dcsimg

Diagnostic Description

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Body compressed posteriorly. Upper jaw a little projecting. Spine of pectoral fins rough on its outer edge and serrated on its inner edge (Ref. 4792). Occipital process more or less triangular, its length about 2 time in its width (Ref. 27732); distance between dorsal and occipital process 4-5.5 times in distance from tip of snout to end of occipital process (Ref. 43281). Genital papilla in males is elongated and pointed (Ref. 52012).
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Armi G. Torres
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Diseases and Parasites

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Fungal Infection (general). Fungal diseases
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Anchor worm Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Camallanus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Aeromonosis. Bacterial diseases
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Columnaris Disease (e.). Bacterial diseases
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Acanthogyrus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Clinostomum Infestation (metacercaria). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Acanthogyrus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Dactylogyrus Gill Flukes Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Gonad Nematodosis Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Sporozoa Infection (Hennegya sp.). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Sporozoa-infection (Myxobolus sp.). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Haplorchis Infestation 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Posthodiplostomum Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Clinostomoides Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Neodiplostomum Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Orientocreadium Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Gauhatian Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Opegaster Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Phyllodistomum Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Boviena Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Lytocestus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Gnathostoma Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Procamallanus Infection 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Cristaria Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Procamallanus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Recorder
Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Trichodinosis. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Procamallanus Infection 5. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Procamallanus Disease 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Skin Flukes. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Pallisentis Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Hemiclepsis Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Palaeorchis Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Recorder
Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Procamallanus Infection 6. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Masenia Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Phyllodistomum Infestation 3. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Posthodiplostomum Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Recorder
Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Dactylogyrus Infestation 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Capingentoides Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Djombangia Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Gyrocotyle Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Lytocestus Disease (Lytocestus sp.). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Lytocestus Infestation 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Lytocestus Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Lytocestus Infestation 3. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Recorder
Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Monobothrioides Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Pseudocaryophyllaeus Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Pseudolytocestus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Ascaridia Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Echinocephalus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Pallisentis Infestation 3. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Bacterial Infections (general). Bacterial diseases
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Yellow Grub. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Enteric Septicaemia of Catfish. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Life Cycle

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The pair manifests the 'spawning embrace' which is widely observed in other catfish species (Ref. 33313). The pair gently nudge each other in the genital region and flick their dorsal fins; male wraps his body around the female, then the female releases a stream of adhesive eggs into the nest (Ref. 44091). In southeast Asia, spawning period is during the rainy season, when rivers rise and fish are able to excavate nests in submerged mud banks and dikes of flooded rice fields (Ref. 40977).
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Armi G. Torres
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Migration

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Potamodromous. Migrating within streams, migratory in rivers, e.g. Saliminus, Moxostoma, Labeo. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 60 - 76; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 47 - 58
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Trophic Strategy

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Inhabits swamps, ponds, ditches, rice paddies, and pools left in low spots after rivers have been in flood (Ref. 2854). Usually confined to stagnant, muddy water (Ref. 1479). Found in medium to large-sized rivers, flooded fields and stagnant water bodies including sluggish flowing canals (Ref. 12975). Undertakes lateral migrations from the Mekong mainstream, or other permanent water bodies, to flooded areas during the flood season and returns to the permanent water bodies at the onset of the dry season (Ref. 37770). Can live out of water for quite sometime and move short distances over land (Ref. 4833). Can walk and leave the water to migrate to other water bodies using its auxiliary breathing organs. The Lao use this fish as lap pa or ponne pa. Feeds on insect larvae, earthworms, shells, shrimps, small fish, aquatic plants and debris (Ref. 6459). Feeds mainly on insects (Ref. 13497).
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Pascualita Sa-a
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Biology

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Adults inhabit lowland streams (Ref. 57235), swamps, ponds, ditches, rice paddies, and pools left in low spots after rivers have been in flood (Ref. 2854, 57235). Usually confined to stagnant, muddy water (Ref. 1479). Found in medium to large-sized rivers, flooded fields and stagnant water bodies including sluggish flowing canals (Ref. 12975). Undertake lateral migrations from the Mekong mainstream, or other permanent water bodies, to flooded areas during the flood season and returns to the permanent water bodies at the onset of the dry season (Ref. 37770). Can live out of water for quite sometime and move short distances over land (Ref. 4833). Can walk and leave the water to migrate to other water bodies using its auxiliary breathing organs. The Lao use this fish as lap pa or ponne pa. Feed on insect larvae, earthworms, shells, shrimps, small fish, aquatic plants and debris (Ref. 6459). An important food fish (Ref. 4833) that is marketed live, fresh and frozen (Ref. 9987). Recently rare, being replaced by introduced African walking catfish (Ref. 57235).
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Rainer Froese
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Importance

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fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial
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Rainer Froese
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分布

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
原產於東南亞,因食用養殖之故,現在台灣各地水域可見。
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臺灣魚類資料庫
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臺灣魚類資料庫

利用

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
為養殖食用魚。本種通常以枸杞燉之,具食補作用。
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臺灣魚類資料庫

描述

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
與鬍鯰(/Clarias fuscus/)極為相似,差異在於本種魚的背鰭鰭條數為64-74;臀鰭鰭條數為47-58。
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棲地

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
廣泛棲息於河流、溝渠、湖沼與稻田等具泥質地之水體中。常群集於岸邊暗處或洞穴中,能長期間離水,遷移能力強。為夜行的底層活動魚類,食性廣,不僅捕食小魚、蝦,也攝食腐敗的動植物碎屑。雄魚會築巢與護幼之行為。
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Walking catfish

provided by wikipedia EN

The walking catfish (Clarias batrachus) is a species of freshwater airbreathing catfish native to Southeast Asia. It is named for its ability to "walk" and wiggle across dry land, to find food or suitable environments. While it does not truly walk as most bipeds or quadrupeds do, it has the ability to use its pectoral fins to keep it upright as it makes a wiggling motion with snakelike movements to traverse land.[2] This fish normally lives in slow-moving and often stagnant waters in ponds, swamps, streams, and rivers, as well as in flooded rice paddies, or temporary pools that may dry up. When this happens, its "walking" skill allows the fish to move to other aquatic environments. Considerable taxonomic confusion surrounds this species and it has frequently been confused with other close relatives.[3][4] One main distinction between the walking catfish and the native North American ictalurid catfish with which it sometimes is confused, is that the walking catfish lacks an adipose fin.[5]

Characteristics and anatomy

The walking catfish has an elongated body shape and reaches almost 0.5 m (1.6 ft) in length and 1.2 kg (2.6 lb) in weight.[3] Often covered laterally in small white spots, the body is mainly coloured a gray or grayish brown.[5] This catfish has long-based dorsal and anal fins,[5] as well as several pairs of sensory barbels. The skin is scaleless, but covered with mucus, which protects the fish when it is out of water.

Air-breathing organ of Walking Catfish
Air-breathing organ of Walking Catfish

This fish needs to be handled carefully when fishing it due to its embedded sting or thorn-like defensive mechanism hidden behind its fins (including the middle ones before the tail fin, similar to the majority of all catfishes).

Taxonomy, distribution, and habitat

 src=
These fish for sale in HAL market, Bangalore, India are not likely to be C. batrachus (see confused species in text)

The walking catfish is a tropical species native to Southeast Asia. The native range of true Clarias batrachus is confirmed from the Indonesian island of Java only, but three closely related and more widespread species frequently have been confused with this species. These are C. magur of northeast India and Bangladesh, a likely undescribed species from Indochina, and another likely undescribed species from the Thai-Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo.[3][4] Both of these undescribed species have been referred to as, Clarias aff. batrachus.[3] At present, the taxonomic position of the Philippines population (called hito or simply "catfish" by the locals) is unclear, and it also is unclear whether South Indian populations are C. magur or another species.[4] As a consequence, much information (behavioral, ecological, related to introduced populations, etc.) listed for C. batrachus, may be for the closely related species that have been confused with true C. batrachus.[4] True C. batrachus, C. magur and the two likely undescribed species are all kept in aquaculture.[4]

Walking catfish thrive in stagnant, frequently hypoxic waters,[5] and often are found in muddy ponds, canals, ditches, and similar habitats. The species spends most of its time on, or right above, the bottom, with occasional trips to the surface to gulp air.[5]

Diet

In the wild, this creature is omnivorous; it feeds on smaller fish, molluscs, and other invertebrates, as well as detritus and aquatic weeds. It is a voracious eater that consumes food supplies rapidly, so it is considered harmful when invasive.[6]

As an invasive species

Within Asia, this species has been introduced widely.[3] It has also been introduced outside its native range where it is considered an invasive species. It consumes the food supplies of native fish and preys on their young. It also is regarded as an invasive species because they can destroy fish farms.

 src=
Clarias batrachus, captured by a juvenile double-crested cormorant, at the Anhinga Trail in Everglades National Park, Florida, United States

In the United States, it is established in Florida.[7] It is reported in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Massachusetts, and Nevada. The walking catfish was imported to Florida, reportedly from Thailand, in the early 1960s for the aquaculture trade.[5] The first introductions apparently occurred in the mid-1960s when adult fish imported as brood stock escaped, either from a fish farm in northeastern Broward County or from a truck transporting brood fish between Dade and Broward Counties. Additional introductions in Florida, supposedly purposeful releases, were made by fish farmers in the Tampa Bay area, Hillsborough County in late 1967 or early 1968, after the state banned the importation and possession of walking catfish.

Aquarium releases likely are responsible for introductions in other states. Dill and Cordone (1997) reported this species has been sold by tropical fish dealers in California for some time. They also have been spotted occasionally in the Midwest.

In Florida, walking catfish are known to have invaded aquaculture farms, entering ponds where they prey on agricultural fish stocks. In response, fish farmers have had to erect fences to protect ponds. Authorities have also created laws that ban possession of walking catfish.

In 2017, Clarias spp. were recovered from the River Tonge, near Bolton, Northern England.[8]

As food

In Thailand, this fish is known as, pla duk dan (Thai: ปลาดุกด้าน). It is a common, inexpensive food item, prepared in a variety of ways. It often is offered by street vendors, especially grilled or fried.[9]

This fish is one of the most common freshwater catfish in the Philippines where it is known as hito in the local language.

In Indonesia, it is called lele, and it is the main ingredient in several native dishes, such as pecel lele.

Not true C. batrachus, but C. magur is eaten in West Bengal মাগুর মাছের ঝোল, and is considered good during illness, particularly for body weakness. It is prepared in a light curry sauce with coriander powder and cinnamon powder. It reportedly is fed to children to develop body strength.

In Karnataka, C. magur is called murgodu (ಮುರ‍್ಗೋಡು).[10] In coastal Karnataka, it is called mugudu (Tulu: ಮುಗುಡು), and is considered a delicacy.[11] Neither the Thai nor the Indian populations are likely to be C. batrachus, however.[4]

Aquarium

A white variation with black patterns is commonly seen in the aquarium fish trade. However, this color variation also is prohibited where walking catfish are banned. Very well-rooted plants and large structures that provide some shade should be included in an aquarium with these fish. Any small tankmates will be eaten by this fish.

See also

References

  1. ^ Ng, H.H.; Low, B.W. (2019). "Clarias batrachus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T166613A1138872. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T166613A1138872.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  2. ^ "Catfish 'walk' down street". Metro.co.uk. 2008-07-18. Retrieved 2008-07-18.
  3. ^ a b c d e Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2011). "Clarias batrachus" in FishBase. December 2011 version.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Ng, Heok Hee, and Kottelat, Maurice (2008). The identity of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758), with the designation of a neotype (Teleostei: Clariidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 153: 725–732.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Robins, Robert H. "Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department: Walking Catfish". Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2008-07-24.
  6. ^ "Walking Catfish (Clarias batrachus)". The Cabinet of Freshwater Curiosities.
  7. ^ Krueger, Radha, Facts: Walking Catfish in Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, October 26, 2017
  8. ^ "Environment Agency warning over Clarias Catfish found in River Tonge, Bolton". The Bolton News. July 19, 2017.
  9. ^ Pla duk Archived 2009-02-01 at the Wayback Machine (in Thai)
  10. ^ http://parisaramahiti.kar.nic.in/fish/f169.htm
  11. ^ "A fun-filled day of 'Mugudu' fishing". The Hindu.

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Walking catfish: Brief Summary

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The walking catfish (Clarias batrachus) is a species of freshwater airbreathing catfish native to Southeast Asia. It is named for its ability to "walk" and wiggle across dry land, to find food or suitable environments. While it does not truly walk as most bipeds or quadrupeds do, it has the ability to use its pectoral fins to keep it upright as it makes a wiggling motion with snakelike movements to traverse land. This fish normally lives in slow-moving and often stagnant waters in ponds, swamps, streams, and rivers, as well as in flooded rice paddies, or temporary pools that may dry up. When this happens, its "walking" skill allows the fish to move to other aquatic environments. Considerable taxonomic confusion surrounds this species and it has frequently been confused with other close relatives. One main distinction between the walking catfish and the native North American ictalurid catfish with which it sometimes is confused, is that the walking catfish lacks an adipose fin.

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