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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 8.9 years (wild)
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Behavior

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Wood thrushes communicate using song and physical displays. Male wood thrushes sing a very unique song that ends in a trill. They are able to sing two notes at once, giving their songs an ethereal, flute-like quality. Female wood-thrushes are not known to sing. Wood thrushes also use calls, such as "bup, bup" or "tut, tut" to signal agitation.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Lesperance, M. 2002. "Hylocichla mustelina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylocichla_mustelina.html
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Michelle Lesperance, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Terry Root, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kari Kirschbaum, Animal Diversity Web
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Conservation Status

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Continent-wide wood thrush populations appear to have declined significantly over the past several decades. This decline can be attributed largely to habitat loss and habitat fragmentation. Wood thrushes are usually found in mature forests; nesting in residential areas and other disturbed sites is rare. They are significantly less abundant in fragmented areas bordered by roads and power lines compared to larger tracts of forest.

Brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds is more common in forested habitats with a high proportion of edge than in large tracts of forest. Brood parasitism leads to decreased reproductive success of wood thrushes. The rate of parasitism varies by region; rates are much higher in the Midwest than in the Northeast or Mid-Atlantic regions. Reproductive success is also affected by increased predation in smaller forest patches. A study conducted in Pennsylvania found that less than half (46%) of wood thrush nests were successful in forest patches less then 80 ha in size, while in large continuous forests, 86% of nests were successful. Rates of predation are higher in smaller forest patches with large edge areas, possibly because small patches cannot support large predators that regulate smaller nest predators and nest predators tend to be abundant in small patches, which they use for foraging.

Wood thrushes are protected under the U.S. Migratory Bird Act. There are about 14,000,000 wood thrushes throughout the geographic range.

US Migratory Bird Act: protected

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Lesperance, M. 2002. "Hylocichla mustelina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylocichla_mustelina.html
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Michelle Lesperance, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Terry Root, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kari Kirschbaum, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits

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Conservation of wood thrush habitat may conflict with other human desires, such as development of land for housing or other uses.

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Lesperance, M. 2002. "Hylocichla mustelina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylocichla_mustelina.html
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Michelle Lesperance, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Terry Root, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kari Kirschbaum, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits

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The benefits of wood thrushes toward humans are unknown.

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Lesperance, M. 2002. "Hylocichla mustelina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylocichla_mustelina.html
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Michelle Lesperance, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Terry Root, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kari Kirschbaum, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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Wood thrushes affect the populations of the insects and other animals they eat. They may help to disperse the seeds of the fruits they eat. They also provide food for their predators.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

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Lesperance, M. 2002. "Hylocichla mustelina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylocichla_mustelina.html
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Michelle Lesperance, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Terry Root, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kari Kirschbaum, Animal Diversity Web
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Trophic Strategy

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Wood thrushes are omnivorous; they feed preferentially on soil invertebrates and larvae, but will eat fruits in late summer, fall, and late winter. Occasionally they feed on arboreal insects, snails, and small salamanders. During the post-breeding and pre-migration time, wood thrushes switch from insects to fruits with high lipid levels. During the summer, low fruit consumption and lipid reserves require the birds to feed continuously on insects in order to meet their daily metabolic needs.

Wood thrushes feed primarily on the forest floor. They can be observed hopping around in leaf litter and on semi-bare ground under the forest canopy, gleaning insects and probing the soil. They use their bill to turn over leaves to reveal prey. Fruits are swallowed whole.

Animal Foods: amphibians; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods; mollusks; terrestrial worms

Plant Foods: fruit

Primary Diet: omnivore

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Lesperance, M. 2002. "Hylocichla mustelina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylocichla_mustelina.html
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Michelle Lesperance, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Terry Root, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kari Kirschbaum, Animal Diversity Web
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Distribution

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The breeding range of wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) extends from southern Canada to northern Florida and from the Atlantic coast to the Missouri River and the eastern Great Plains. Wood thrushes spend winters in Mexico and Central America, mostly in the lowlands along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

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Lesperance, M. 2002. "Hylocichla mustelina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylocichla_mustelina.html
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Michelle Lesperance, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Terry Root, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kari Kirschbaum, Animal Diversity Web
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Habitat

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The breeding range of wood thrushes is composed of deciduous and mixed forests. They prefer late-successional, upland mesic forests with a moderately-dense shrub layer. Other important elements of wood thrush breeding habitat include trees taller than 16 m, a fairly open forest floor, moist soil, and leaf litter. Bertin (1977) found that wood thrushes favor areas with running water, moist ground and high understory cover. Substrate moisture is more important than canopy cover or access to running water. Wood thrushes can breed in habitat patches as small as 1 acre, but those that breed in larger tracts of forest experience lower predation and lower nest parasitism, leading to higher reproductive success.

Wood thrushes winter primarily in the interior understory of tropical primary forests. However, they may also occur along forest edges and in second growth.

Range elevation: 1325 (high) m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

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Lesperance, M. 2002. "Hylocichla mustelina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylocichla_mustelina.html
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Michelle Lesperance, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Terry Root, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kari Kirschbaum, Animal Diversity Web
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Life Expectancy

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The oldest known wood thrush lived to be at least 8 years and 11 months old. Annual adult survival rates are estimated to be 70% for males and 75% for females.

Range lifespan
Status: wild:
8.9 (high) years.

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
107 months.

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Lesperance, M. 2002. "Hylocichla mustelina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylocichla_mustelina.html
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Michelle Lesperance, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Terry Root, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kari Kirschbaum, Animal Diversity Web
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Morphology

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Wood thrushes are small songbirds, 19 to 21 cm long and weighing 40 to 50 g. They are warm cinnamon-brown on the crown and nape, with a slightly duller olive-brown on the back, wings and tail. The breast and belly are white with conspicuous large dark brown spots on the breast, sides and flanks. Wood thrushes have a dull white ring around their eye. Their bill is dark brown, and their legs are pinkish.

Male and female wood thrushes are similar in size and plumage. Juveniles look similar to adults, but have additional spots on their back, neck and wing coverts.

Wood thrushes can be easily confused with other similar-looking thrushes. They are distinguished by the rusty color on their head, and the white, rather than buffy, breast and belly.

Range mass: 40 to 50 g.

Range length: 19 to 21 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Lesperance, M. 2002. "Hylocichla mustelina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylocichla_mustelina.html
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Michelle Lesperance, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Terry Root, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kari Kirschbaum, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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Eggs and chicks are vulnerable to predation by chipmunks, raccoons, blue jays, American crows, black rat snakes, brown-headed cowbirds, common grackles, southern flying squirrels, gray squirrels, least weasels, white-footed mice, domestic cats, great horned owls and sharp-shinned hawks. Adults are probably taken primarily by hawks and owls.

When predators are nearby, adult wood thrushes become alert and responsive to sounds. When their nests or young are threatened, adults respond with agitated calls and chases, escalating into dives and strikes.

Known Predators:

  • eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus)
  • raccoons (Procyon lotor)
  • blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata)
  • American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos)
  • black rat snakes (Pantherophis obsoletus)
  • brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater)
  • common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula)
  • southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans)
  • eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis)
  • least weasels (Mustela nivalis)
  • white-footed mice
  • domestic cats
  • great horned owls
  • sharp-shinned hawks
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Lesperance, M. 2002. "Hylocichla mustelina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylocichla_mustelina.html
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Michelle Lesperance, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Terry Root, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kari Kirschbaum, Animal Diversity Web
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Reproduction

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Wood thrushes are monogamous. Breeding pairs form in mid-April and early-May, and usually last for the duration of the breeding season (through several nesting attempts or two complete broods). Most wood thrushes find a new mate each year. Mate guarding and extra-pair copulation have not been documented in this species.

Mating System: monogamous

Male wood thrushes begin to sing at dawn and dusk a few days after their arrival at breeding grounds. Some males arrive on the breeding grounds several days before the earliest females to establish territories, while other males arrive at the same time as the females. Behaviors such as circular flights led by the female interspersed with perching together are characteristic of wood thrush pair formation and/or pre-copulatory behaviors.

The female typically chooses the nest site and constructs the nest. The nest is located in a tree or shrub, and is constructed of dead grasses, stems or leaves, and lined with mud. The female lays 2 to 4 eggs (usually 4 for first clutch, 3 for later clutches) at a rate of one per day. The eggs are incubated for 11 to 14 days (average 13 days) by the female only. The chicks are altricial at hatching; they are mostly naked with closed eyes. The female broods the chicks during the first four days after hatching. Both parents feed the nestlings and remove fecal sacs from the nest. The chicks fledge from the nest 12 to 15 days after hatching. The parents continue to feed them until they become independent and leave the parents' territory at 21 to 31 days old. These chicks will be able to begin breeding the next summer.

The majority of females lay their first eggs in mid-May, with older females laying sooner. Most pairs attempt to rear a second brood usually no later than late July, with the last young fledging around mid-August.

Breeding interval: Wood thrushes breed once per year. They may raise one or two broods per breading season.

Breeding season: Wood thrushes breed between April and August.

Range eggs per season: 2 to 8.

Range time to hatching: 11 to 14 days.

Average time to hatching: 13 days.

Range fledging age: 12 to 15 days.

Range time to independence: 21 to 31 days.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1 to 1 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 to 1 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

Average eggs per season: 3.

The female usually chooses the nest site and builds the nest. The female also incubates the eggs and broods the chicks for the first four days after hatching. Both parents feed the chicks and remove fecal sacs from the nest.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Male); pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female)

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Lesperance, M. 2002. "Hylocichla mustelina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylocichla_mustelina.html
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Michelle Lesperance, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Terry Root, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kari Kirschbaum, Animal Diversity Web
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Hylocichla mustelina

provided by DC Birds Brief Summaries

A medium-sized (8 inches) thrush, the Wood Thrush is most easily identified by its brown back, rusty-red head, and heavily spotted breast. Other field marks include pinkish legs, short tail, and thick, slightly curved bill. Male and female Wood Thrushes are similar to one another in all seasons. The Wood Thrush breeds across the eastern United States and southern Canada from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia south to northern Florida and west to North Dakota. In winter, this species migrates south to southern Mexico and Central America. Like many bird species wintering in the American tropics, the Wood Thrush crosses the Gulf of Mexico twice a year while on migration. Wood Thrushes primarily breed in deciduous forests with a tall canopy and open forest floor. In winter, this species inhabits humid tropical forests. Wood Thrushes mainly eat insects and other invertebrates during the breeding season, but may also eat fruits and berries during the winter. In appropriate habitat, it may be possible to see Wood Thrushes hopping along the forest floor while foraging for insect prey. More often, however, Wood Thrushes are identified by their song, an unmistakable series of flute-like notes repeated with numerous embellishments and alterations. Wood Thrushes are primarily active during the day, but, like many migratory songbirds, this species migrates at night.

Threat Status: Near Threatened

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Reid Rumelt

Hylocichla mustelina

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A medium-sized (8 inches) thrush, the Wood Thrush is most easily identified by its brown back, rusty-red head, and heavily spotted breast. Other field marks include pinkish legs, short tail, and thick, slightly curved bill. Male and female Wood Thrushes are similar to one another in all seasons. The Wood Thrush breeds across the eastern United States and southern Canada from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia south to northern Florida and west to North Dakota. In winter, this species migrates south to southern Mexico and Central America. Like many bird species wintering in the American tropics, the Wood Thrush crosses the Gulf of Mexico twice a year while on migration. Wood Thrushes primarily breed in deciduous forests with a tall canopy and open forest floor. In winter, this species inhabits humid tropical forests. Wood Thrushes mainly eat insects and other invertebrates during the breeding season, but may also eat fruits and berries during the winter. In appropriate habitat, it may be possible to see Wood Thrushes hopping along the forest floor while foraging for insect prey. More often, however, Wood Thrushes are identified by their song, an unmistakable series of flute-like notes repeated with numerous embellishments and alterations. Wood Thrushes are primarily active during the day, but, like many migratory songbirds, this species migrates at night.

References

  • Evans, Melissa, Elizabeth Gow, R. R. Roth, M. S. Johnson and T. J. Underwood. 2011. Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/246
  • Hylocichla mustelina. Xeno-canto. Xeno-canto Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012.
  • Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). The Internet Bird Collection. Lynx Edicions, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012.
  • eBird Range Map - Wood Thrush. eBird. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, N.d. Web. 20 July 2012.

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Rumelt, Reid B. Hylocichla mustelina. June-July 2012. Brief natural history summary of Hylocichla mustelina. Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
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Robert Costello (kearins)
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Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Hylocichla mustelina (Gmelin)

The high incidence of cowbird parasitism on the wood thrush in Iowa and Minnesota noted earlier (Friedmann, 1963:73–74) is repeated in Illinois according to Graber, Graber, and Kirk (1971:16). They write that, from their own records and from the literature, they have egg data on 69 nests, 33 of which (47.8 percent) were parasitized. Their records cover various parts of Illinois, and the incidence of parasitism is similar in all areas covered. The Western Foundation has 97 sets of eggs of the wood thrush, 6 of which (6.2 percent) have 1 or more cowbird eggs. The Cornell University files have data on 409 nests of this thrush, 55 of which (13.4 percent) were parasitized; the Ontario nest records files show a higher incidence of parasitism—36 cases (30.5 percent) of 118 nests. Harrison (1975: 204) found an even greater frequency in Pennsylvania, where 11 out of 12 nests observed had cowbird eggs.

HERMIT THRUSH
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Friedmann, Herbert, Kiff, Lloyd F., and Rothstein, Stephen I. 1977. "A further contribution of knowledge of the host relations of the parasitic cowbirds." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-75. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.235

Wood thrush

provided by wikipedia EN

The wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) is a North American passerine bird. It is closely related to other thrushes such as the American robin and is widely distributed across North America, wintering in Central America and southern Mexico. The wood thrush is the official bird of the District of Columbia.[2]

The wood thrush is a medium-sized thrush, with brown upper parts with mottled brown and white underparts. The male and female are similar in appearance. The song of the male is often cited as being the most beautiful in North America.

The wood thrush is an omnivore, and feeds preferentially on soil invertebrates and larvae, but will also eat fruits. In the summer, it feeds on insects continuously in order to meet daily metabolic needs. It is solitary, but sometimes forms mixed-species flocks. The wood thrush defends a territory that ranges in size from 800 to 28,000 m2 (960 to 33,490 sq yd). The wood thrush is monogamous, and its breeding season begins in the spring; about 50% of all mated pairs are able to raise two broods, ranging in size from two to four chicks.[3]

Taxonomy

 src=
South Padre Island - Texas

The only member of the genus Hylocichla, the wood thrush was described by German naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin in 1789. The generic name is a direct translation of its common name, derived from the Greek words hyle/ύλη "woodland" and cichle/κιχλη "thrush" or "fieldfare".[4] The specific name comes from the Latin mustela "weasel".[5] It is closely related to the other typical American thrushes of the genus Catharus, and is sometimes merged into that genus.[6] It has been considered close to the long-distance migrant species of that genus, as opposed to the generally resident nightingale-thrushes, but this appears to be erroneous.[7] The wood thrush also appears to be fairly closely related to the large Turdus thrushes, such as the American robin. "Wood thrush" is the official name given to this species by the International Ornithologists' Union (IOC).[8]

Description

 src=
In Central Park, New York City

The adult wood thrush is 18 to 21.5 cm (7.1 to 8.5 in) long, with a wingspan of 30 to 40 cm (12 to 16 in) and a body mass of 48 to 72 g (1.7 to 2.5 oz).[9] Among standard measurements, the wing chord is 9.6 to 11.6 cm (3.8 to 4.6 in), the bill is 1.6 to 2 cm (0.63 to 0.79 in) and the tarsus is 2.8 to 3.3 cm (1.1 to 1.3 in). It is distinctly larger than the Catharus thrushes with which the species is often sympatric but slightly smaller than the common American robin.[10] The longest known lifespan for a wood thrush in the wild is 8 years, 11 months.[11] The crown, nape, and upper back are cinnamon-brown, while the back wings, and tail are a slightly duller brown. The breast and belly are white with large dark brown spots on the breast, sides, and flanks. It has white eye rings and pink legs.[12] Other brownish thrushes have finer spotting on the breast.[13] The juvenile looks similar to adults, but has additional spots on the back, neck, and wing coverts. The male and female are similar in size and plumage.

Vocalizations

The wood thrush has been reported to have one of the most beautiful songs of North American birds.[13] American naturalist Henry David Thoreau wrote:

Whenever a man hears it he is young, and Nature is in her spring; wherever he hears it, it is a new world and a free country, and the gates of Heaven are not shut against him.

While the female is not known to sing, the male has a unique song that has three parts. The first subsong component is often inaudible unless the listener is close, and consists of two to six short, low-pitched notes such as bup, bup, bup. The middle part is a loud phrase often written ee-oh-lay, and the third part is a ventriloquial, trill-like phrase of non-harmonic pairs of notes given rapidly and simultaneously.

The male is able to sing two notes at once, which gives its song an ethereal, flute-like quality.[14] Each individual bird has its own repertoire based on combinations of variations of the three parts. Songs are often repeated in order. The bup, bup, bup phrase is also sometimes used as a call, which is louder and at a greater frequency when the bird is agitated.[3] The wood thrush also use a tut, tut to signal agitation.[11] The nocturnal flight call is an emphatic buzzing heeh.[9]

Distribution and habitat

The wood thrush's breeding range extends from Manitoba, Ontario and Nova Scotia in southern Canada to northern Florida and from the Atlantic coast to the Missouri River and the eastern Great Plains. It migrates to southern Mexico through to Panama in Central America in the winter, mostly in the lowlands along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.[13] It generally arrives on the U.S. Gulf Coast during the first week of April. Fall migration usually begins in mid-August and continues through mid-September. Migration takes place at night,[11] allowing them to find their direction from the stars and orient themselves by detecting the Earth's magnetic field.[15]

The wood thrush prefers deciduous and mixed forests for breeding. It prefers late-successional, upland mesic forests with a moderately-dense shrub layer. Robert I. Bertin (1977) found that this thrush favors areas with running water, moist ground, and high understorey cover.[11] The breeding habitat generally includes trees taller than 16 m (52 ft), a fairly open forest floor, moist soil, and leaf litter, with substrate moisture more important than either canopy cover or access to running water. The wood thrush can breed in habitat patches as small as 0.4 hectares (0.99 acres), but it runs the risk of higher predation and nest parasitism.[11] The wood thrush's breeding range has expanded northward, displacing the veery and hermit thrush in some locations. In recent times, as a result of fragmentation of forests, it has been increasingly exposed to nest parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds, as well as loss of habitat in the winter range.

Conservation status

The wood thrush has become a symbol of the decline of Neotropical songbirds of eastern North America, having declined by approximately 50% since 1966.[9] Along with many other species, this thrush faces threats both to its North American breeding grounds and Central American wintering grounds. Forest fragmentation in North American forests has resulted in both increased nest predation and increased cowbird parasitism, significantly reducing their reproductive success. A study by the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology was the first large-scale analysis that linked acid rain to this thrush's decline.[16] Continued destruction of primary forest in Central America eliminated preferred wood thrush wintering habitats, likely forcing the birds to choose secondary habitats where mortality rates are higher. In spite of this, the wood thrush is considered to be Least Concern.[1]

Vagrancy

The wood thrush has been recorded twice as a vagrant in Europe, in Iceland at Kvísker in Öræfi East Skaftafellssýsla by Björnsson Hálfdán on 23 October 1967 and on Wingletang Down, St Agnes, Isles of Scilly, England on 7 October 1987.[17][18]

Behavior

A wood thrush singing in Central Park, New York City

The wood thrush is primarily solitary, but occasionally forms mixed-species flocks in the winter. Its breeding territory ranges from 800 to 8,000 m2 (960 to 9,570 sq yd) in size, and are used for nesting, gathering nest materials, and foraging.[11] Some wood thrushes also defend a feeding territory in the winter. Territorial interactions are usually settled without physical contact, but in high-intensity encounters or nest defense, physical interactions with the feet or bill have been observed. Defense behaviors in response to nest predators include wing flicks, tail flicks, and raising the crest, sometimes escalating to dives and strikes.[11]

This species has also been observed displaying a behavior known as "anting." Anting occurs when a bird picks up a single ant or group of ants and rubs them on its feathers. The purpose of this behavior is unknown, but it is thought that the birds may be able to acquire defensive secretions from the ants possibly used for some medicinal purposes, or that it simply supplements the birds' own preen oil.[9]

Diet

Soil invertebrates and larvae make up most of the wood thrush's omnivorous diet, but it will also eat fruits in the late summer, fall, and late winter. It occasionally feeds on arboreal insects, snails, and small salamanders. The young are fed insects and some fruit.[9] After breeding and before migration, the wood thrush will switch from insects to fruits with high lipid levels. In the summer, low fruit consumption and lipid reserves require the bird to feed on insects continuously in order to meet its metabolic needs.[11]

The wood thrush forages mainly on the forest floor, flipping leaves over with its bills to reveal insects. It can be observed hopping around in leaf litter and on semi-bare ground under the forest canopy. Fruits are swallowed whole.[11]

Predation

Eggs and chicks are vulnerable to chipmunks, raccoons, blue jays, American crows, black rat snakes, brown-headed cowbirds, common grackles, southern flying squirrels, gray squirrels, least weasels, white-footed mice, domestic cats, great horned owls, and sharp-shinned hawks. Adults are primarily taken by hawks and owls.[11]

Reproduction

 src=
Nesting in Pennsylvania, USA

Wood thrushes are monogamous. Breeding pairs form in mid-April to early-May, and usually last throughout the breeding season. Most thrushes find a new mate each year, and mate guarding and extra-pair copulations have not been observed in this species.[11]

Some male wood thrushes arrive at the breeding grounds several days before the earliest females while other males arrive at the same time as the females, establishing territories ranging in size from 0.08 to 0.8 hectares (one-fifth of an acre to two acres).[3] The female typically leads silent circular flights 1–1.8 m (3.3–5.9 ft) from the ground, with the male chasing. Six or more flights generally take place in succession. The pairs will perch together and feed each other in between flights.[9] The male begins to sing at dawn and dusk a few days after arriving at breeding grounds. Early in the breeding season, the male sings from high perches in the tallest trees, but as the season progresses, it sings somewhat shorter and less elaborate songs from lower perches. Each day's singing begins and is most intense just before sunrise. The male may sing throughout the day but especially at dusk. The song season is usually over by the end of July.[11]

Typically, the female chooses the nest site and builds the nest. However, there has been some indication that the male is able to influence the selection of the nest site by perching nearby and singing. Usually, though, the female chooses whether or not to accept or reject the nest site suggested by the male.[19] The nest is usually sited in a dense patch of vegetation in a tree or shrub that provides concealment and shade. It is usually made of dead grasses, stems, and leaves, and lined with mud, and placed in a fork at a horizontal branch. The nest is not reused. Usually, two broods are attempted, although three to four separate nests may be built before a pair succeeds. Two to four pale blue eggs are laid at the rate of one per day.[20] The eggs are incubated by the female only for 11 to 14 days, with the average being 13 days. Like all passerines, the chicks are altricial at hatching, mostly naked with closed eyes.[21] The female broods the chicks during the first four days after hatching. Both parents feed the nestlings and remove fecal sacs from the nest. The chicks fledge 12–15 days after hatching, but the parents continue to feed them until they become independent and leave the parents' territory at 21–31 days old.

The young wood thrush is able to begin breeding the next summer. Most females lay their first eggs in mid-May, but older females may begin laying sooner. Pairs usually attempt to rear a second brood no later than late July, with the last of the young fledging around mid-August.[11] About half of all wood thrush pairs successfully raise two broods.[3]

References

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2020). "Hylocichla mustelina". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T22708670A154163742. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T22708670A154163742.en.
  2. ^ "50 States". Retrieved 17 June 2007.
  3. ^ a b c d Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. "Wood Thrush". Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 17 June 2007.
  4. ^ Liddell, Henry George & Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-910207-4.
  5. ^ Simpson, D.P. (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5th ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. p. 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0.
  6. ^ Kevin Winker & John H. Rappole (1988). "The Relationship between Hylocichla and Catharus (Turdinae)" (PDF). The Auk. 105 (2): 392–394. doi:10.2307/4087513. JSTOR 4087513.
  7. ^ Winker, K.; Pruett, C. L. (2006). "Seasonal Migration, Speciation, and Morphological Convergence in the Genus Catharus (Turdidae)". The Auk. 123 (4): 1052. doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2006)123[1052:SMSAMC]2.0.CO;2. JSTOR 25150219.
  8. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "Thrushes". World Bird List Version 9.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology All About Birds. "Wood Thrush". Retrieved 17 June 2007.
  10. ^ Thrushes by Peter Clement. Princeton University Press (2001). ISBN 978-0691088525
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. "Wood Thrush". Retrieved 17 June 2007.
  12. ^ Skutch, Alexander Frank (1989). A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica. Ithaca: Comstock. ISBN 0-8014-9600-4.
  13. ^ a b c Bull J; Farrand, J Jr (1987). Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds:Eastern Region. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 666–667. ISBN 0-394-41405-5.
  14. ^ Weidensaul, Scott (2007). Of a Feather: A Brief History of American Birding. New York: Harcourt, Inc. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-15-101247-3.
  15. ^ Dan Lazar. "The Mysteries of Migration – Transmutation or Long-Distance Travelers?". Archived from the original on 15 March 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2007.
  16. ^ Miyoko Chu; Stefan Hames. "Wood Thrush Declines Linked to Acid Rain". Retrieved 17 June 2007.
  17. ^ Paul Dukes (1987). "A New British Bird – Wood Thrush on St Agnes". Twitching. 1 (10): 299–300.
  18. ^ Paul Dukes (1995). "Wood Thrush in Scilly: new to Britain and Ireland". British Birds. 88 (3): 133–135.
  19. ^ Hervey Brackbill. "Nesting Behavior of the Wood Thrush" (PDF). The Wilson Bulletin. 70 (1): 70–89. Retrieved 17 May 2007.
  20. ^ D. A. Sibley. "Wood Thrush". Archived from the original on 27 September 2006. Retrieved 17 May 2007.
  21. ^ Paul R. Ehrlich; David S. Dobkin & Darryl Wheye. "Precocial and Atricial". Retrieved 6 May 2007.

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Wood thrush: Brief Summary

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The wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) is a North American passerine bird. It is closely related to other thrushes such as the American robin and is widely distributed across North America, wintering in Central America and southern Mexico. The wood thrush is the official bird of the District of Columbia.

The wood thrush is a medium-sized thrush, with brown upper parts with mottled brown and white underparts. The male and female are similar in appearance. The song of the male is often cited as being the most beautiful in North America.

The wood thrush is an omnivore, and feeds preferentially on soil invertebrates and larvae, but will also eat fruits. In the summer, it feeds on insects continuously in order to meet daily metabolic needs. It is solitary, but sometimes forms mixed-species flocks. The wood thrush defends a territory that ranges in size from 800 to 28,000 m2 (960 to 33,490 sq yd). The wood thrush is monogamous, and its breeding season begins in the spring; about 50% of all mated pairs are able to raise two broods, ranging in size from two to four chicks.

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Grive des bois

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Hylocichla mustelina

La Grive des bois (Hylocichla mustelina) est une espèce de passereaux de la famille des Turdidae.

Description

C'est une grive de taille moyenne avec le dessus brun et le dessous blanc tacheté de brun ; mâle et femelle sont semblables. Le mâle possède l’un des plus beaux chants des oiseaux de l’Amérique du Nord.

C’est une espèce solitaire mais qui se regroupe quelquefois avec d’autres espèces. La Grive des bois défend un territoire qui varie de 800 à 28 000 mètres carrés. Elle est omnivore et se nourrit de préférence d’invertébrés et de larves présentes dans le sol, ainsi que de fruits. En été, elle se nourrit continuellement d’insectes afin de subvenir à ses besoins métaboliques quotidiens.

La saison de reproduction de cette espèce monogame débute au printemps. Environ 50 % des couples sont capables d'élever deux nichées, comprenant chacune 2 à 4 oisillons[1].

Cette espèce est apparentée aux autres grives. Son aire de répartition couvre l’est de l’Amérique du Nord. Cet oiseau migre et passe l’hiver en Amérique centrale et dans le Sud du Mexique. La Grive des bois est l’oiseau emblème du District de Columbia[2].

Morphologie

Les adultes mesurent 19 à 21 centimètres de long avec une envergure de 30 à 40 centimètres et pèsent 40 à 50 grammes[3]. La calotte, la nuque et le dos sont brun cannelle alors que le dessus des ailes et la queue sont d’un brun un peu plus terne, légèrement olivâtre. La poitrine et le ventre sont blancs avec de larges taches brunes sur la poitrine et les flancs. L’anneau oculaire est blanc et les pattes sont roses[4]. Chez les autres espèces de grives brunes, les taches sont plus petites sur la poitrine[5]. Les juvéniles ressemblent aux adultes mais possèdent des taches additionnelles sur le dos, la nuque et les couvertures alaires. Le dimorphisme sexuel n’est pas présent chez cette espèce.

Comportement

La Grive des bois est surtout solitaire mais, en hiver, elle se retrouve occasionnellement dans des groupes formés de plusieurs espèces. Son territoire de reproduction couvre de 800 à au moins 8 000 mètres carrés et est utilisé pour nicher, amasser du matériel de nidification et pour la recherche de nourriture[6]. En hiver, certains individus défendent également un territoire. Les interactions relatives au territoire sont généralement gérées sans contact physique. Cependant, lors de rencontres intenses ou de la défense du nid, des contacts physiques avec les pattes ou le bec ont été observées. Les comportements de défense en réponse aux prédateurs des nids incluent des battements d’ailes et de queue, l’érection des plumes de la calotte ainsi que des vols piqués et des attaques[6].

La Grive des bois pratique également une forme particulière du bain de fourmis. Il s’agit de cueillir une ou plusieurs fourmis et de les frotter sur les plumes. Le but de ce comportement est peu connu mais il se pourrait que les oiseaux soient ainsi capables d’acquérir les sécrétions des fourmis à des fins médicinales ou encore que les sécrétions des fourmis supplémentent celles de la glande uropygienne[3].

Alimentation

Les invertébrés et les larves présentes dans le sol constituent la majorité du régime omnivore de la Grive des bois, mais celle-ci se nourrit également de fruits à la fin de l’été, à l’automne et à la fin de l’hiver. Elle mange occasionnellement des insectes arboricoles, des escargots et de petites salamandres. Les adultes offrent des insectes et des fruits aux juvéniles[3]. En été, les oiseaux doivent consommer des insectes de façon continue pour subvenir à leurs besoins métaboliques quotidiens[6]. Après la reproduction mais avant la migration, la Grive des bois délaisse les insectes pour consommer des fruits possédant des niveaux élevés de lipides.

La Grive des bois recherche sa nourriture principalement au sol, retournant les feuilles avec son bec pour y découvrir des insectes. Elle sautille sur la litière et sur le sol des forêts. Les fruits sont avalés entiers[6].

Prédation

Les œufs et les oisillons sont la proie des Tamias rayés, des Ratons laveurs, des Geais bleus, des Corneilles d'Amérique, des serpents Elaphe obsoleta, des Quiscales bronzés, des Petits Polatouches, des Écureuils gris, des belettes, des Souris à pattes blanches, des chats, des Grands-ducs d'Amérique et des Éperviers bruns. Les oiseaux de proie (dont les hiboux) constituent une menace pour les adultes[6].

La Grive des bois a son nid souvent parasité par le Vacher à tête brune : dans certaines zones du Midwest, tous les nids de Grive des bois contiennent au moins un œuf de vacher, et parfois même, pour certains, jusqu'à 8[3].

Une étude menée en Pennsylvanie a déterminé que les populations nichant dans de petites parcelles forestières étaient beaucoup plus sujettes à la prédation et au parasitisme que celles vivant dans des forêts plus étendues. Selon cette étude, on ne comptait que 46 % de succès reproductif pour les couples nichant dans une forêt de moins de 80 hectares, contre 86 % dans les forêts plus vastes[6].

Vocalisations

Le chant d'une grive des bois à Central Park. Juin 2019.

La Grive des bois possède l’un des plus beaux chants des oiseaux de l'Amérique du Nord[5].

Alors que la femelle, apparemment, ne chante pas, le chant du mâle est très particulier, en trois parties. La première partie est souvent inaudible à moins que l’auditeur ne soit proche. Elle consiste en 2 à 6 notes courtes et de basse fréquence boup, boup, boup. La partie centrale du chant est forte et peut être rendue par ii-oh-léii. La dernière partie, comparable à un trille, est constituée de couples de notes non harmoniques, rapides et simultanées, et semble produite par un ventriloque.

Le mâle peut chanter deux notes à la fois ce qui donne à son chant un rendu fluté et éthéré[7]. Chaque individu possède son propre répertoire, basé sur des variations des trois parties du chant. Les chants sont souvent répétés dans l’ordre. La partie boup, boup, boup est quelquefois utilisée comme cri, celui-ci devenant plus fort et plus fréquent lorsque l’oiseau est agité[1]. La Grive des bois utilise également un tout, tout lorsqu’elle est perturbée[6]. Le cri de vol nocturne est un bourdonnant et emphatique hiih[3].

Reproduction

Quelques mâles arrivent sur les sites de nidification plusieurs jours avant les femelles les plus hâtives tandis que d’autres mâles arrivent en même temps que les femelles. Les mâles défendent un territoire de 0,08 à 0,8 hectare[1]. Pendant la parade nuptiale, la femelle effectue des vols circulaires silencieux vers 1 à 1,8 mètre du sol, le mâle la poursuivant. Au moins six vols successifs ont lieu. Le mâle et la femelle se perchent ensemble et se nourrissent l’un l’autre entre les vols[3]. La Grive des bois est monogame. Les couples se forment de la mi-avril au début de mai et durent généralement toute une saison de reproduction. La plupart des individus trouvent un nouveau partenaire chaque année, et la surveillance de partenaire ainsi que les copulations hors couple n’ont pas été observées chez cette espèce[6].

Le mâle commence à chanter, à l’aube et au crépuscule, quelques jours avant d’arriver au site de nidification. Au début de la saison de reproduction, le mâle chante à la cime des arbres mais, à mesure que la saison progresse, son chant devient plus court, moins élaboré et est émis à partir de perchoirs moins élevés. Le chant débute et son intensité est la plus forte juste avant le lever du soleil. Le mâle peut chanter tout le jour, mais il chante davantage au crépuscule. Le mâle cesse habituellement de chanter à la fin de juillet[6].

En général, la femelle choisit l’emplacement du nid et le construit. Il se pourrait cependant que le mâle puisse influencer la sélection de l’emplacement du nid en se perchant et en chantant près du futur emplacement. Par contre, la femelle choisit d’accepter ou de rejeter l’emplacement suggéré par le mâle[8]. Le nid est généralement placé là où la végétation est dense, dans un arbre ou un arbuste procurant de l’ombre et du camouflage. Le nid est placé au creux d’une branche horizontale ; il est fait d’herbes mortes, de tiges et de feuilles et l’intérieur est garni de boue. Le nid n’est pas réutilisé.

Habituellement, deux nichées sont tentées par saison de nidification, même si 3 à 4 nids différents peuvent être construits avant qu’une nichée ne soit produite. La femelle pond 2 à 4 œufs bleu pâle, à raison d'un œuf par jour[9]. La plupart des femelles pondent leurs œufs à la mi-mai, mais les femelles plus âgées peuvent pondre plus tôt. Les œufs sont couvés par la femelle de 11 à 14 jours (treize jours en moyenne). Comme tous les passereaux, les oisillons sont nidicoles à l’éclosion, c’est-à-dire sans plumes et les yeux fermés[10] ; ils pèsent un peu plus de 4 g en moyenne[11]. La femelle couve les oisillons pendant les quatre premiers jours après l’éclosion. Les deux parents nourrissent les juvéniles et enlèvent les sacs fécaux du nid. Les oisillons quittent le nid 12 à 15 jours après l’éclosion mais les parents continuent de les nourrir jusqu’à ce qu’ils quittent le territoire parental vers l'âge de 21 à 31 jours.

Les couples peuvent tenter l’élevage d’une deuxième couvée au plus tard à la fin de juillet, les juvéniles quittant alors le nid à la mi-août[6]. Environ la moitié des couples élèvent avec succès deux nichées[1]. La Grive des bois peut se reproduire l’été suivant sa naissance. L’individu en liberté le plus âgé (record en 2008) avait 8 ans et 11 mois[6],[12].

Répartition et habitat

Répartition

 src=
  • aire de nidification
  • voie migratoire
  • aire d'hivernage

Au Canada, la Grive des bois est présente au Manitoba, en Ontario, au Nouveau-Brunswick et en Nouvelle-Écosse. Son aire de répartition s’étend du sud du Canada jusqu’au nord de la Floride en passant par la rivière Missouri et les Grandes Plaines. L’aire de répartition s’est étendue vers le nord, la Grive des bois concurrençant alors la Grive fauve et la Grive solitaire en certains endroits.

Habitat

La Grive des bois fréquente les forêts décidues et mixtes pour se reproduire. Elle préfère les forêts mésiques (c'est-à-dire à pluviométrie moyenne) de fin de succession (voir l'article Cycle sylvigénétique) avec une strate arbustive modérément dense. On la trouve généralement à des élévations assez faibles (moins de 1 350 m). Robert I. Bertin (1977) détermina que cette grive préfère les milieux avec des cours d’eau, des sols humides et un recouvrement important des strates inférieures[6]. L’habitat de nidification inclus généralement des arbres de plus de 16 mètres de haut, un sol forestier dégagé et une litière feuillue. L’humidité du sol semble plus importante que le recouvrement de la canopée ou que l’accès à des cours d’eau. La Grive des bois peut se reproduire dans des parcelles de forêt aussi petites que 0,4 hectare, mais cela augmente alors le risque de prédation et de parasitisme des nids[6].

Migration

La migration automnale débute en général à la mi-août et se poursuit jusqu’à la mi-septembre. En hiver, la Grive des bois se retrouve du sud du Mexique jusqu’au Panama en Amérique centrale, qu'elle atteint en migrant surtout le long des côtes de l’Atlantique et du Pacifique[5]. Au printemps, la Grive des bois arrive généralement sur les côtes du Golfe des États-Unis pendant la première semaine d’avril. La migration a lieu la nuit[6]. Les oiseaux se dirigent avec les étoiles et le champ magnétique terrestre[13].

La Grive des bois a été observée une fois en Europe, aux Sorlingues, Angleterre, en octobre 1987[14],[15].

La Grive des bois et l'homme

Étymologie et taxinomie

Seule membre du genre Hylocichla, la Grive des bois a été décrite par le naturaliste Johann Friedrich Gmelin en 1789. Le nom générique est une traduction directe de son nom vernaculaire, dérivée des mots grecs hylè/ύλη "bois" et cichle/κιχλη "grive"[16]. Le nom de l’espèce provient du latin mustela "belette"[17]. Le terme grive, dérive lui, du latin greacus, terme signifiant « de Grèce », donné à un type de petits oiseaux migrateurs dont on pensait qu'ils hivernaient en Grèce[18].

La Grive des bois est proche parente des autres grives typiques de l'Amérique du Nord du genre Catharus et est parfois placée dans ce genre[19]. La Grive des bois semble également apparentée aux espèces du genre Turdus comme le Merle d'Amérique.

Certains auteurs lui donne le nom scientifique de Catharus mustelinus[20].

Conservation

La Grive des bois est devenue un symbole du déclin des populations d’oiseaux néotropicaux de l’est de l’Amérique du Nord, puisque ses effectifs ont diminué de 43 % depuis 1966[3]. Tout comme de nombreuses autres espèces, cette grive fait face à des menaces à la fois sur son aire de reproduction et sur son aire d'hivernage en Amérique centrale. La fragmentation des forêts nord-américaines a mené à une augmentation des taux de prédation et de parasitisme des nids par le Vacher à tête brune, ce qui a significativement diminué le succès reproducteur de la Grive des bois. De plus, une étude du Laboratoire d'Ornithologie de l'Université Cornell a associé les pluies acides au déclin des populations de cette espèce[21]. La destruction continue des forêts primaires en Amérique centrale a également réduit l’habitat d’hivernage optimal de la Grive des bois, ce qui la force probablement à sélectionner des habitats de moins bonne qualité où les taux de mortalité sont plus élevés. Malgré tout, l'espèce est toujours placée par l'UICN dans la catégorie préoccupation mineure[22].

Référence culturelle

Le musicien français Olivier Messiaen s'est inspiré de son chant pour une des pièces de ses oiseaux exotiques, écrites entre 1955 et 1956[23] ainsi que pour son Des canyons aux étoiles..., écrit entre 1971 et 1974.

Notes et références

  • (en) Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu de l’article de Wikipédia en anglais intitulé .
  1. a b c et d (en) Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, « Wood Thrush » (consulté le 17 juin 2007)
  2. (en) 50 States, « 50 States » (consulté le 17 juin 2007)
  3. a b c d e f et g (en) Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology All About Birds, « Wood Thrush » (consulté le 17 juin 2007)
  4. Gary F. Stiles et Alexander Frank Skutch, A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica, Ithaca, Comstock, 1989, 511 p. (ISBN 0-8014-9600-4)
  5. a b et c J. Bull et J. Farrand, Jr, Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds : Eastern Region, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1987, 666-667 p. (ISBN 0-394-41405-5)
  6. a b c d e f g h i j k l m et n (en) University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, « Wood Thrush » (consulté le 17 juin 2007)
  7. Scott Weidensaul, Of a Feather : A Brief History of American Birding, New York, Harcourt, Inc, 2007, 237 p. (ISBN 978-0-15-101247-3)
  8. (en) Hervey Brackbill, « Nesting Behavior of the Wood Thrush » (consulté le 17 mai 2007)
  9. (en) D. A. Sibley, « Wood Thrush » (consulté le 17 mai 2007)
  10. (en) Paul R. Ehrlich, David S. Dobkin, et Darryl Wheye., « Precocial and Atricial » (consulté le 6 juin 2007)
  11. Hylocichla mustelina sur le site AnAge
  12. Klimkiewick M.K., Clapp R.B. et Futcher A.G. 1983 Longevity records of North American birds: Remizidae through Parulinae, Journal of Field Ornithology no 54, p 287 à 294
  13. (en) Dan Lazar, « The Mysteries of Migration - Transmutation or Long-Distance Travelers? » (consulté le 25 juin 2007)
  14. Paul Dukes (1987) "A New British Bird - Wood Thrush on St Agnes" Twitching Vol. 1 No. 10 pp. 299-300
  15. Paul Dukes (1995) Wood Thrush in Scilly: new to Britain and Ireland British Birds Vol. 88 No. 3 pp. 133-135
  16. Henry George Liddell et Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition), United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, 1980
  17. D.P. Simpson, Cassell's Latin Dictionary, London, Cassell Ltd., 1979, 883 p.
  18. Définitions lexicographiques et étymologiques de « Grive » dans le Trésor de la langue française informatisé, sur le site du Centre national de ressources textuelles et lexicales
  19. (en) University of New Mexico Auk, « University of New Mexico Auk » (consulté le 17 juin 2007)
  20. Grive des bois (Hylocichla mustelina) sur le site avibase
  21. (en) Miyoko Chu et Stefan Hames., « Wood Thrush Declines Linked to Acid Rain » (consulté le 17 juin 2007)
  22. (UICN 2006)
  23. Notice de Oiseaux exotiques d'Olivier Messiaen sur le site de l'IRCAM

Voir aussi

Références taxonomiques

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Grive des bois: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Hylocichla mustelina

La Grive des bois (Hylocichla mustelina) est une espèce de passereaux de la famille des Turdidae.

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