dcsimg

Comments

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The leaves are used in making mats and baskets. Baked rootstocks are used as substitute for bread (Fedchinko in Kom., l.c.).
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bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 1 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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The name Butomus umbellatus f.orma vallisneriifolius (Sagorski) Glück has been used for plants that grow totally submersed or have floating leaves. Field transplant experiments with North American plants (R. L. Stuckey et al. 1990) have demonstrated that the non-flowering submersed form can be converted to a flowering mudflat form, and that flowering terrestrial plants can be transformed into non-flowering submersed ones. Consequently, B. umbellatus f. vallisneriifolius is a deep-water growth form and should have no taxonomic systematic status.

Two species, Butomus umbellatus and B. junceus Turczaninow, have been recognized in the natural range of the genus (L. C. Anderson et al. 1974), the former from Europe and western Asia, and the latter from eastern Asia. Reportedly, the distinguishing features are shorter scapes, fewer flowers, and a straight stigma for B. junceus as opposed to taller plants, more flowers, and curved stigmas for B. umbellatus.

Studies of Butomus in North America (L. C. Anderson et al. 1974) indicated that apparently the genus has become naturalized in North America at two separate locations, one near Detroit and another in the St. Lawrence River region. It is possible that plants naturalized in the St. Lawrence River region originated in eastern Asia, and those naturalized in the Detroit area originated in Europe or western Asia.

A map of Butomus in North America, prepared by R. L. Stuckey (1994), showed that he accepted two species. His map essentially had everything east of Niagara Falls as B. junceus and everything west of the Falls as B. umbellatus. At this time, I do not accept two species in the genus. Should two species be accepted, however, determinations would essentially follow the distribution given by Stuckey. He included dots for B. umbellatus from Indiana and British Columbia. I have not observed specimens from those two areas although the species is certainly to be expected in Indiana, and eventually in British Columbia if it does not already occur there.

Butomus umbellatus was first collected in North America near Laprairie on the St. Lawrence River in 1905; it was first observed in 1897 (R. L. Stuckey, pers. comm.). West of Niagara Falls, the taxon was first collected near Detroit in 1930 by O. A. Farwell, although he noted on the specimen, "Has been here since before 1918!!!" (R. L. Stuckey 1968).

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Description

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A glabrous, aquatic perennial herb with horizontal rhizomes; scapes (30-) 50-90 (rarely-150) cm long, erect; roots fibrous. Leaves all radical, usually about as long as the scapes, linear, ensiform, sheathing at the base, 6-9 mm broad. Inflorescence umbellate, cymose with an involucre of lanceolate-acuminate bracts and bracteoles; bracts 2 or 3, upto 25 mm long, 6-8 mm broad; bracteoles numerous, less than 10 mm long, 2-3 mm broad. Flowers pink, pedicellate; pedicels (3-) 5-9 cm long. Perianth segments 6. biseriate. Sepal-like segments obovate. c. 17-veined, keeled, 9-13 mm long and 6-8 mm broad; petal-like segments broadly obovate, c. 13-veined, 9-15 mm long, 8 mm broad. Stamens usually 9, rarely 5 or numerous; filaments linear, usually dilated at the base, variable in length, free, slightly connate at the base; anthers basifixed, 2-celled, ovate to oblong (linear-oblong in young flowers), 2-4 mm long. Carpels 6-9 or many, each 3-5.5 mm long, 1.5-2 mm broad, superior, free or somewhat connate basally, obovate; style simple, short, terminal, persistent; stigma ventral, curved. Ovules numerous, anatropous, minute on reticulate parietal placentas. Fruit a many-seeded, beaked follicle, obovate, 7-9 mm long, 2-3.5 mm broad. Seeds numerous, minute, 0.2-0.4 mm long, oblong with thin testa and straight embryo.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 1 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Description

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Herbs, to 150 cm. Leaves linear, to 2.7 m. Inflorescences with 20--25 flowers; scape to 150 cm. Flowers 2--2.5 cm wide; pedicels 4--10 cm; outer tepals elliptic, 6--7.5 × 2--2.5 mm, apex acute, inner tepals oblanceolate, 9--11.5 × 4.5--6 mm, apex obtuse, erose; filaments 3--4.5 mm, anthers 1 mm. Follicles 1 cm.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Distribution: Temperate and subtropical Eurasia.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 1 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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Distribution

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naturalizedintroduced; Alta., Man., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Conn., Idaho, Ill., Mich., Minn., Mont., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Pa., S.Dak., Vt., Wis.; Eurasia..
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Flower/Fruit

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Fl. Per.: May July.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 1 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Flowering summer--fall.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Habitat

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Mud and shallow water of streams, lakes, and ditches; 0--700m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Butomus umbellatus L. Sp. PL 372. 1753
A glabrous perennial with a thick horizontal rootstock. Leaves erect ; sheath compressed, keeled, gradually narrowed above into the blade, which is ensiform above, more or less twisted, acute, gradually narrowed toward the apex, 3-10 dm. long, 2-10 mm. wide; scape erect, terete, smooth, up to 1 m. tall or more and usually exceeding the leaves; inflorescence many-flowered, the mature pedicels 4-10 cm. long; sepals and petals elliptic, 1-1.5 cm. long, rose, the sepals somewhat tinged with green.
Type locality : Europe.
Distribution : Introduced along the shores of the St. Lawrence River, near Montreal,
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bibliographic citation
Percy Wilson, Per Axel Rydberg, Norman Taylor, Nathaniel Lord Britton, John Kunkel Small, George Valentine Nash. 1909. PANDANALES-POALES; TYPHACEAE, SPARGANACEAE, ELODEACEAE, HYDROCHARITACEAE, ZANNICHELLIACEAE, ZOSTERACEAE, CYMODOCEACEAE, NAIADACEAE, LILAEACEAE, SCHEUCHZERIACEAE, ALISMACEAE, BUTOMACEAE, POACEAE (pars). North American flora. vol 17(1). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Butomus umbellatus

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 src=
Butomus umbellatus
[2]

Butomus umbellatus is the Old World Palearctic and Asian plant species in the family Butomaceae. Common names include flowering rush[3] or grass rush.

Description

The plant is a rhizomatous, hairless, perennial aquatic plant. Its name is derived from Greek bous, meaning "cow", "ox" etc. and tome, a cut (the verb 'temnein' meaning "to cut"), which refers to the plant's swordlike leaves.[4]

Other than suggested by its English common name, it is not a true rush. It is native to Old World continents and grows on the margins of still and slowly moving water down to a depth of about 3 m. It has pink flowers. Introduced into North America as an ornamental plant it has now become a serious invasive weed[5] in the Great Lakes area and in parts of the Pacific Northwest.[6] In Israel, one of its native countries, it is an endangered species due to the dwindling of its habitat. It can also be found in Great Britain locally, for example at the Caldicot and Wentloog Levels[4][7]

The plant has linear, pointed leaves up to 1 metre long, or more. The leaves are triangular in cross-section and arise in two rows along the rhizome/base. They are untoothed, parallel veined and twisted.[4][8]

The inflorescence is umbel-like consisting of a single terminal flower surrounded by three cymes. The flowers are regular and bisexual, 2 to 3 cm across. There are three petal-like sepals which are pink with darker veins. They persist in the fruit. The three petals are like the sepals but somewhat larger. 6 - 9 stamens. Carpels superior, 6 - 9 and slightly united at the base. When ripe they are obovoid and crowned with a persistent style. Ovules are numerous and found scattered over the inner surface of the carpel wall, except on the midrib and edges. Fruit is a follicle. The seeds have no endosperm, and a straight embryo. It flowers from July until August.[4]

Uses

Butomus umbellatus is cultivated as an ornamental waterside plant.[9]

In parts of Russia the rhizomes are used as food.

References

  1. ^ The Plant List, Butomus umbellatus L.
  2. ^ 1885 illustration from Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany
  3. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Butomus umbellatus". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d "Butomus umbellatus in Flora of North America @ efloras.org". www.efloras.org. Retrieved 2017-01-31.
  5. ^ "Flowering Rush (Butomus umbellatus) Ecological Risk Screening Summary" (PDF). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-07-02. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  6. ^ Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map Image
  7. ^ Natural World Magazine, Spring 2009, The Wildlife Trust, published by Think publishing
  8. ^ Rose, Francis (2006). The Wild Flower Key. Frederick Warne & Co. pp. 480–481. ISBN 978-0-7232-5175-0.
  9. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Butomus umbellatus". Retrieved 23 February 2020.

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Butomus umbellatus: Brief Summary

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 src= Butomus umbellatus

Butomus umbellatus is the Old World Palearctic and Asian plant species in the family Butomaceae. Common names include flowering rush or grass rush.

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