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Protacanthopterygii

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Protacanthopterygii is a ray-finned fish taxon ranked as a superorder of the infraclass Teleostei. They inhabit both marine and freshwater habitats. They appear to have evolved in the Cretaceous or perhaps late Jurassic, originating probably roughly 150 million years ago; fossils of them and the closely related Otocephala are known from throughout the Cretaceous.[1]

Characteristics and origin

The Protacanthopterygii contain a number of moderately advanced teleosts. Anatomical and other traits commonly found in this superorder are: more than 24 vertebrae, epicentral cartilages, one supraorbital bone, and a mesocoracoid, an adipose fin, and (often prominent) glossohyal teeth. However, they usually lack a protrusible upper jaw, a gular plate, and proximal forking of the intermuscular bones. Most members of this taxon are rather specialized mid-sized to larger predators of smaller animals.[1]

As a group, they prefer temperate waters and are far more diverse in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern. Some are anadromous migrants and many are quite euryhaline. Thus, they likely originated in nearshore or brackish waters of the Northern Hemisphere – theoretically the original protacanthopterygian might have been a catadromous migrant inhabiting fresh water, but given that the basal Otocephala were very likely marine, this seems not so likely. Given that they are widespread in the Holarctic but reached the Southern Hemisphere in the Pacific region, it is more likely than not that they originated in general region of the Turgai Strait and the nearby Tethys Sea – perhaps towards the Eastern Tethys as they never seem to have settled Africa or Atlantic South America.[1]

Systematics

As mentioned initially, one of the closest relatives of the Protacanthopterygii are the Otocephala, which include such different fishes as carp, catfish, and herrings in superorders Clupeomorpha and Ostariophysi. While the core of the present superorder has always consisted of three orders, additional taxa are likely to belong here, but are more disputed.[2]

In recent times, a trend exists to split the Osmeriformes in two, as their supposed suborders do not seem to be particularly closely related among the Protacanthopterygii. The resultant order Argentiniformes contains a number of peculiar deep sea forms. And as it seems, the superorders Cyclosquamata and Stenopterygii, which contain some bizarre apomorphic forms, are so closely related to the "traditional" Protacanthopterygii as to be included therein. Alternatively, the unranked clade name Euteleostei has been proposed for the whole group, but that would require splitting up the Protacanthopterygii lest they become paraphyletic. Thus, up to seven orders might be included here:[3][4]

The placement of the Myctophiformes, traditionally held to be close relatives of the Aulopiformes and separated in a superorder "Scopelomorpha", as well as the Lampriformes (the monotypic superorder Lampridiomorpha, and putative relatives of the "Stenopterygii") consequently warrants further study. However, these two seem to be somewhat more advanced and closer to the Paracanthopterygii.

More dubiously, the Cetomimiformes and "Ctenothrissiformes" are sometimes placed here. While they are indeed of uncertain relationships, the former are widely assumed to belong to superorder Acanthopterygii and be closely related to the Stephanoberyciformes. Thus, it is rather unlikely that they are correctly placed here. As regards the latter, it is an entirely fossil group and may well be an invalid paraphyletic assemblage of ancient Teleostei, and in part may indeed belong in the Protacanthopterygii sensu lato.[6][3]

The supposed family "Macristiidae" was sometimes considered the only extant member of the "Ctenothrissiformes". But actually these are larvae of certain Aulopiformes, as was already suspected when the first "macristiid" was scientifically studied. They were subsequently split as a distinct family and placed in the Osmeriformes. This is interesting in the light of the modern view that these two orders are not nearly as distantly related as they were believed throughout most of the 20th century.[3][7]

Phylogeny

The cladogram is based on Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2016.[5]

Euteleostei 240mya Lepidogalaxii

Lepidogalaxiiformes (salamanderfish)

    Protacanthopterygii  

Argentiniformes (marine smelts) Argentina sphyraena.jpg

     

Galaxiiformes (white bait and mudfishes)

     

Esociformes (pike) Esox lucius1.jpg

   

Salmoniformes (salmon, trout) Salmo salar flipped.jpg

          Stomiati

Stomiiformes (dragonfish) Sigmops bathyphilus.jpg

   

Osmeriformes (smelt) Southern Pacific fishes illustrations by F.E. Clarke 100 1.jpg

    Neoteleostei Ateleopodia

Ateleopodidae (jellynoses) Ijimaia plicatellus1.jpg

  Eurypterygia Aulopa

Aulopiformes (lizardfish) Aulopus filamentosus.jpg

  Ctenosquamata Scopelomorpha

Myctophiformes (lanternfish) Myctophum punctatum1.jpg

   

Acanthomorpha Scomber scombrus.png

             

References

  1. ^ a b c Encyclopædia Britannica Online (2009): Annotated classification – Superorder Protacanthopterygii. In: Fish. Version of 2009-APR-22. Retrieved 2009-SEP-28.
  2. ^ Diogo, Rui (2008): On the cephalic and pectoral girdle muscles of the deep sea fish Alepocephalus rostratus, with comments on the functional morphology and phylogenetic relationships of the Alepocephaloidei (Teleostei). Anim. Biol. 58(1): 23-29. doi:10.1163/157075608X303636
  3. ^ a b c Myers, P.; Espinosa, R.; Parr, C.S.; Jones, T.; Hammond, G.S. & Dewey, T.A. (2008): Animal Diversity WebProtacanthopterygii Archived 2011-05-16 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b Nelson, Joseph S. (2006): Fishes of the World (4th ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp.189-207ISBN 0-471-25031-7
  5. ^ a b R. Betancur-Rodriguez, E. Wiley, N. Bailly, A. Acero, M. Miya, G. Lecointre, G. Ortí: Phylogenetic Classification of Bony Fishes – Version 4 (2016)
  6. ^ Paxton, John R.; Johnson, G. David & Trnski, Thomas (2001): Larvae and juveniles of the deepsea "whalefishes" Barbourisia and Rondeletia (Stephanoberyciformes: Barbourisiidae, Rondeletiidae), with comments on family relationships. Records of the Australian Museum 53(3): 407-425. PDF fulltext Archived 2003-09-26 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Taylor, Christopher (2009): Catalogue of OrganismsLiving Larvae and Fossil Fish. Version of 2009-FEB-05. Retrieved 2009-SEP-28.
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Protacanthopterygii: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Protacanthopterygii is a ray-finned fish taxon ranked as a superorder of the infraclass Teleostei. They inhabit both marine and freshwater habitats. They appear to have evolved in the Cretaceous or perhaps late Jurassic, originating probably roughly 150 million years ago; fossils of them and the closely related Otocephala are known from throughout the Cretaceous.

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Protacanthopterygii

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Les Protacanthopterygii sont un super-ordre de poissons téléostéens (Teleostei).

Liste des ordres

Selon ITIS :

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Protacanthopterygii: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Les Protacanthopterygii sont un super-ordre de poissons téléostéens (Teleostei).

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원극기류

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

원극기류(原棘鰭類)는 원극기상목(Protacanthopterygii)에 속하는 조기어류의 총칭이다. 진골어류의 일종이다. 해양과 담수 서식지에서 모두 발견된다. 진화 역사상 백악기 또는 쥐라기 후기에 나타나며, 거칠게 추정하여 약 1억 5천만 년 전에 기원을 두고 있다. 백악기의 화석으로 잘 알려져 있는 오토케팔라(Otocephala)가 원극기류의 멸종 화석과 관련이 깊다.[1]

하위 목

엄밀한 의미(sensu stricto)의 원극기상목(Protacanthopterygii)

"협기상목"(Stenopterygii)

"원린상목"(Cyclosquamata)

계통 분류

2016년 현재, 계통 분류는 다음과 같다.[2]

신진골어류

레피도갈락시아스목

    원극기류

샛멸목

     

갈락시아스목

     

민물꼬치고기목

   

연어목

          앨퉁이류

바다빙어목

   

앨퉁이목

       

꼬리치목

     

홍메치목

     

샛비늘치목

  Acanthomorpha    

이악어목

   

측극기류

       

턱수염금눈돔목

   

극기류

                 

각주

  1. EBO (2009)
  2. R. Betancur-R., E. Wiley, N. Bailly, A. Acero, M. Miya, G. Lecointre, G. Ortí; 외. (2016). “Phylogenetic Classification of Bony Fishes Version 4”. 《Deepfin》. 2020년 3월 12일에 확인함.
  • Diogo, Rui (2008): On the cephalic and pectoral girdle muscles of the deep sea fish Alepocephalus rostratus, with comments on the functional morphology and phylogenetic relationships of the Alepocephaloidei (Teleostei). Anim. Biol. 58(1): 23-29. doi 10.1163/157075608X303636
  • Encyclopædia Britannica Online(EBO) (2009): Annotated classification – Superorder Protacanthopterygii. In: Fish. Version of 2009-APR-22. Retrieved 2009-SEP-28.
  • Myers, P.; Espinosa, R.; Parr, C.S.; Jones, T.; Hammond, G.S. & Dewey, T.A. (2008): Animal Diversity Web – Protacanthopterygii
  • Nelson, Joseph S. (2006): Fishes of the World (4th ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-25031-7
  • Paxton, John R.; Johnson, G. David & Trnski, Thomas (2001): Larvae and juveniles of the deepsea "whalefishes" Barbourisia and Rondeletia (Stephanoberyciformes: Barbourisiidae, Rondeletiidae), with comments on family relationships. Records of the Australian Museum 53(3): 407-425. PDF fulltext
  • Taylor, Christopher (2009): Catalogue of OrganismsLiving Larvae and Fossil Fish. Version of 2009-FEB-05. Retrieved 2009-SEP-28.
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