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Yellow Bluestem

Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng

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A very common grass growing in dry poor soils in southern Taiwan.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Poaceae in Flora of Taiwan @ eFloras.org
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Chang-Sheng Kuoh
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eFloras.org
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Comments

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Dichanthium annulatum is similar, but can be distinguished by its conspicuously bearded nodes with spreading hairs and by the broadly obtuse sessile spikelet with long hairs on the upper margins. It also lacks a purple stripe on the pedicels.

Bothriochloa ischaemum introgresses with B. bladhii, leading to a range of intermediates. The name Andropogon taiwanensis Ohwi (J. Jap. Bot. 12: 652. 1936), described from Taiwan, has been applied to one of these intermediates. The name "Bothriochloa taiwanensis" (Ohwi, loc. cit.) was not validly published because it was merely cited as a synonym of A. taiwanensis.

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 607, 608 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Comments

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Bothriochloa ischaemum is known to introgress with Bothriochloa bladhii (DeWet & Harlan in Am, J. Bot. 53:94-98. 1966) and the hybrid often resembles the Southeast Asian var. songorica.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 287 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Description

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Annuals; culms tufted and the base geniculate, nodes usually bearded; ligule membranous, rounded, about 1 mm long. Spikelets paired, dimorphic; pedicelled spikelets darker than the sessile. Sessile spikelets about 4 mm long, oblonglanceolate, dorsally concave, villous below; pedicei and rachis villous; glumes papery, pubescent dorsally, margins slightly membranous, ciliate; lower glume pointed, 2-keeled, about 4 mm long, 5-nerved; upper glume pointed, as long as the lower glume, 3-nerved; lower lemma oblong-lanceolate, acute, slightly bifid, awnless, about 2 mm long, nerves obscure; upper lemma linear, as long as the lower, with a terminal long awn of about 1 cm long, 1-nerved, upper palea oblong-lanceolate, about O.5 mm long; anthers about 2 mm long.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Poaceae in Flora of Taiwan @ eFloras.org
editor
Chang-Sheng Kuoh
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eFloras.org
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Description

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Perennial, tussocky from a branching rootstock. Culms slender, erect or geniculately ascending, 25–70 cm tall, 3–6-noded, nodes glabrous or appressed bearded. Leaf sheaths keeled, congested at plant base; leaf blades linear, 5–16 × 0.2–0.3 cm, usually sparingly hairy with tubercle-based hairs, apex acuminate; ligule ca. 1 mm. Inflorescence composed of 5–15 racemes, subdigitate or inserted on a brief axis; racemes 3–7 cm, silvery-green or tinged purplish brown; rachis internodes and pedicels ciliate with long white or pinkish silky hairs. Sessile spikelet 4–5 mm; lower glume oblong-lanceolate, usually cartilaginous, sometimes herbaceous, back flat to slightly concave, 5–7-veined, silky-pilose below middle, lacking a pit, margins keeled and stiffly ciliate near apex; awn of upper lemma 1–1.5 cm. Pedicelled spikelet male or barren, subequal to sessile spikelet, glabrous. Fl. and fr. autumn. 2n = 40, 50, 60.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 607, 608 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Description

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Tuft perennial with mostly basal leaves; culms erect or geniculately ascending, up to 80 cm high. Leaf-blades 3-15 cm long, 2-4 mm wide. Inflorescence composed of 5-15 subdigitate racemes; racemes 4-6 cm long, shortly pedunculate, the peduncles glabrous. Sessile spikelet oblong-lanceolate, 3.5-5 mm long; lower glume chartaceous, hairy below the middle, not glossy, without a pit, acute; awn 12-15 mm long. Pedicelled spikelet glabrous on the back, without a pit.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 287 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Distribution

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Europe, N. Africa, Himalaya, India, Tibet, China, Taiwan.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Widely distributed in Northwest Himalaya, ascending to the Tibetan plateau at 4,000 m. Also found in southern Europe, North Africa, extending to China and Taiwan.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Poaceae in Flora of Taiwan @ eFloras.org
editor
Chang-Sheng Kuoh
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eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Distribution: Pakistan (Sind, Baluchistan, Punjab, N.W.F.P., Gilgit & Kashmir); southern Europe and North Africa eastwards to the Northwest Himalayas and Tibet.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 287 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Elevation Range

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200-3600 m
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
author
K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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eFloras.org
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eFloras

Flower/Fruit

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Fl. & Fr. Per.: May-October.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 287 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Habitat & Distribution

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Rocky and sandy slopes, roadsides, disturbed places. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Afghanistan, Bhutan, N India, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgystan, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; N Africa, SW Asia, Europe; introduced in United States].
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 607, 608 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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Synonym

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Andropogon ischaemum L., Sp. Pl. 1047. 1753.
Andropogon ischaemum L. var. radicans Hack. in DC., Monogr. Phar. 6: 476. 1889 Honda, l. c. 343. 1930.
Andropogon taiwanensis Ohwi, Journ Jap. Bot. 12: 652. 1936.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Poaceae in Flora of Taiwan @ eFloras.org
editor
Chang-Sheng Kuoh
project
eFloras.org
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Synonym

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Andropogon ischaemum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1047. 1753; Amphilophis ischaemum (Linnaeus) Nash; Andropogon ischae-mum var. songaricus Ruprecht ex Fischer & Meyer; Bothrio-chloa ischaemum var. songarica (Ruprecht ex Fischer & Meyer) Celarier & J. R. Harlan.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 607, 608 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Amphilophis ischaemum (l^.) Nash
Andropogon Ischaemum L,. Sp. PI. 1047. 1753. ,
Andropogon Ischaemum americanus Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 : 476. 1889.
Sorgum Ischaemum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 792. 1891.
Stems 3-8 dm. tall, often barbed at the nodes, simple or sparingly branched above; leaves often glaucous; sheaths glabrous; blades 5-20 cm. long, up to 6 mm. broad, narrowly linear, usually with a few long hairs on the upper siurface near the base, otherwise glabrous; racemes 4-10. rarely more, 4—8 cm. long, slender, lax, subflabellately arranged on a short axis; sessile
4
Spikelet 3-4 mm. long, oblong-elliptic, the first scale 7-9-nerved, the intercarinal space flat or nearly so, appressed-pubescent below, often with a, pit-like depression near the apex, the second scale ciliate above on the keel, the fourth scale with a perfect awn 1-2 cm. long, the column straight or somewhat geniculate at the middle; pedicellate spikelet glabrous, staminate, lanceolate, usually colored, the first scale ciliate above on the keels, 9-nerved.
Type locality : India.
Distribution : Introduced from Venezuela to Antigua and St. Croix ; native of warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World.
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bibliographic citation
George Valentine Nash. 1912. (POALES); POACEAE (pars). North American flora. vol 17(2). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Physical Description

provided by USDA PLANTS text
Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leave s mostly basal, below middle of stem, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence with 2 or more spikes, fascicles, glomerules, heads, or clusters per culm, Inflorescence a panicle with narrowly racemose or spicate branches, Inflorescence a panicle with digitately arranged spicate branches, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Inflorescence branches paired or digitate at a single node, Peduncle or rachis scabrous or pubescent, often with long hairs, Rachis dilated, flat, central axis to which spikelets are attached, Rachis grooved, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets dorsally compressed o r terete, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelets paired at rachis nodes, Spikelets in paired units, 1 sessile, 1 pedicellate, Pedicellate spikelet rudimentary or absent, usually sterile, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Spikelets falling with parts of disarticulating rachis or pedicel, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glume surface hairy, villous or pilose, Glumes 3 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 1 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn less than 1 cm long, Lemma awn 1-2 cm long, Lemma awned from tip, Lemma awn once geniculate, bent once, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lem ma straight, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Dr. David Bogler
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Missouri Botanical Garden
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USDA NRCS NPDC
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USDA PLANTS text

Bothriochloa ischaemum

provided by wikipedia EN

Bothriochloa ischaemum is a species of perennial grass in the family Poaceae, found throughout much of the world. It is commonly known as yellow bluestem. Two varieties are recognized, of which Bothriochloa ischaemum var. ischaemum is native to Europe, Asia, and Africa and naturalized elsewhere,[2] and var. songarica is native to Asia and naturalized elsewhere.[3] Var. songarica is an invasive weed in Texas, where it is known as "King Ranch bluestem"; it has displaced native grasses in large areas of central and south Texas.[4]

The species name come from the Ancient Greek ischaemum, a styptic (causing ischemia).

References

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species".
  2. ^ "Bothriochloa ischaemum var. ischaemum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  3. ^ "Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  4. ^ Gabbard, B. L.; Fowler, N. L. (2006). "Wide Ecological Amplitude of a Diversity-Reducing Invasive Grass". Biological Invasions. 9 (2): 149. doi:10.1007/s10530-006-9012-x. S2CID 24457776.

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Bothriochloa ischaemum: Brief Summary

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Bothriochloa ischaemum is a species of perennial grass in the family Poaceae, found throughout much of the world. It is commonly known as yellow bluestem. Two varieties are recognized, of which Bothriochloa ischaemum var. ischaemum is native to Europe, Asia, and Africa and naturalized elsewhere, and var. songarica is native to Asia and naturalized elsewhere. Var. songarica is an invasive weed in Texas, where it is known as "King Ranch bluestem"; it has displaced native grasses in large areas of central and south Texas.

The species name come from the Ancient Greek ischaemum, a styptic (causing ischemia).

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