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Diagnostic Description

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Diagnosis: A large, elongate species with small scales (E1 row scales 98-128, usually more than 110, vs. usually less than 110 in other species of Cichla). Postorbital band is present, entire, may be irregular but does not consist of scattered spots, vs. absent or present as scattered spots in other species of Cichla species. Lateral line is usually continuous. It is most similar to C. pinima and C. vazzoleri, sharing subadult to young adult color pattern including dark midlateral band and four rows of regularly arranged light spots along side, but light spots slightly elongate instead of round. It is different from C. pinima and C. vazzoleri in lacking dark lateral blotches with intensified light margins; vertical bars when expressed entire, never forming round blotches; ocellated blotches on dorsal side absent at all sizes; postorbital band entire (vs. expressed as scattered dark blotches); dark blotch associated with preopercle absent (present in C. vazzoleri); lateral line nearly always continuous (vs. usually discontinuous in C. vazzoleri) (Ref. 57716).
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Recorder
Estelita Emily Capuli
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Life Cycle

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Oviparous (Ref. 205).
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Susan M. Luna
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Biology

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Occupies deeper littoral areas in lagoons and sandy and rocky banks of the main river channel. Feeds mainly on small fish (especially characids measuring
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Rainer Froese
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Importance

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fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
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Cichla temensis

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Cichla temensis, the speckled pavon, speckled peacock bass, painted pavon, or three-barred peacock bass, is a very large South American cichlid, and a prized food and game fish. Reaching up to 1 m (3.3 ft) in length and 13 kg (29 lb) in weight, it is the largest cichlid of the Americas, and perhaps the largest extant cichlid in the world,[1] with only Tanganyika's giant cichlid, Boulengerochromis microlepis, reaching similar proportions.[2]

Range

C. temensis is native to the Orinoco and Rio Negro basins, as well as several smaller rivers in the central Amazon (Uatumã, Preto da Eva, Puraquequara, and Tefé), in Brazil, Venezuela and Guyana.[3][4] In its native range, it is essentially restricted to blackwater rivers and their tributaries.[4]

Introduction attempts have been made outside its native range, but it has not managed to become established in Florida or Texas.[5] In contrast, it has flourished in tropical Singapore and Malaysia.[6]

Appearance

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Speckled nonbreeding pattern (above) and three-barred full breeding pattern (below)

C. temensis resembles other peacock bass species, but is generally more elongated and slender in shape.[4] Adults are highly variable in colour pattern, which has historically caused some problems, with some speculating that the variants were separate species or males/females.[7] Only in 2012 was it firmly established that dark individuals with a dense light-speckled pattern are the nonbreeders, while breeding adults are more golden-olive and lack the pale speckles, but have three broad, dark bars on their bodies.[7] During the breeding season, some males also develop a bulbous forehead. Between the two extremes are several intermediate patterns.[7] No other peacock bass species is known to have such extreme variations among the adults.[7]

References

  1. ^ Reis, P. (2015), Aspects of life history of Cichla temensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae) and its relationship to the Amazon basin's flood pulse, Rutgers University
  2. ^ "The 10 biggest cichlids". Practical Fishkeeping. 13 June 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2017). "Cichla temensis" in FishBase. October 2017 version.
  4. ^ a b c Kullander, Sven; Efrem Ferreira (2006). "A review of the South American cichlid genus Cichla, with descriptions of nine new species (Teleostei: Cichlidae)". Ichthyological Explorations of Freshwaters. 17 (4).
  5. ^ Nico, L. (2011). Cichla temensis. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL
  6. ^ "Peacock Bass (introduced)". Ecology Asia. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d Reiss, P.; K.W. Able; M.S. Nunes; and T. Hrbek (2012). "Color pattern variation in Cichla temensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae): resolution based on morphological, molecular, and reproductive data". Neotrop. Ichthyol. 10 (1): 59–70. doi:10.1590/S1679-62252012000100006.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
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Cichla temensis: Brief Summary

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Cichla temensis, the speckled pavon, speckled peacock bass, painted pavon, or three-barred peacock bass, is a very large South American cichlid, and a prized food and game fish. Reaching up to 1 m (3.3 ft) in length and 13 kg (29 lb) in weight, it is the largest cichlid of the Americas, and perhaps the largest extant cichlid in the world, with only Tanganyika's giant cichlid, Boulengerochromis microlepis, reaching similar proportions.

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