza's monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus) is an Old World monkey endemic to the riverine and swamp forests of central Africa. The largest species in the guenon family, it is one of the most widespread arboreal African primates. Aside from size, it can be differentiated from other cercopithecus monkeys by its orange diadem and white beard. Due to its cryptic nature, the species is not well documented in all of its habitats but has shown unique traits such as pair-bonding and aggressive behavior towards other guenons.

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