dcsimg

Untitled

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Collectors are not fans of this butterfly because of the tendency of the wings to fold under at death so they are hard to display. The wing muscle of the live butterfly are very strong and are therefore hard to capture. The long tails are very fragile and easily broken (Forestieno and Sbordoni 1998).

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Palmer, J. 2001. "Urbanus proteus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Urbanus_proteus.html
author
Jessica Palmer, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Males find potential mates through olfaction.

Communication Channels: chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Palmer, J. 2001. "Urbanus proteus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Urbanus_proteus.html
author
Jessica Palmer, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The butterfly and its habitat are not listed as threatened. The adaptation of the Urbanus proteus to suburban gardens exempts it from becoming threatened in its wild habitat.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Palmer, J. 2001. "Urbanus proteus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Urbanus_proteus.html
author
Jessica Palmer, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Cycle

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Females lay up to 20 eggs (commonly in clusters of 2-6) underneath the leaves of the host plant (Scott 1986). Eggs are cream to bluish-green and are hemispherical and finely sculpted (Forestieno and Sbordoni 1998). Once the larvae hatch, they eat the leaves from their nests made of rolled leaves and supportive silk strands. The pupa forms a cocoon out of bits of leaves and silk strands. The life cycle of the butterfly is about thirty days (Capinera 1996).

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Palmer, J. 2001. "Urbanus proteus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Urbanus_proteus.html
author
Jessica Palmer, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Since this species lays its eggs under bean plants, it can have a devastating effect on bean crop yield (Scott 1986). Although it takes many larvae to make an impact on the yield, they are still considered pests of bean plants. In terms of biological control, these larvae are found to be preyed on by certain species of wasps and stink bugs. The beanleaf roller larvae can also be infected with a virus that can kill up to 50% of the population. Common insecticides are also effective on killing the larvae (Capinera 2001).

Negative Impacts: crop pest

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Palmer, J. 2001. "Urbanus proteus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Urbanus_proteus.html
author
Jessica Palmer, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Long-Tailed Skippers have no positive influence on humans.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Palmer, J. 2001. "Urbanus proteus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Urbanus_proteus.html
author
Jessica Palmer, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Adults pollinate many plant species, while larvae feed on many plant species.

Ecosystem Impact: pollinates

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Palmer, J. 2001. "Urbanus proteus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Urbanus_proteus.html
author
Jessica Palmer, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The adult butterflies have no specific attraction to certain plants. As long as there is a flowering plant with nectar, the butterfly will stop frequently (Tventen and Tventen 1996).

Larvae are found on Leguminosae and Fabacceae (Neck 1996). Some examples of common larval plants are Pisum, Desmodium, Bauhinia, cultivated beans, and any other viney plants (Klots 1951).

Plant Foods: leaves; nectar

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore , Nectarivore )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Palmer, J. 2001. "Urbanus proteus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Urbanus_proteus.html
author
Jessica Palmer, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The geographic range of Urbanus proteus is from Argentina in South America, throughout Central America and the West Indies, up to the southern parts of North America (Carter 1992). These butterflies are abundant and year round residents of southern Texas and Florida, but during the summer months they can be found as far as Illinois and New York. However, they do not survive long in these northen areas because of the colder temperatures (Tveten and Tveten 1996).

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Palmer, J. 2001. "Urbanus proteus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Urbanus_proteus.html
author
Jessica Palmer, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The habitats of these butterflies include brushy fields, woodland edges, coastal dunes, and even suburban gardens (Tveten and Tveten 1996). They are not found in high elevations or altitudes because of the cool temperatures (Forestieno and Sbordoni 1998).

Range elevation: 0 (low) m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; chaparral ; forest

Other Habitat Features: suburban

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Palmer, J. 2001. "Urbanus proteus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Urbanus_proteus.html
author
Jessica Palmer, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Long-tailed skippers have a broad head and a hairy body with tufts of hair at the base of their curved-tip antennae. The wingspan of these hairy butterflies is between 4 - 5.4 cm (Klots 1951). The top side of Urbanus proteus is dark brown with lighter brown spots. Wing bases, the part of the wing attached to the body, on the top are an irridescent green. Undersides of the butterflies are a lighter brown with dark bands and spots.

Larvae are yellowish green with a black line down the dorsal side of the body. The head is maroon and black and there are yellow and orange/red side strips. The reddish black head is also accompanied by an orange or yellow spot on each side. The pupa of this species is a reddish-brown and is covered with a waxy whitish powder (Scott 1986).

Range wingspan: 4 to 5.4 cm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Palmer, J. 2001. "Urbanus proteus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Urbanus_proteus.html
author
Jessica Palmer, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Larvae are found to be preyed on by certain species of wasps and stink bugs.

Known Predators:

  • stink bugs (Pentatomidae)
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Palmer, J. 2001. "Urbanus proteus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Urbanus_proteus.html
author
Jessica Palmer, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Male Urbanus proteus are territorial and stake out sites in places where females are common during the spring mating season. The males find the females through olfaction as they perch 1-2 meters from the ground on foliage and await passing females (Tveten and Tveten 1996). Males and females join in a courtship dance that involes spiraling upward together and eventually falling to the ground, where they mate. Females lay up to 20 eggs (commonly in clusters of 2-6) underneath the leaves of the host plant (Scott 1986). Eggs are cream to bluish-green and are hemispherical and finely sculpted (Forestieno and Sbordoni 1998). Once the larvae hatch, they eat the leaves from their nests made of rolled leaves and supportive silk strands. The pupa forms a cocoon out of bits of leaves and silk strands. The life cycle of the butterfly is about thirty days (Capinera 1996).

Average eggs per season: 20.

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous

Beyond choosing sites to lay eggs, butterflies offer no parental care.

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning)

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Palmer, J. 2001. "Urbanus proteus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Urbanus_proteus.html
author
Jessica Palmer, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Matthew Wund, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Long-tailed skipper

provided by wikipedia EN

The long-tailed skipper (Urbanus proteus) is a spread-winged skipper butterfly found throughout tropical and subtropical South America, south to Argentina and north into the Eastern United States and southern Ontario.[2] It cannot live in areas with prolonged frost. It is a showy butterfly, with wings of light brown tinted with iridescent blue, and two long tails extending from the hindwings. The robust body is light blue dorsally. It has a large head, prominent eyes, and a wingspan between 4.5 and 6 centimeters.

Life cycle

It lays white or yellow eggs, singly or in small clusters, which hatch into a caterpillar with a yellowish body and large, dark head. After two to three weeks, the caterpillar forms a pupa. Its pupa is contained in a rolled leaf and covered in fine bluish hairs. The pupa stage may last from one to three weeks, after which the adult emerges.[3]

The caterpillar of this skipper is a common pest of crops, especially beans, in the southern United States. For this reason, it is sometimes called the bean leafroller in that area. The caterpillars are also known to attack ornamental plants in the legume family such as wisteria and butterfly peas. The caterpillars feed on leaves and then roll the leaves around themselves, lining the cavity with silk, to pupate. The adults feed on nectar from flowers. Natural enemies of this species include wasp and fly parasitoids, and the Florida predatory stink bug, (Euthyrhynchus floridanus). In the fall, a nuclear polyhedrosis virus killed up to 50% of the larvae.[3]

Sub-species

U. p. domingo flies in the Bahamas and throughout the West Indies, but it is only weakly differentiated from the nominate form, chiefly by its reduced white markings.[4]

References

  1. ^ "NatureServe Explorer 2.0 Urbanus proteus Long-tailed Skipper". explorer.natureserve.org. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  2. ^ "Urbanus proteus". Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  3. ^ a b Capinera, John L. (2001). Handbook of Vegetable Pests. Gulf Professional Publishing. pp. 364–365. ISBN 978-0-12-158861-8.
  4. ^ R. R. Askew and P. A. van B. Stafford, Butterflies of the Cayman Islands (Apollo Books, Stenstrup 2008) ISBN 978-87-88757-85-9, pp. 117-119
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Long-tailed skipper: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The long-tailed skipper (Urbanus proteus) is a spread-winged skipper butterfly found throughout tropical and subtropical South America, south to Argentina and north into the Eastern United States and southern Ontario. It cannot live in areas with prolonged frost. It is a showy butterfly, with wings of light brown tinted with iridescent blue, and two long tails extending from the hindwings. The robust body is light blue dorsally. It has a large head, prominent eyes, and a wingspan between 4.5 and 6 centimeters.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN