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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 15.9 years (captivity)
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Behavior

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Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Frey, D. 2000. "Ourebia ourebi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ourebia_ourebi.html
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Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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George Hammond, Animal Diversity Web
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Conservation Status

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The combination of continued agricultural and urban development, bush encroachment and increased vulnerability to poachers threatens the persistance Ourebia ourebi.

Protected areas (parks, wildlife refuges) exist to provide a safe environment for this species. The IUCN has listed the species as "Lower Risk, but Conservation Dependent." This means that if current conservation efforts were ended, the species would be in greater danger of extinction.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Frey, D. 2000. "Ourebia ourebi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ourebia_ourebi.html
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Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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Ourebia ourebi occasionally cause damage to field crops such as wheat and oats because these foods resemble their natural diet (Kingdon, 1982).

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Frey, D. 2000. "Ourebia ourebi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ourebia_ourebi.html
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Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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Ourebia ourebi is hunted for food and by recreational hunters.

Positive Impacts: food

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Frey, D. 2000. "Ourebia ourebi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ourebia_ourebi.html
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Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Trophic Strategy

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The oribi is both a grazer and browser. It grazes during the wet season when fresh grass is readily available, and it browses when drought occurs and fresh grass is less common. This herbivorous mammal consumes at least eleven different herbs and eats the foliage from seven different trees. It has also been known to visit mineral licks every one to three days (Kingdon, 1982).

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Frey, D. 2000. "Ourebia ourebi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ourebia_ourebi.html
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Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Distribution

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The distribution of Ourebia ourebi is patchy and discontinuous throughout the grasslands of central and southern Africa. It is found in the moist areas of Northern and Southern savanna, across Guinea Savanna to Ethiopia and south through western East Africa to Tanzania (Estes, 1991).

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

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Frey, D. 2000. "Ourebia ourebi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ourebia_ourebi.html
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Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Habitat

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Ourebia ourebi live in open grasslands. They prefer short grasses with patchy areas of tall grasses to provide hiding places. They like grasslands that are not extremely tall or dense and with some bushes. They avoid steep slopes.

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; scrub forest

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Frey, D. 2000. "Ourebia ourebi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ourebia_ourebi.html
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Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Life Expectancy

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Typical lifespan
Status: wild:
8 to 12 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
14.0 years.

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Frey, D. 2000. "Ourebia ourebi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ourebia_ourebi.html
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Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Morphology

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The oribi has silky, yellow to reddish-brown coat with white fur on underparts of body and rump. Also, it has a distinctive white line of fur over its eye and a bare, dark patch beneath each ear. Ourebia ourebi also has a tuft of long hair on each "knee" and a short black tail (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2004). It has very distinct preorbital glands that fill most of the space between the eye and mouth. These glands appear as vertical folds on the side of the face. The oribi stands about 50-66cm to the shoulder and has a body length ranging from 92-110cm. It has very long legs and neck. Males have small, spike like horns that range from 8-19cm in length (Smith, 1985).

Range mass: 12 to 22 kg.

Range length: 92 to 110 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: ornamentation

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Frey, D. 2000. "Ourebia ourebi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ourebia_ourebi.html
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Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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George Hammond, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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Natural enemies of the oribi include leopards, caracals and pythons. Young oribi also are threatened by jackals, the Libyan wildcat, ratels, baboons, eagles and monitors.

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Frey, D. 2000. "Ourebia ourebi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ourebia_ourebi.html
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Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Reproduction

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Ourebia ourebi breeds throughout the year, with its peak season in October and November (Openshaw, 1993). The oribi has a monogomous to polygynous mating system with the males maintaining the territory and sharing it with one to two or more females. Females are able to conceive as early as ten months and males are sexually active by fourteen months (Estes, 1991). Their gestation period lasts from six to seven months and one young is borne at a time.

Breeding interval: Breed once per year.

Breeding season: Can breed year-round, peak in October-November.

Range number of offspring: 1 to 2.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 6 to 7 months.

Range weaning age: 4 to 5 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 10 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 14 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Average birth mass: 2235 g.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male:
426 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female:
304 days.

Parental Investment: altricial

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Frey, D. 2000. "Ourebia ourebi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ourebia_ourebi.html
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Dayna Frey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Biology

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Oribi are commonly found in pairs or in groups of as many as seven (2). Such groups usually have a single adult male (2), and up to three adult females (3). These groups are territorial (2), and will mark the boundaries of their territory with urine, faeces and secretions from the preorbital glands on their faces (2). Active during the day, oribi graze on fresh grass during the wet season, and browse on shrubs when drought occurs. To supplement their diet, oribi visits mineral licks every few days (4). Although oribi may give birth throughout the year, birthing is said to be most common in the rainy months (4), when there is plentiful food and cover (2). After a gestation period of 200 to 210 days, a single young is born (2). Male oribi become sexually mature by 14 months, while females can conceive at the age of just 10 months (4). If threatened by a predator, the oribi will remain hiding in tall grass until the predator is within a few metres. It will then leap through the grass and bound along, flashing the conspicuous white underside of its tail which serves as a warning to other oribi (2). Oribi will also produce a shrill whistle when alarmed and are seen to jump vertically up with all four legs straight and the back arched when they are under threat, known as stotting (4).
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Conservation

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The oribi is found in several protected areas throughout its range, including Comoé National Park in Cote d'Ivoire and Serengeti National Park, Tanzania (5), and is the subject of a WWF Species Project (6). This project aims to track captive-bred oribi after their release into appropriate habitat to research their home ranges and their habitat preferences. The long-term aim of the project is to establish viable wild populations from captive-bred stock (6).
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Description

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The smallest true grazer amongst the antelope (3), the oribi is a medium-sized ungulate with slender legs, a long neck, and small pointed horns. The silky coat of the oribi is yellow to reddish-brown on the back but is white on the belly. Each knee has a long tuft of hair, and the tail is short and black with a white underside. The eyes have a white line of fur above them, often used to help distinguish them from other ungulate species. Beneath the ears are dark, hairless patches, and on the sides of the face are vertical creases that house the preorbital glands. These glands produce an odorous secretion that is used to mark the oribi's territory (2) (4).
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Habitat

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Inhabits open grasslands, preferring habitats with short grasses on which to graze, interspersed with tall grasses for hiding in (2) (4).
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Range

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The oribi occurs in the savannah grasslands of Africa south of the Sahara. Haggard's oribi is found in Kenya and Somalia, and the Kenya oribi was found only in Kenya (2).
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Status

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The oribi is classified as Lower Risk / Conservation Dependent (LR/cd) on the IUCN Red List 2007 (1). Two subspecies are recognised: Haggard's oribi (Ourebia ourebi haggardi) is classified as Vulnerable (VU) and the Kenya oribi (Ourebia ourebi kenyae) is classified as Extinct (EX) (1).
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Threats

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The oribi is intensively hunted for food and its habitat is threatened by the development of human settlements (1) (2), resulting in numbers and distribution of this small antelope being greatly reduced (2).
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Oribi

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The oribi (/ˈɔːrəbi/; Ourebia ourebi) is a small antelope found in eastern, southern and western Africa. The sole member of its genus, it was described by the German zoologist Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann in 1783. Eight subspecies are identified. The oribi reaches nearly 50–67 centimetres (20–26 in) at the shoulder and weighs 12–22 kilograms (26–49 lb). It possesses a slightly raised back, and long neck and limbs. The glossy, yellowish to rufous brown coat contrasts with the white chin, throat, underparts and rump. Only males possess horns; the thin, straight horns, 8–18 centimetres (3.1–7.1 in) long, are smooth at the tips and ringed at the base.

Typically diurnal, the oribi is active mainly during the day. Small herds of up to four members are common; males defend their group's territory, 25–100 hectares (62–247 acres) large. It is primarily a grazer, and prefers fresh grasses but also browses occasionally. A seasonal breeder, the time when mating occurs varies geographically. Unlike all other small antelopes, oribi can exhibit three types of mating systems, depending on the habitat – polyandry, polygyny and polygynandry. Gestation lasts for six to seven months, following which a single calf is born; births peak from November to December in southern Africa. Weaning takes place at four to five months.

The oribi occurs in a variety of habitats – from savannahs, floodplains and tropical grasslands with 10–100 centimetres (3.9–39.4 in) tall grasses to montane grasslands at low altitudes, up to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) above the sea level. This antelope is highly sporadic in distribution, ranging from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia and Eritrea in the east and southward to Angola and the Eastern Cape (South Africa). The oribi has been classified as Least Concern by the IUCN; numbers have declined due to agricultural expansion and competition from livestock.

Taxonomy

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Illustration c. 1894

The scientific name of the oribi is Ourebia ourebi. The sole member of its genus, the oribi is placed under the family Bovidae. The species was first described by the German zoologist Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann in 1782.[3] It was formerly included in the tribe Neotragini, that comprised a variety of other dwarf antelopes, including Dorcatragus (beira), Madoqua (dik dik), Neotragus, Oreotragus (klipspringer) and Raphicerus. In 1963, German mammalogist Theodor Haltenorth separated the oribi and Raphicerus into a new tribe, Raphicerini; later on, zoologist Jonathan Kingdon assigned the oribi to Ourebini, a tribe of its own.[4] The common name "oribi" comes from the Afrikaans name for the animal, oorbietjie.[5][6]

In a revision of the phylogeny of the tribe Antilopini on the basis of nuclear and mitochondrial data in 2013, Eva Verena Bärmann (of the University of Cambridge) and colleagues showed that the oribi is the sister taxon to all other antilopines. The cladogram below is based on the 2013 study.[7]

     

Oribi (Ourebia ourebi)

     

Saiga (Saiga tatarica)

       

Gerenuk (Litocranius walleri)

   

Springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis)

         

Eudorcas

   

Nanger

       

Gazella

   

Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra)

               

Procapra

     

Raphicerus

     

Madoqua

   

Dorcatragus

         

The following eight subspecies are identified:[1][8][9]

  • O. o. dorcas Schwarz, 1914
  • O. o. gallarum Blaine, 1913
  • O. o. haggardi (Thomas, 1895) – Occurs in eastern Africa. Listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN.
  • O. o. hastata (Peters, 1852) – Ranges from Kenya southward into Mozambique and eastward into Angola
  • O. o. kenyae Meinhertzhagen, 1905 – Occurred on the lower slopes of Mount Kenya.
  • O. o. montana (Cretzschmar, 1826) – Ranges from northern Nigeria eastward into Ethiopia and southward into Uganda.
  • O. o. ourebi (Zimmermann, 1783) – Its range lies south of Zambezi River.
  • O. o. quadriscopa (C. H. Smith, 1827) – Occurs in western Africa
  • O. o. rutila Blaine, 1922

Of these, zoologists Colin Groves and Peter Grubb identify O. o. hastata, O. o. montana, O. o. ourebi and O. o. quadriscopa as independent species in their 2011 publication Ungulate Taxonomy.[10]

Description

The oribi is a small, slender antelope; it reaches nearly 50–67 centimetres (20–26 in) at the shoulder and weighs 12–22 kilograms (26–49 lb). The head-and-body length is typically between 92 and 110 centimetres (36 and 43 in).[11] Sexually dimorphic, males are slightly smaller than females (except for O. o. ourebi, in which females are smaller).[10] This antelope features a slightly raised back, and long neck and limbs. The glossy, yellowish to rufous brown coat contrasts with the white chin, throat, underparts and rump. The bushy tail, brown to black on the outside, has white insides[6][12] (except in O. o. hastata, that has a completely black tail). The subspecies show some variation in colouration; O. o. ourebi is a rich rufous, while O. o. hastata is yellower.[10]

Only males possess horns; the thin, straight horns, 8–18 centimetres (3.1–7.1 in) long, are smooth at the tips and ringed at the base.[6][12] The maximum horn length, 19.1 centimetres (7.5 in), was recorded in 1998 from Malawi.[9] The oribi has at least six different, well-developed scent glands (such as the prominent preorbital glands near the eyes). The body has several modifications, such as the large fossae below the eyes, to accommodate such a large number of glands.[4] Females have four teats.[13]

Ecology and behaviour

 src=
A male (left) and small group of females

The oribi is diurnal (active mainly during the day), though some activity may also be observed at night.[13] It rests in cover during rain events. Unlike all other small antelopes, oribi can exhibit three types of mating systems, depending on the habitat – polyandry, polygyny and polygynandry;[4] polygyny tends to prevail as the female-to-male ratio increases.[14] A study suggested that polygyny is preferred in areas of high predator risk, as it leads to formation of groups as an anti-predator measure.[15] Small herds of up to four members are also common.[12]

Males defend their group's territory, 25–100 hectares (62–247 acres) large; female members may also show some aggression and drive away intruders. A study showed that the number of females that visit the male's territory depends on the appearance (particularly the symmetry) of the male's horns.[16] Males mark vegetation and soil in their territories by preorbital gland secretions and excrement; the intensity of marking increases with the number of male neighbours.[17][18] Dominant males tend to have greater access to females in and around the territory than other males.[19] An important feature of the social behaviour of oribi is the "dung ceremony", in which all animals form temporary dung middens. Oribi at least three months old have been observed giving out one to three alarm whistles on sensing danger. These whistles are more common in adults than in juveniles, and males appear to whistle more.[4][12] Common predators include carnivorans such as jackals.[20]

Diet

Primarily a grazer, the oribi prefers fresh grasses and browses occasionally. Grasses can constitute up to 90% of the diet; preferred varieties include Andropogon, Eulalia, Hyparrhenia, Loudetia, Pennisetum and Themeda species. Mineral licks are also visited regularly. Oribi have been observed feeding on flowers and Boletus mushrooms. Groups of oribi congregate in the rainy season, when grasses are abundant.[4][11]

Reproduction

Both sexes become sexually mature at 10 to 14 months. A seasonal breeder, the time when mating occurs varies geographically. Mating may peak in the rainy season (August to September).[13] When a female enters oestrus (which lasts for four to six days), she seeks the company of males. During courtship, the male will pursue the female, test her urine to check if she is in oestrus and lick her rump and flanks.[4] Gestation lasts for six to seven months, following which a single calf is born; births peak from November to December in southern Africa. The newborn is kept in concealment for nearly a month; the mother pays regular visits to her calf to suckle it for nearly half an hour. Males may guard their offspring from predators and keep away other males. Weaning takes place at four to five months.[12] The oribi lives for 8 to 12 years in the wild, and for 12 to 14 years in captivity.[13]

Distribution and habitat

 src=
Oribi occur in tropical grasslands at W National Park, Niger

The oribi occurs in a variety of habitats – from savannahs, floodplains and tropical grasslands with 10–100 centimetres (3.9–39.4 in) tall grasses to montane grasslands at low altitudes, up to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) above the sea level. Recently burnt areas often attract groups of oribi.[4][9] The choice of habitat depends on the availability of cover needed to escape the eyes of predators. Population densities typically vary between 2 and 10 individuals per km2; however, densities as high as 45 individuals per km2 have been recorded in tropical grasslands that receive over 110 centimetres (43 in) of annual rainfall and open floodplains. The oribi's range overlaps with those of larger grazers such as the African buffalo, hippopotamus, hartebeest, Thomson's gazelle and topi. These separate species often occur in close proximity to each other, increasing predator vigilance.[4][21]

This antelope is highly sporadic in distribution; it occurs mainly in eastern, southern and western Africa, ranging from Nigeria and Senegal in the west to Ethiopia and Eritrea in the east and southward to Angola and the Eastern Cape (South Africa).[22] It is feared to be extinct in Burundi.[23]

Threats and conservation

The oribi has been classified as Least Concern by the IUCN. The total population (as of 2008) is estimated at 750,000.[1] However, the subspecies O. o. haggardi is listed as Vulnerable because, as of 2008, the total population is estimated at less than 10,000 mature individuals, and is feared to be declining. Hunting is a relatively minor threat, since the oribi shows some tolerance to hunting. Nevertheless, the steep fall of 92% in oribi populations in Comoé National Park (Côte d'Ivoire) has been attributed to poaching. Numbers have also declined due to agricultural expansion and competition from livestock.[1][23]

The oribi occurs in a number of protected areas throughout its range, such as: Gashaka Gumti National Park in Nigeria, the Pendjari and W National Parks (Benin); Aouk Hunting Zone (Chad); Benoue, Bouba Njida and Faro National Parks (Cameroon); Manovo-Gounda St. Floris National Park (Central African Republic); Garamba, Upemba and Kundelungu National Parks (Congo-Kinshasa); Omo National Park (Ethiopia); Masai Mara Game Reserve and Ruma National Park (Kenya); Golden Gate Highlands National Park (South Africa); Serengeti National Park (Tanzania); Kidepo Valley, Lake Mburo and Murchison Falls National Parks (Uganda); Kafue and Liuwa Plain National Parks and Bangweulu Swamp (Zambia).[1][23]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Ourebia ourebi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 29 March 2009.old-form url Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of Least Concern.
  2. ^ "Oribia Kirby, 1899". www.gbif.org. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  3. ^ a b Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 686. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Kingdon, J.; Happold, D.; Butynski, T.; Hoffmann, M.; Happold, M.; Kalina, J. (2013). Mammals of Africa. 6. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. pp. 404–12. ISBN 978-1-4081-2257-0.
  5. ^ "Oribi". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  6. ^ a b c "Oribi Ourebia ourebi" (PDF). Endangered Wildlife Trust.
  7. ^ Bärmann, E.V.; Rössner, G.E.; Wörheide, G. (2013). "A revised phylogeny of Antilopini (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) using combined mitochondrial and nuclear genes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 67 (2): 484–93. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.02.015. PMID 23485920. open access
  8. ^ "Ourebia ourebi". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  9. ^ a b c Skinner, J.D.; Chimimba, C.T. (2006). The Mammals of the Southern African Sub-region. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 696–8. ISBN 978-1-107-39405-6.
  10. ^ a b c Groves, C.; Grubb, P. (2011). Ungulate Taxonomy. Baltimore, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-1-4214-0093-8.
  11. ^ a b Kingdon, J. (2015). The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals (2nd ed.). London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. pp. 573–4. ISBN 978-1-4729-2135-2.
  12. ^ a b c d e Mills, G.; Hes, L. (1997). The Complete Book of Southern African Mammals (1st ed.). Cape Town, South Africa: Struik Publishers. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-947430-55-9.
  13. ^ a b c d Long, J.L. (2003). Introduced Mammals of the World: Their History, Distribution and Influence. Clayton, Australia: Csiro Publishing. p. 485. ISBN 978-0-643-09916-6.
  14. ^ Arcese, P.; Jongejan, G.; Sinclair, A.R.E. (1995). "Behavioural flexibility in a small African antelope: group size and composition in the oribi (Ourebia ourebi, Bovidae)". Ethology. 99 (1–2): 1–23. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1995.tb01085.x.
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Oribi: Brief Summary

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The oribi (/ˈɔːrəbi/; Ourebia ourebi) is a small antelope found in eastern, southern and western Africa. The sole member of its genus, it was described by the German zoologist Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann in 1783. Eight subspecies are identified. The oribi reaches nearly 50–67 centimetres (20–26 in) at the shoulder and weighs 12–22 kilograms (26–49 lb). It possesses a slightly raised back, and long neck and limbs. The glossy, yellowish to rufous brown coat contrasts with the white chin, throat, underparts and rump. Only males possess horns; the thin, straight horns, 8–18 centimetres (3.1–7.1 in) long, are smooth at the tips and ringed at the base.

Typically diurnal, the oribi is active mainly during the day. Small herds of up to four members are common; males defend their group's territory, 25–100 hectares (62–247 acres) large. It is primarily a grazer, and prefers fresh grasses but also browses occasionally. A seasonal breeder, the time when mating occurs varies geographically. Unlike all other small antelopes, oribi can exhibit three types of mating systems, depending on the habitat – polyandry, polygyny and polygynandry. Gestation lasts for six to seven months, following which a single calf is born; births peak from November to December in southern Africa. Weaning takes place at four to five months.

The oribi occurs in a variety of habitats – from savannahs, floodplains and tropical grasslands with 10–100 centimetres (3.9–39.4 in) tall grasses to montane grasslands at low altitudes, up to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) above the sea level. This antelope is highly sporadic in distribution, ranging from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia and Eritrea in the east and southward to Angola and the Eastern Cape (South Africa). The oribi has been classified as Least Concern by the IUCN; numbers have declined due to agricultural expansion and competition from livestock.

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