dcsimg

Untitled

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Previously, I. portoricensis, along with I. northropi, I. melanopsis, and I. dominicensis, were all considered subspecies within Icterus dominicensis. This was documented in Birds of the West Indies in 1936 by ornithologist James Bond. In 2010, each of these was recognized as its own species by the American Ornithologists' Union, based on analysis of mitochondrial DNA, plumage, and song differences. Puerto Rican orioles are part of a subgroup of orioles that includes North American orchard orioles (Icterus spurrius) and hooded orioles (Icterus cucullatus).

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Campbell, S. 2012. "Icterus portoricensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Icterus_portoricensis.html
author
Susanna Campbell, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Catherine Kent, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Puerto Rican orioles sing as a primary means of communication. Their song is comprised of clicks or “high pitched whistles” and has a frequency range between 3.6 and 5.3 kHz. They combine 15 to 27 different notes to make up their song. It is frequently assumed that only the males sing based on behavior of temperate-zone birds; however, both males and females of many tropical orioles sing. Thus, it is likely that both male and female Puerto Rican orioles sing.

Communication Channels: acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Campbell, S. 2012. "Icterus portoricensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Icterus_portoricensis.html
author
Susanna Campbell, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Catherine Kent, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Scientists have not determined the size of the population, but they are considered fairly common to common on the island of Puerto Rico. The population is declining, but is not near vulnerable levels and Puerto Rican orioles are classified as "Least Concern" by the IUCN Red List.

US Migratory Bird Act: no special status

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Campbell, S. 2012. "Icterus portoricensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Icterus_portoricensis.html
author
Susanna Campbell, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Catherine Kent, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Fruit is an important part of the Puerto Rican oriole diet, so they may have detrimental effects on the orchards in which they are found.

Negative Impacts: crop pest

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Campbell, S. 2012. "Icterus portoricensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Icterus_portoricensis.html
author
Susanna Campbell, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Catherine Kent, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The Puerto Rican Oriole is one of 15 bird species endemic to Puerto Rico, which may generate ecotourism revenue.

Positive Impacts: ecotourism

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Campbell, S. 2012. "Icterus portoricensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Icterus_portoricensis.html
author
Susanna Campbell, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Catherine Kent, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Since the diet of Puerto Rican orioles includes fruit, they likely help disperse seeds throughout their habitat.

Coastal area nests are parasitized by shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis), which lay eggs in the nests of Puerto Rican orioles.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis)
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Campbell, S. 2012. "Icterus portoricensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Icterus_portoricensis.html
author
Susanna Campbell, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Catherine Kent, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Puerto Rican orioles feed mostly on insects and on other small invertebrates. They are also known to feed on lizards, fruits, nuts, and grains.

Animal Foods: amphibians; reptiles; insects

Plant Foods: seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats terrestrial vertebrates, Insectivore )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Campbell, S. 2012. "Icterus portoricensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Icterus_portoricensis.html
author
Susanna Campbell, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Catherine Kent, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Puerto Rican orioles are endemic to the island of Puerto Rico in the United States, and not found elsewhere. They are closely related to other species in the oriole complex that occupy different Caribbean islands.

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native ); oceanic islands (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Campbell, S. 2012. "Icterus portoricensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Icterus_portoricensis.html
author
Susanna Campbell, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Catherine Kent, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Puerto Rican orioles are found in tropical and subtropical forests, including mangroves and edge habitats, and especially palm trees. They are often found in agricultural areas such as orchards, citrus groves, and coffee plantations. They are found from sea level up to 1000 m in elevation.

Range elevation: 1000 (high) m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

Other Habitat Features: agricultural ; riparian

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Campbell, S. 2012. "Icterus portoricensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Icterus_portoricensis.html
author
Susanna Campbell, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Catherine Kent, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

There is no available information about the lifespan of this species.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Campbell, S. 2012. "Icterus portoricensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Icterus_portoricensis.html
author
Susanna Campbell, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Catherine Kent, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Puerto Rican orioles are black in color, with the exception of a yellow pattern confined to the lower belly and shoulder. Other members of the species complex on different islands have more yellow, such as Hispaniolan orioles (Icterus dominicensis) and Bahama orioles (I. northropi). In contrast, Cuban orioles (I. melanopsis) have more black. There is very little sexual differentiation between males and females. For example, there is little to no difference in color saturation between the males and females. Juveniles are tawny colored often with an olive tint to their rump. Juveniles exhibit delayed plumage maturation in both sexes, which is likely the ancestral state for the genus Icterus.

They are similar in size to other oriole species within their clade. On average, males weigh 41.0 g and females are slightly smaller, weighing approximately 36.6 g. The average wingspan of males and females are 96.9 mm and 92.1 mm, respectively.

Average mass: 38.8 g.

Average wingspan: 94.5 mm.

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike; male larger

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Campbell, S. 2012. "Icterus portoricensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Icterus_portoricensis.html
author
Susanna Campbell, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Catherine Kent, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

There are no known predators of Puerto Rican orioles.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Campbell, S. 2012. "Icterus portoricensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Icterus_portoricensis.html
author
Susanna Campbell, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Catherine Kent, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Most Icterus species are thought to be monogamous, establishing life-long bonds between males and females.

Mating System: monogamous

Puerto Rican orioles breed primarily from February through July. It is likely that both males and females sing to attract mates, as do many species of tropical orioles. Males and females of closely related Bahama orioles perform duets, so Puerto Rican orioles may do so as well.

Puerto Rican orioles lay about 3 eggs per clutch. Eggs are white with a bluish hue and light lavender-gray-brown speckles and spots. Nests of most species in this subgroup of orioles hang a few inches below branches or palm fronds.

Breeding interval: Puerto Rican orioles breed seasonally.

Breeding season: Breeding season is February through July.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

Little is known about the level of parental involvement in raising young. Similar species such as Bahama orioles are often found in family groups after breeding, which indicates parental investment from both sexes.

Parental Investment: male parental care ; female parental care ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting); pre-hatching/birth (Protecting); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning, Protecting); pre-independence

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Campbell, S. 2012. "Icterus portoricensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Icterus_portoricensis.html
author
Susanna Campbell, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Kevin Omland, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
editor
Catherine Kent, Special Projects
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Puerto Rican oriole

provided by wikipedia EN

The Puerto Rican oriole (Icterus portoricensis) is a species of bird in the family Icteridae, and genus Icterus or New World blackbirds. This species is a part of a subgroup of orioles (Clade A) that includes the North American orchard oriole, Icterus spurius, and the hooded oriole, Icterus cucullatus.

The Puerto Rican oriole was previously grouped with Cuban oriole (Icterus melanopsis), Hispaniolan oriole (Icterus dominicensis), and Bahama oriole (Icterus northropi) as a single species, (Icterus dominicensis). In 2010, all four species became recognized as full species by the American Ornithologists' Union.[2]

Habitat

The oriole is endemic to Puerto Rico. Its natural habitats are the tropical forests, mangrove forests, and plantations. The bird also shows a natural preference for nesting in palm trees.[3]

Behavior

After breeding, adult Puerto Rican orioles and their young will remain together in a family group. It primarily forages in dense vegetation looking for a wide range of foods that includes fruits, insects, lizards, and nuts and grains.[3]

Description

Males and females are similar in size and color. Males weigh about 41.0 grams and females weigh about 36.6 g. The average wingspan of males and females is 96.9 and 92.1 mm, respectively.[4] In 2008, Hofmann, Cronin, and Omland, conducted a study that showed there is little color difference in the feathers between the males and females of many tropical orioles, including the Puerto Rican oriole.[5] This means that males and females both have elaborate colors, in contrast many temperate-zoned birds have brightly colored males and dull colored females.

Adults are black with yellow on their lower belly and shoulder. The closely related Hispaniolan oriole (Icterus dominicensis) and Bahama oriole (Icterus northropi) have more yellow on their bodies, but, the Cuban oriole (Icterus melanopsis) has more black.[3]

Juveniles are tawny colored with an olive tint to their rump.[4] Puerto Rican orioles develop their bright colors as they age. The tawny color offers a selective advantage to the adolescents since by helping with camouflage in the dense forest. This is likely the ancestral state for the genus Icterus.

Communication

It is likely that both males and females of the Puerto Rican oriole sing. It is often assumed that only the males sing, since that is the case for many temperate-zone birds. However, in 2009, Price, Lanyon, and Omland conducted a study that shows that both males and females of many tropical orioles sing. It is likely that I. portoricensis behaves similarly.[6] The song of the Puerto Rican oriole is composed of clicks or “high pitched whistles” [4] and has a frequency range between 3.6 and 5.3 kHz. The bird combines between 15 and 27 different notes to make up their song.[7]

Reproduction

Most members of this genus are thought to be monogamous, establishing lifelong bonds between males and females. The Puerto Rican oriole breeds primarily from February through July. It lays about three eggs per clutch.[3] The eggs are white with a bluish hue with light lavender-gray-brown speckles and spots.[4] The nests of most species in this clade have loosely hanging nests, often suspended under palms trees.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Icterus portoricensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22736385A95132520. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22736385A95132520.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  2. ^ Chesser, R. T., R. C. Banks, F. K. Barker, C. Cicero, J. L. Dunn, A. W. Kratter, I. J. Lovette, P. C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen, Jr, J. D. Rising , D. F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2010. Fifty-first supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 127(3):726-744.
  3. ^ a b c d e Jaramillo, A., P. Burke. 1999. New World Blackbirds. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  4. ^ a b c d Garrido, O., J. Wiley, A. Kirkconnell. 2005. Genus Icterus in the West Indies. Ornitologia Neotropical, 16: 449-470.
  5. ^ Hofmann, C., T. Cronin, K. Omland. 2008. Evolution of sexual dichromatism. 1. convergent losses of elaborate female coloration in New World orioles (Icterus spp.).Auk, 125: 778-789.
  6. ^ Price, J., S. Lanyon, K. Omland. 2009. Losses of female song with changes from tropical to temperate breeding in the New World blackbirds. Proceedings Royal Society of London, Biological Sciences, 276: 1971-1980.
  7. ^ Price, J., N. Friedman, K. Omland. 2007. Song and plumage evolution in the New World orioles (Icterus) show similar lability and convergence in patterns. Evolution, 61: 850-863

]

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Puerto Rican oriole: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Puerto Rican oriole (Icterus portoricensis) is a species of bird in the family Icteridae, and genus Icterus or New World blackbirds. This species is a part of a subgroup of orioles (Clade A) that includes the North American orchard oriole, Icterus spurius, and the hooded oriole, Icterus cucullatus.

The Puerto Rican oriole was previously grouped with Cuban oriole (Icterus melanopsis), Hispaniolan oriole (Icterus dominicensis), and Bahama oriole (Icterus northropi) as a single species, (Icterus dominicensis). In 2010, all four species became recognized as full species by the American Ornithologists' Union.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN