dcsimg

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

provided by AnAge articles
Maximum longevity: 7.9 years (wild)
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Joao Pedro de Magalhaes
editor
de Magalhaes, J. P.
partner site
AnAge articles

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Vireo griseus relies heavily on acoustic and visual forms of communication. The primary call of this species has an explosive quality and may be described mnemonically as "quick-with-the-beer-check." Both the first and last notes are short and sharp, while the middle notes are a rapid warble. This song is given by males during the breeding season to establish territory and attract females. Fledgling males learn their father's song very early in life, and may begin mimicking his call as early as one month after leaving the nest. Young Vireo griseus may also develop some elements of their song by mimicking their neighbors. Both males and females give a harsh chattering call in response to predators or in territorial encounters between males. Within a mated pair, both also give short 'pik' contact calls to each other when nearby. Adults and nestlings that are several days old will emit a harsh squeal if captured and handled by humans (during banding) and likely serves to startle a predator or alert a mate.

Vireo griseus also uses body postures and behaviors to communicate, which may be done with or without vocal accompaniment. Alert, anxious individuals may perform exaggerated neck movements or wing flicks. These movements likely serve to intimidate predators or territorial intruders. Other warning behaviors include pecking at a nearby perch or their own feet. If the threat does not retreat, these vireos will perform an aerial attack.

Like most birds, Vireo griseus perceives its environment through auditory, visual, tactile and chemical stimuli.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Sterling, R. 2011. "Vireo griseus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vireo_griseus.html
editor
Rachelle Sterling, Special Projects
editor
Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) currently considers Vireo griseus to be of least concern. This is due to the large population size, current increasing trend in population numbers, and relatively large geographical range. Although stable now, this species may be threatened by habitat loss in the future. The shrubby habitats that Vireo griseus prefers are often easy targets for human development including urbanization and conversion to agricultural fields.

US Migratory Bird Act: protected

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Sterling, R. 2011. "Vireo griseus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vireo_griseus.html
editor
Rachelle Sterling, Special Projects
editor
Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

There are no known adverse effects of Vireo griseus on humans.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Sterling, R. 2011. "Vireo griseus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vireo_griseus.html
editor
Rachelle Sterling, Special Projects
editor
Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Vireo griseus has no known economic impacts on humans.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Sterling, R. 2011. "Vireo griseus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vireo_griseus.html
editor
Rachelle Sterling, Special Projects
editor
Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Vireo griseus serves as predator, prey, and seed dispersant within the ecosystems it inhabits. This species is largely insectivorous, particularly during the breeding season. These feeding habits likely have a significant impact on local insect communities, especially populations of Lepidoptera which are the preferred prey. During the non-breeding season Vireo griseus consumes mostly fruit and is likely an important seed dispersant for many plant species. Vireo griseus has a strong relationship with one fruit-bearing species, Bursera simaruba, and is the primary seed dispersant. Vireo griseus remains highly territorial during the non-breeding season and is known to aggressively defend Bursera simaruba plants in particular. The eggs and young of Vireo griseus are also prey for a variety of predators.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Sterling, R. 2011. "Vireo griseus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vireo_griseus.html
editor
Rachelle Sterling, Special Projects
editor
Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The diet of Vireo griseus varies seasonally, as it is primarily insectivorous during the breeding season and frugivorous during the non-breeding season. When foraging for insects, this species often perches motionless and tilts its head to visually locate and watch prey before acting. This is a foliage gleaning species, and after locating a prey item it will capture prey by hovering, hanging, lunging or picking. Caterpillars are preferred prey items, but Vireo griseus may also consume flies, spiders and their egg cases, damselflies, mayflies, beetles, cockroaches, stink bugs, leafhoppers, lacewings, bees, ants, and wasps, and grasshoppers.

During the non-breeding season, Vireo griseus consumes a wide variety of insects but is mostly frugivorous. This species has a very strong relationship with Bursera simaruba trees and is the primary seed dispersant. Unlike many species, Vireo griseus establishes territory during the non-breeding season and Bursera simaruba trees are often aggressively guarded. Across wintering regions, Vireo griseus may consume the fruit of sumac, dogwood, poison ivy, pokeweed, and waxmyrtle as well as wild grapes.

Animal Foods: insects

Plant Foods: fruit

Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Sterling, R. 2011. "Vireo griseus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vireo_griseus.html
editor
Rachelle Sterling, Special Projects
editor
Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Vireo griseus is a Neotropical migrant that inhabits both the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. During the breeding season in the spring and summer months, these birds inhabit the southeastern United States and northeast Mexico. The northern extent of their range stretches from southern Iowa, across southern Michigan and to southern Massachusetts. They travel as far west as eastern Nebraska, Oklahoma and Texas. They are year-round residents along the southeast coastal United States from South Carolina to Texas, and also down through the east coast of Mexico. White-eyed vireos also overwinter in southern Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Cuba, the Cayman Islands and the Bahamas.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Sterling, R. 2011. "Vireo griseus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vireo_griseus.html
editor
Rachelle Sterling, Special Projects
editor
Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Vireo griseus prefers brushy habitats defined by a dense understory layer, and generally located near a water source. They often inhabit abandoned agricultural fields that have lain fallow for 20 to 50 years to allow for adequate shrubby successional vegetation to grow. White-eyed vireos are frequently found in thickets alongside marshes and are one of the most prevalent avian species in the Central Everglades. In this region, white-eyed vireos prefer "bayhead" areas which are dominated by red bay (Persea borbonia), sweet bay (Magnolia virginiana), dahoon holly (Ilex cassine), and wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera).

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

Wetlands: marsh

Other Habitat Features: agricultural ; riparian

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Sterling, R. 2011. "Vireo griseus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vireo_griseus.html
editor
Rachelle Sterling, Special Projects
editor
Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Lifespan for Vireo griseus is currently unknown. Adult survivorship ranges from 15 to over 57% depending on environmental conditions. First year survivorship is unknown. Possible causes of mortality include nest predation and severe weather.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Sterling, R. 2011. "Vireo griseus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vireo_griseus.html
editor
Rachelle Sterling, Special Projects
editor
Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Vireo griseus is a small, stocky vireo measuring 12.7 cm in length, with a 19 cm wingspan and weighing 11.5 g. They have dark olive backs, with darker, almost black wings and tails. They have two white wingbars and white to yellow edges on the primaries. The nape is gray and borders an olive-colored head. One of the most defining features of this vireo are the bright yellow "spectacles" that include the lores and surround the eyes. True to the common name, another identifying feature are the white irises that they develop as adults. They have whitish throats and undersides with pale yellow flanks and undertail coverts. Beaks and legs are black. Juveniles exhibit dark irises which will retain this coloration through their first year. Juveniles may also be identified by white "spectacles", an entirely pale gray head and overall paler plumage. This species displays no sexual dimorphism.

Average mass: 11.5 g.

Average length: 12.7 cm.

Average wingspan: 19.0 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Sterling, R. 2011. "Vireo griseus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vireo_griseus.html
editor
Rachelle Sterling, Special Projects
editor
Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Specific predators of Vireo griseus have rarely been documented. Most predation occurs during the breeding season as eggs and nestlings are abundant and make easy prey. Hypothesized predators include snakes, mice, chipmunks, blue Jays, raccoons, skunks, and opossums. There is very little evidence for predation of adults, but one case has been documented of adult capture and consumption by a short-tailed hawk in Florida.

When predators are near a nest, the Vireo griseus pair will emit harsh, rapid chattering. Adults will also peck at their perch or feet which may precede an aerial attack if the intruder does not retreat.

Known Predators:

  • snakes (Serpentes)
  • mice (Muridae)
  • chipmunks (Tamias)
  • blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata)
  • raccoons (Procyon lotor)
  • skunks (Mephitis)
  • opossums (Didelphis marsupialis)
  • short-tailed hawks (Buteo brachyurus)
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Sterling, R. 2011. "Vireo griseus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vireo_griseus.html
editor
Rachelle Sterling, Special Projects
editor
Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Like all vireos, Vireo griseus is monogamous. Males establish territories and females visit several and eventually select a suitable mate. There are no specific courtship displays, but pairs appear to court each other for several days during which time they forage together with the male closely following the female. Pair bonds seem to last only one season.

Mating System: monogamous

Vireo griseus individuals breed once a year during the breeding season which lasts from late April to early August. Once pairs have formed, they begin searching for a nesting site which is usually less than 1 m from the ground in dense vegetation. Females select the site, while the males follow close behind. They usually select a suitable, forked branch where they can construct a suspended, cup-shaped nest. Both participate in nest building and they collect spiderweb silk, twigs, bark strips, and grass to incorporate into the nest. This process takes 3 to 5 days to complete. The female typically lays 4 eggs, and will lay one per day starting 1 to 3 days after the nest is complete. Incubation is done by both parents and will last 13 to 15 days. After the young hatch, they will fledge after 9 to 11 days and will be brooded by their parents for an additional 23 days at most. White-eyed vireos can breed during their first spring, though not all are successful.

Breeding interval: White-eyed vireos breed once yearly.

Breeding season: White-eyed vireos breed from April through August.

Range eggs per season: 3 to 5.

Range time to hatching: 13 to 15 days.

Range fledging age: 9 to 11 days.

Range time to independence: 23 (high) days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): <1 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): <1 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

After selecting a suitable nesting site and constructing a secure nest for their young, both parents participate in incubating the clutch. After hatching, the altricial young require constant feeding and brooding, again by both parents. Male and female white-eyed vireos develop brood patches, though the male's is not vascularized. Parents continue to brood their young throughout the nestling and fledgling periods, which may last up to 34 days total.

Parental Investment: altricial ; male parental care ; female parental care ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female)

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Sterling, R. 2011. "Vireo griseus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vireo_griseus.html
editor
Rachelle Sterling, Special Projects
editor
Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Vireo griseus

provided by DC Birds Brief Summaries

A medium-sized (5 inches) vireo, the White-eyed Vireo is most easily identified by its olive-green back and tail, pale breast with yellow flanks, white wing bars, and striking white eyes with yellow eye-rings. This species may be separated from its tropical relative, the Thick-billed Vireo (Vireo crassirostris), by that species’ darker wings, greener body, and thicker bill. Male and female White-eyed Vireos are similar to one another in all seasons. The White-eyed Vireo breeds in the eastern United States, where it occurs from Massachusetts south to Florida and west to Texas, as well as in northeastern Mexico. During the winter, northerly-breeding populations winter from the Bahamas south to northern Central America. Populations breeding in the southern part of this species’ breeding range are non-migratory. White-eyed Vireos breed in areas of thick brush and scrub, particularly along forest edges, in bushy fields, and in thick dune vegetation. Populations which migrate to the tropics for the winter utilize similar types of habitat as they do during the summer. White-eyed Vireos primarily eat small insects, but also eat small quantities of fruits and berries during the winter. White-eyed Vireos spend much of their time foraging for food on leaves and branches in dense brush, where they are often difficult to see. Birdwatchers may alternatively listen for this species’ song, a rapid “chick-a-per-weeoo-chick.” White-eyed Vireos are primarily active during the day, but, like many migratory songbirds, this species migrates at night.

Threat Status: Least Concern

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Smithsonian Institution
author
Reid Rumelt

Vireo griseus

provided by EOL authors

A medium-sized (5 inches) vireo, the White-eyed Vireo is most easily identified by its olive-green back and tail, pale breast with yellow flanks, white wing bars, and striking white eyes with yellow eye-rings. This species may be separated from its tropical relative, the Thick-billed Vireo (Vireo crassirostris), by that species’ darker wings, greener body, and thicker bill. Male and female White-eyed Vireos are similar to one another in all seasons. The White-eyed Vireo breeds in the eastern United States, where it occurs from Massachusetts south to Florida and west to Texas, as well as in northeastern Mexico. During the winter, northerly-breeding populations winter from the Bahamas south to northern Central America. Populations breeding in the southern part of this species’ breeding range are non-migratory. White-eyed Vireos breed in areas of thick brush and scrub, particularly along forest edges, in bushy fields, and in thick dune vegetation. Populations which migrate to the tropics for the winter utilize similar types of habitat as they do during the summer. White-eyed Vireos primarily eat small insects, but also eat small quantities of fruits and berries during the winter. White-eyed Vireos spend much of their time foraging for food on leaves and branches in dense brush, where they are often difficult to see. Birdwatchers may alternatively listen for this species’ song, a rapid “chick-a-per-weeoo-chick.” White-eyed Vireos are primarily active during the day, but, like many migratory songbirds, this species migrates at night.

References

  • Hopp, Steven L., Alice Kirby and Carol A. Boone. 1995. White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/168
  • Vireo griseus. Xeno-canto. Xeno-canto Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012.
  • White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus). The Internet Bird Collection. Lynx Edicions, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012.
  • eBird Range Map - White-eyed Vireo. eBird. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, N.d. Web. 20 July 2012.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-4.0
copyright
Smithsonian Institution
bibliographic citation
Rumelt, Reid B. Vireo griseus. June-July 2012. Brief natural history summary of Vireo griseus. Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
author
Robert Costello (kearins)
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Vireo griseus (Boddaert)

Two instances of parasitism in Ontario (out of 2 nests reported to the nest records files, Toronto) extend to the northwest the area over which the white-eyed vireo is known to be affected by the cowbird.

HUTTON'S VIREO
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
bibliographic citation
Friedmann, Herbert, Kiff, Lloyd F., and Rothstein, Stephen I. 1977. "A further contribution of knowledge of the host relations of the parasitic cowbirds." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-75. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.235

White-eyed vireo

provided by wikipedia EN

The white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus) is a small songbird of the family Vireonidae.

Distribution and habitat

It breeds in the eastern United States from New England west to northern Missouri and south to Texas and Florida, and also in eastern Mexico, northern Central America, Cuba and the Bahamas. Populations on the US Gulf Coast and further south are resident, but most North American birds migrate south in winter. This vireo frequents bushes and shrubs in abandoned cultivation or overgrown pastures.

Breeding

The grass-lined nest is a neat cup shape, attached to a fork in a tree branch by spider webs. It lays 3–5 dark-spotted white eggs. Both the male and female incubate the eggs for 12–16 days. The young leave the nest 9–11 days after hatching.

Description

Measurements:[2]

  • Length: 4.3-5.1 in (11-13 cm)
  • Weight: 0.3-0.5 oz (10-14 g)
  • Wingspan: 6.7 in (17 cm)

Its head and back are a greyish olive, and the underparts are white with yellow flanks. The wings and tail are dark, and there are two white wing bars on each wing. The eyes have white irises, and are surrounded by yellow spectacles. Sexes are similar.

Call

The white-eyed vireo's song is a variable and rapid six to seven note phrase, starting and ending with a sharp chick.

Diet

During the breeding season, the diet of this species consists almost exclusively of insects, primarily caterpillars. In the autumn and winter it supplements its diet of insects with berries.

Taxonomy

The white-eyed vireo was described by the French polymath Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon in 1780 in his Histoire naturelle des oiseaux.[3] The bird was also illustrated in a hand-coloured plate engraved by François-Nicolas Martinet in the Planches Enluminées D'Histoire Naturelle which was produced under the supervision of Edme-Louis Daubenton to accompany Buffon's text.[4] Neither the plate caption nor Buffon's description included a scientific name but in 1783 the Dutch naturalist Pieter Boddaert coined the binomial name Tanagra grisea in his catalogue of the Planches Enluminées.[5] Buffon specified that his specimen had come from Louisiana, but in 1945 the type locality was restricted to New Orleans.[6][7] The white-eyed vireo is now placed in the genus Vireo was introduced in 1808 by the French ornithologist Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot.[8][9] The word vireo was used by Latin authors for a small green migratory bird, probably a Eurasian golden oriole but a European greenfinch has also been suggested. The specific epithet griseus is Medieval Latin for grey.[10]

Six subspecies are recognised:[9]

  • V. g. griseus (Boddaert, 1783) – central and east USA (includes noveboracensis)[11][12]
  • V. g. maynardi Brewster, 1887 – south Florida (southeast USA)
  • V. g. bermudianus Bangs & Bradlee, 1901 – Bermuda
  • V. g. micrus Nelson, 1899 – south Texas (south USA) and northeast Mexico
  • V. g. perquisitor Nelson, 1900 – east Mexico
  • V. g. marshalli Phillips, AR, 1991 – east central Mexico

The northern subspecies, V. g. noveboracensis, occupies most of the range of this species and is fully migratory. This sub-species is larger and has more brightly colored plumage than all other subspecies.

The resident southeastern coastal plain race, V. g. griseus is a slightly smaller and duller colored subspecies. It does not typically migrate out of its breeding range in the winter.

The resident Florida Keys race, V. g. maynardi, is greyer above and whiter below, and the south Texan V. g. micrus is like a smaller maynardi.

V. g. bermudianus is endemic to Bermuda, where it is known as the Chick of the Village.[13][14] This has shorter wings and a duller plumage. Along with other endemic and native Bermudian birds, it was threatened with extinction following the loss of 8 million Bermuda cedar trees in the 1940s, and is now quite rare. This species is listed under the Bermuda Protected Species Act 2003.

Gallery

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2021). "Vireo griseus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T22705188A137793946. {{cite journal}}: |access-date= requires |url= (help){{cite iucn}}: error: malformed |page= identifier (help)no identifier
  2. ^ "White-eyed Vireo Identification, All About Birds, Cornell Lab of Ornithology". www.allaboutbirds.org. Retrieved 2020-09-27.
  3. ^ Buffon, Georges-Louis Leclerc de (1780). "Le gris-olive". Histoire naturelle des oiseaux (in French). Vol. 7. Paris: De L'Imprimerie Royale. p. 392.
  4. ^ Buffon, Georges-Louis Leclerc de; Martinet, François-Nicolas; Daubenton, Edme-Louis; Daubenton, Louis-Jean-Marie (1765–1783). "Tangara olive, de la Lousiane". Planches Enluminées D'Histoire Naturelle. Vol. 8. Paris: De L'Imprimerie Royale. Plate 714 Fig. 1.
  5. ^ Boddaert, Pieter (1783). Table des planches enluminéez d'histoire naturelle de M. D'Aubenton : avec les denominations de M.M. de Buffon, Brisson, Edwards, Linnaeus et Latham, precedé d'une notice des principaux ouvrages zoologiques enluminés (in French). Utrecht. p. 45, Number 714 Fig. 1.
  6. ^ Burleigh, T.D.; Lowery, G.H. Jr (1945). "Races of Vireo griseus in Eastern United States". American Midland Naturalist. 34 (2): 526–530. doi:10.2307/2421142. JSTOR 2421142.
  7. ^ Paynter, Raymond A. Jr, ed. (1968). Check-list of Birds of the World. Vol. 14. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. pp. 113–114.
  8. ^ Vieillot, Louis Jean Pierre (1808). Histoire naturelle des oiseaux de l'Amérique Septentrionale : contenant un grand nombre d'espèces décrites ou figurées pour la première fois (in French). Vol. 1. Paris: Chez Desray. p. 83. The title page bears a date of 1807 but the volume did not appear until the following year.
  9. ^ a b Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "Shrikes, vireos, shrike-babblers". World Bird List Version 9.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  10. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 179, 402. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  11. ^ Dickinson, E.C.; Christidis, L., eds. (2014). The Howard & Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Vol. 2: Passerines (4th ed.). Eastbourne, UK: Aves Press. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-9568611-2-2.
  12. ^ Remsen, J.V., Jr.; Cardiff, S.W.; Dittmann, D.L. (1998). "Status and natural history of birds of Louisiana. I. Vireos (Vireonidae)" (PDF). Journal of Louisiana Ornithology. 4 (2): 59–102.
  13. ^ "Birds: White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus bermudianus)". Department of Environment and Natural Resources of the Government of Bermuda. Department of Environment and Natural Resources of the Government of Bermuda. Retrieved 2021-10-03.
  14. ^ "White-eyed vireo". Audubon Society of Bermuda. Audubon Society of Bermuda. Retrieved 2021-10-03.

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

White-eyed vireo: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus) is a small songbird of the family Vireonidae.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Viréo aux yeux blancs

provided by wikipedia FR

Vireo griseus

Le Viréo aux yeux blancs (Vireo griseus) est une espèce de petit passereau de la famille des Vireonidae.

Description

Le Viréo aux yeux blancs mesure entre 13 et 15 cm de longueur. Sa tête et son dos sont d'un gris olive, les parties inférieures sont blanches tandis que les flancs sont jaunes. Les ailes et la queue sont sombres et il y a deux barres alaires blanches sur chaque aile. Les yeux ont des iris blancs tandis que les lores et les anneaux oculaires sont jaunes. Les sexes sont semblables.

Répartition

Ce viréo niche au sud-est des États-Unis, du New Jersey au nord jusqu'au Texas et à la Floride au sud. Il se retrouve également dans l'est du Mexique, au nord de l'Amérique centrale, à Cuba et aux Bahamas. Les populations de la Côte du Golfe et celles plus au sud sont résidentes, mais la plupart des individus en Amérique du Nord migrent vers le sud en hiver.

Habitat

Cette espèce fréquente les arbustes dans les champs et les pâturages abandonnés.

Alimentation

Pendant la période de nidification, le Viréo aux yeux blancs se nourrit presque exclusivement d'insectes, surtout des chenilles. En automne et en hiver, il ajoute des baies à son régime alimentaire.

Nidification

Le nid est une coupe et son intérieur est recouvert d'herbes. Il est attaché à la fourche d'une branche d'arbre à l'aide de toiles d'araignée. La femelle pond de 3 à 5 œufs blancs tachetés de brun. Les œufs sont incubés par les deux sexes pendant 12-16 jours. Les jeunes quittent le nid environ 10 jours après l'éclosion.

Sous-espèces

Cinq sous-espèces sont reconnues pour le Viréo aux yeux blancs. La répartition géographique des sous-espèces n'est pas encore totalement établie :

  • V. g. noveboracensis : sous-espèce du nord, elle occupe la plupart de l'aire de répartition de l'espèce et est migratrice, cette sous-espèce est plus grande que les autres et son plumage est plus coloré ;
  • V. g. griseus : sous-espèce résidente du sud-est des plaines côtières, elle est légèrement plus petite et plus terne que V. g. noveboracensis, les individus ne migrent généralement pas ;
  • V. g. maynardi : sous-espèce résidente des Keys de la Floride, les parties supérieures sont plus grises et les parties inférieures plus blanches ;
  • V. g. micrus : sous-espèce du sud du Texas ressemblant à un petit V. g. maynardi ;
  • V. g. bermudianus : endémique aux Bermudes, cette sous-espèce rare a les ailes plus courtes et un plumage plus terne.

license
fr
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia FR

Viréo aux yeux blancs: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Vireo griseus

Le Viréo aux yeux blancs (Vireo griseus) est une espèce de petit passereau de la famille des Vireonidae.

license
fr
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia FR