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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 5.5 years (wild)
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Untitled

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During the breeding season, both males and females exhibit aggresive behavior towards other birds who approach the nest. They have been observed to chase off Lucy's Warbler (Vermivora luciae), Violet-green swallows (Tachycineta thalassina), Audubon's Warbler (Dendroica auduboni), and Western Kingbirds (Tyrannus verticalis; Wolf and Blair 2000).

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Alvarez, T. 2002. "Pyrocephalus rubinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pyrocephalus_rubinus.html
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Behavior

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Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Alvarez, T. 2002. "Pyrocephalus rubinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pyrocephalus_rubinus.html
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Conservation Status

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This bird is losing habitat due to urbanization. The preservation of both dry and wet riparian areas should be a priority for the long term maintenance of populations of this bird. The opening of habitat due to habitat modifications by humans provides this bird with foraging habitat. However, due to the loss of many riparian areas, these birds have few areas in which to reproduce. Urbanization and man-made chemicals such as pesticides used in urban areas can poison their food supply (Wolf and Blair 2000).

US Migratory Bird Act: no special status

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Alvarez, T. 2002. "Pyrocephalus rubinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pyrocephalus_rubinus.html
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Benefits

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There are no known adverse effects on humans

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Alvarez, T. 2002. "Pyrocephalus rubinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pyrocephalus_rubinus.html
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Benefits

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This bird arrives in the Southwest every spring and is a sight to see for birdwatchers (Blair and Wolf 2000).

Positive Impacts: ecotourism ; research and education

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Alvarez, T. 2002. "Pyrocephalus rubinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pyrocephalus_rubinus.html
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Associations

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These birds probably have an impact on insect populations (Wolf and Blair 2000).

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Alvarez, T. 2002. "Pyrocephalus rubinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pyrocephalus_rubinus.html
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Trophic Strategy

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Vermillion flycatchers mainly consume flying and terrestrial insects and other arthropods. They prefer grasshoppers, honeybees, beetles, and crickets. They forage during flight, performing sallies. Ninety-four percent of foraging takes place within 3 m of the ground, with the least amount of foraging occuring over water. They are a sit-and-wait predator. They sit on perches and sally down to catch single insects one at a time. Sometimes they carry captured prey to their perch and beat it before consuming it (Fitzpatrick 1980).

Animal Foods: insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods

Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore )

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Alvarez, T. 2002. "Pyrocephalus rubinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pyrocephalus_rubinus.html
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Distribution

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The Vermillion Flycatcher's range extends from the southwestern United States down through Mexico, Central America, and as far south as Argentina (Wolf and Jones 2000).

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Alvarez, T. 2002. "Pyrocephalus rubinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pyrocephalus_rubinus.html
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Habitat

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The Vermillion flycatcher prefers open habitats such as arid scrubland, farmland, desert, savannah, cultivated lands, and riparian woodland settings. Specifically, their nests can be found in willows (Salix spp.), oaks (Quercus spp.), cottonwoods (Populus spp.), mesquites (Prosopis spp.), and sycamores (Platanus spp.) lining streams. However they are not found in areas with a dense canopy of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and mesquite understory (Carothers 1974).

Range elevation: 0 to 3000 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate

Terrestrial Biomes: desert or dune ; chaparral ; scrub forest ; mountains

Other Habitat Features: riparian

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Alvarez, T. 2002. "Pyrocephalus rubinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pyrocephalus_rubinus.html
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Life Expectancy

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The oldest vermillion flycatcher that was banded and subsequently recovered was at least five and half years old. (USGS, 2002)

Range lifespan
Status: wild:
5.5 (high) years.

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
66 months.

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Alvarez, T. 2002. "Pyrocephalus rubinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pyrocephalus_rubinus.html
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Morphology

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Vermillion flycatcher adult males are a bright scarlet or "vermilllion" color on the top of their head and on underparts. They have a dark-brown mask that covers the face, ear-coverts, and nape of neck. The top of the wings and the tail are also blackish-brown.

Adult females are grayish-brown on the top of their head, ear-coverts, and wings and tail. They are darkest at the tail and they have a superciliary grayish-white stripe on their face. Their underparts are whitish but become pale red. Their breast is streaked with gray, as well as their sides (Wolf and Jones 2000).

Immature females are similar to the adult female except that they have yellowish posterior underparts. Immature males look similiar to adult females during the summer of the second calendar year, but their underparts are salmon pink or pale-orange red in color (Wolf and Jones 2000).

Range mass: 11 to 14 g.

Average length: 13-14 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Alvarez, T. 2002. "Pyrocephalus rubinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pyrocephalus_rubinus.html
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Associations

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They are probably subject to predation from typical predators of small birds. Snakes, raccoons, owls, and crows may take eggs and nestlings while hawks may take recently fledged birds.

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Alvarez, T. 2002. "Pyrocephalus rubinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pyrocephalus_rubinus.html
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Reproduction

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These birds are monogamous. The nest site is chosen based on the Nest-Site-Showing Display of the male. He flies around to potential nesting sites and gives a soliciting call to the nearby females, encouraging them to take a look. They fly to each site, crouch, and make nest forming movementd while letting out a chatter call. They also flutter their wings during this display. The chosen nest site by the female is usually within 205 m of the male's preferred nest site. The female will often ignore the displaying male, but when she decides to accept, she and the male will land at different potential nest sites in a crouching position. They will display side by side. The male will retreat when he observes that the female is starting the nest construction. The construction begins almost immediately after the female chooses the site (Carothers 1974).

Mating System: monogamous

Vermillion flycatchers first breed as second year birds, the first spring after hatching. Males usually arrive to the breeding grounds a week or so earlier than females. They may arrive as early as February, and as late as the first week of April. The earliest nest observed was constructed in late March. The nests are loosely constructed and made of twigs, grasses, fibers, and empty cocoons, and lined with down, feathers, and hair. Nest shape is a shallow cup. The female completes the nest with cobwebs and lichens. Egg-laying occurs as soon as the nest has been finished. The clutch is usually made of 2-3 oval-shaped eggs. They range in color from pure white to cream, tan, or brown. The larger end of the egg is usually marked with a dark brown spot. The incubation period in Arizona is 13-15 days. The eggs are incubated by the female alone, all eggs hatch within 24 hours. The young are altricial and weigh a little over 1 gram. The female broods the young and they fledge approximately 13-15 days after hatching. Second broods are common. Second clutches have been observed from 20 May to 10 June (Carothers 1974).

Breeding season: February-early June

Range eggs per season: 2 to 4.

Range time to hatching: 13 to 15 days.

Range fledging age: 13 to 15 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 2 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 2 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous

Average eggs per season: 3.

Immediately after the eggs are laid, the female begins incubation. All eggs hatch by the 14th day in most cases, but the average length of time is 13-15 days. While the female incubates the eggs the male feeds her. He lands on a nearby branch and announces himself with a contact call. He quickly deposits the food in the female's mouth and promptly leaves. During this period, copulations often occur on the nest. Females have never been observed begging for food. The male feeds the female on average, every 1.5 hours. Following feeding, copulation is likely to occur. Females are extremely vigilant when they are at the nest. They are most alert in the early morning when the eggs are exposed to full sunlight. The female will often stand over the eggs so the sunlight cannot reach them. The female occasionally leaves the nest, but never goes very far. Young are altricial, weighting a little over a gram. Their eyes start to open about 4 days after hatching. There seems to be no correlation between the feeding rate and the number of young in the nest. Both parents feed the young, aproximately 3.5 times per hour. They are fed mostly butterflies and moths. About half of their food is made of larval lepidoptera (Carothers 1974).

Parental Investment: altricial ; male parental care ; female parental care

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Alvarez, T. 2002. "Pyrocephalus rubinus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pyrocephalus_rubinus.html
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Biology

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As its name suggests, the vermilion flycatcher feeds on insects, including flies, butterflies, grasshoppers, beetles, termites, bees and spiders. Hunting takes places from an exposed perch, from which the flycatcher darts out to snatch passing prey in the air, or sometimes drops to take it from the ground (2) (4) (6). During the breeding season, the male vermilion flycatcher performs a spectacular display flight. Fluffing out the feathers and raising the crest on the head, the male flies up, flapping furiously, to about 30 or more metres in the air, before hovering for a few moments and dropping back down to a perch, all the while repeating his musical song (2) (3) (6). Breeding usually takes place between March and July in the far north of the species' range, and between October and January in the far south. The nest is built in a horizontal fork of a tree, and comprises a shallow cup of twigs, grass, small roots and lichens, held together with spiderwebs and lined with feathers and hair (2) (6). Two to three eggs are laid, and are incubated by the female for 13 to 15 days, during which time the male will often bring food to the female at the nest (2) (4) (8). Both the male and female vermilion flycatcher help feed the young, which fledge after about 13 to 18 days, and the pair may then go on to raise a second brood (2) (4). Vermilion flycatcher nests are sometimes parasitised by cowbirds, brood parasites that use the vermilion flycatcher as hosts to raise the cowbirds' young (2) (10).
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Conservation

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There are no known specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, management measures suggested in parts of the USA include the preservation of suitable riparian habitat through restricted access, removal of livestock and prevention of tree cutting, as well as habitat improvement through removal of non-native species and the planting of native trees (10). More research may be needed to identify the causes of the declines in the Galapagos Islands, and measures put in place to prevent exotic avian diseases taking hold here (14). Although designated as a National Park and a World Heritage Site (15), more may also need to be done to address the problems of increasing tourism and human population growth on the Galapagos Islands, if its wildlife is to receive adequate protection.
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Description

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One of the most striking of all flycatchers, both in its colouration and its courtship behaviour, the male vermilion flycatcher is a small but unmistakable bird. The head, underparts and bushy-crested crown are a brilliant scarlet colour (2) (3) (4), contrasting strongly with the black eyestripe, beak and legs, and the sooty-black to blackish-brown back, wings and tail (2) (3) (5). Unusually for the Tyrannidae family (3) (5), the female vermilion flycatcher has a very different appearance, with a pale, greyish-brown head, back and wings, a blackish tail, and a whitish throat and underparts (2) (3) (4). The underparts show variable amounts of dusky streaking, and the lower belly ranges in colour from whitish to yellow, pink, salmon or vermilion. Juveniles resemble the female, but have whiter wing edges and a whitish lower belly, without the yellow or pink tinge, while immature males may have variable amounts of pink, orange or red mottling on the head and underparts. Some populations of vermilion flycatcher also show melanistic (dark) forms, which are particularly common around Lima in Peru (2) (3). The vermilion flycatcher typically perches quite conspicuously in open areas, often dipping its tail up and down (2) (3) (6). Its calls include a distinctive 'peent', given by both the male and female, and a musical song given by the male during display flights (2) (7) (8). Twelve subspecies of vermilion flycatcher have been identified, based on variations in plumage colour, though further research may be needed to clarify the boundaries between these (2). Of these subspecies, Pyrocephalus rubinus nanus and Pyrocephalus rubinus dubius, which are restricted to the Galapagos Islands, are sometimes treated as different species to the mainland forms. Only some of the males of these two subspecies have bright red plumage (2) (9).
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Habitat

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Inhabiting a variety of open habitats, including open woodland, clearings, arid and desert scrub, savanna and agricultural land, the vermilion flycatcher can be found at elevations of up 3,050 metres. Although often found in arid areas, it tends to stay near water, often occurring in riparian vegetation (2) (3) (4).
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Range

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The vermilion flycatcher has a wide range across South and Central America and the southwestern United States of America, and also occurs on the Galapagos Islands (2) (3) (4). Populations from the southern USA and northwest Mexico migrate south as far as Central America in winter (2) (4), while those in the far south of South America migrate north as far as Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador (2) (3). Some populations also move to lower altitudes outside of the breeding season (2).
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Status

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Classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1).
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Threats

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The vermilion flycatcher has a large range and a large global population, and is not currently considered globally threatened (2) (11). Population declines have been reported in the southwestern USA, mainly due to habitat loss, as the riparian vegetation on which the species depends has come under pressure from wood-cutting, cattle grazing and water-management policies (2) (4) (10). However, in other areas the vermilion flycatcher has benefitted from man-made habitats, such as golf courses and parks, leading to local population increases (2) (10). Perhaps the most threatened populations of the vermilion flycatcher occur in the Galapagos Islands. Numbers of both the Galapagos subspecies are small and apparently declining, and P. r. dubius may even now be extinct on San Cristóbal (12) (13) (14). Bird species in these islands face a number of threats, including unplanned and inadequately controlled tourism, human population growth, urban development, and invasion by non-native species, which can act as predators or as agents of disease (14) (15). However, in the case of the vermilion flycatcher, the reasons for the population decline are unclear (12) (13).
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Comprehensive Description

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Pyrocephalus rubinus (Boddaert)

Previously reported as a victim of the brown-headed cowbird a small number of times in Texas, Arizona, and California, the vermilion flycatcher has recently been found to be parasitized at Red-rock, Gila Valley, southwestern New Mexico (Hubbard, 1971:25), where, on 13 June 1968, a male vermilion flycatcher was watched repeatedly feeding a recently fledged young brown-headed cowbird. In addition to this record, 3 others—2 of them from Imperial County, California, and 1 from Huachuca Plains, Arizona—are in the collections of the Western Foundation, and 2 from Tucson, Arizona, are in the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History. All the records from southwestern New Mexico west to California involve the host race Prubinus flammeus and the cowbird subspecies M. ater obscurus.

HORNED LARK
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Friedmann, Herbert, Kiff, Lloyd F., and Rothstein, Stephen I. 1977. "A further contribution of knowledge of the host relations of the parasitic cowbirds." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-75. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.235

Scarlet flycatcher

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The scarlet flycatcher or austral vermilion flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus) is a species of flycatcher, closely related to the vermilion flycatcher. It is found in southeastern Bolivia and Brazil, Paraguay to Argentina and Uruguay. It is recognized as a species by some taxonomic authorities, including the International Ornithologists' Union. Others still consider it to be a subspecies of the vermilion flycatcher.

Taxonomy

The scarlet flycatcher was described by the French polymath Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon in 1779 in his Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux.[2] The bird was also illustrated in a hand-coloured plate engraved by François-Nicolas Martinet in the Planches Enluminées D'Histoire Naturelle which was produced under the supervision of Edme-Louis Daubenton to accompany Buffon's text.[3] Neither the plate caption nor Buffon's description included a scientific name but in 1783 the Dutch naturalist Pieter Boddaert coined the binomial name Muscicapa rubinus in his catalogue of the Planches Enluminées.[4] The type locality was restricted to Tefé on the Amazon River by the American ornithologist John T. Zimmer in 1941.[5] The scarlet flycatcher is now placed in the genus Pyrocephalus that was introduced in 1839 by the English ornithologist and bird artist John Gould.[6][7] The species is monotypic.[7] The generic name combines the Ancient Greek purrhos meaning "flame-coloured" or "red" and -kephalos meaning "-headed". The specific epithet rubinus is Medieval Latin for "ruby-coloured".[8]

The scarlet flycatcher was formerly considered to be conspecific with the vermilion flycatcher (Pyrocephalus obscurus). The species were split based on a molecular phylogenetic study published in 2016.[7][9]

Description

The scarlet flycatcher appears very similar to the vermilion flycatcher, but can be distinguished by its pointier wings. Their songs are also quite distinctive. Their range and breeding times do not generally overlap with the vermilion flycatcher.[9]

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International. 2017. Pyrocephalus rubinus (amended version of assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T103682912A118649386. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T103682912A118649386.en. Downloaded on 30 April 2018.
  2. ^ Buffon, Georges-Louis Leclerc de (1779). "Le rubin ou gobe-mouche rouge huppé de la Rivière des Amazones". Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux (in French). Vol. 8. Paris: De L'Imprimerie Royale. pp. 351–352.
  3. ^ Buffon, Georges-Louis Leclerc de; Martinet, François-Nicolas; Daubenton, Edme-Louis; Daubenton, Louis-Jean-Marie (1765–1783). "Gobe-mouche rouge hupé". Planches Enluminées D'Histoire Naturelle. Vol. 7. Paris: De L'Imprimerie Royale. Plate 675 Fig. 2.
  4. ^ Boddaert, Pieter (1783). Table des planches enluminéez d'histoire naturelle de M. D'Aubenton : avec les denominations de M.M. de Buffon, Brisson, Edwards, Linnaeus et Latham, precedé d'une notice des principaux ouvrages zoologiques enluminés (in French). Utrecht. p. 42, Number 675 Fig. 2.
  5. ^ Zimmer, John Todd (1941). "Studies of Peruvian birds. No. 38, The genera Oreotriccus, Tyrannulus, Acrochordopus, Ornithion, Leptopogon, Mionectes, Pipromorpha, and Pyrocephalus". American Museum Novitates. New York: American Museum Natural History (1126): 16. hdl:2246/4748.
  6. ^ Gould, John (1841). Darwin, Charles (ed.). The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, Part III. Birds. London: Smith, Elder and Company. p. 44.
  7. ^ a b c Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "Tyrant flycatchers". World Bird List Version 9.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  8. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 326, 340. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  9. ^ a b Carmi, O.; Witt, C.C.; Jaramillo, A.; Dumbacher, J.P. (2016). "Phylogeography of the Vermilion Flycatcher species complex: Multiple speciation events, shifts in migratory behavior, and an apparent extinction of a Galápagos-endemic bird species". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 102: 152–173. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.05.029. PMID 27233443.
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Scarlet flycatcher: Brief Summary

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The scarlet flycatcher or austral vermilion flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus) is a species of flycatcher, closely related to the vermilion flycatcher. It is found in southeastern Bolivia and Brazil, Paraguay to Argentina and Uruguay. It is recognized as a species by some taxonomic authorities, including the International Ornithologists' Union. Others still consider it to be a subspecies of the vermilion flycatcher.

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Moucherolle écarlate

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Pyrocephalus rubinus

Le Moucherolle écarlate (Pyrocephalus rubinus) est une petite espèce de passereau de la famille des Tyrannidae.

L'espèce a été reconnue comme distincte du moucherolle vermillon (Pyrocephalus obscurus) en 2016[1].

Description morphologique

Cette espèce de 14 à 17 cm de longueur présente un fort dimorphisme sexuel[2]. Les mâles ont une couleur rouge vif avec le dos, les ailes, la queue et un masque étroit brun sombre ; les femelles et les juvéniles ont le dos d'un brun gris moins sombre, la gorge et la poitrine gris très clair rayées de brun, et le ventre et le dessous de la queue teintés de couleur pêche ou jaune roussâtre.

Comportement

Alimentation

Ces oiseaux se nourrissent surtout d'insectes, notamment de mouches, de sauterelles et de scarabées.

Il chasse dans les arbres et buissons le plus souvent, mais il lui arrive de descendre au sol dans les zones plus arides, à la végétation plus rare et aux proies moins nombreuses[2].

Vocalisations

Cet oiseau est généralement silencieux, mais les mâles se font entendre au printemps, au cours de leurs vols de parade nuptiale. Le chant est alors sonore, une sorte de "pit-pit-pit-pitti-ziiiii" balbutiant.

Répartition et habitat

Cet oiseau vit dans les buissons des zones désertiques et subtropicales, ou dans les fourrés le long des cours d'eau, dans le Sud-Est de la Bolivie, au Paraguay et du Sud-Est du Brésil à l'Argentine et à l'Uruguay[1].

Galerie

Notes et références

  1. a et b (en) Référence Congrès ornithologique international : (consulté le 22 juin 2018)
  2. a et b (en) J.A. MacMahon, Deserts, New York, National Audubon Society Nature Guides, Knopf A.A. Inc, mars 1997, 9e éd., 638 p. (ISBN 0-394-73139-5), p. 594
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Moucherolle écarlate: Brief Summary

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Pyrocephalus rubinus

Le Moucherolle écarlate (Pyrocephalus rubinus) est une petite espèce de passereau de la famille des Tyrannidae.

L'espèce a été reconnue comme distincte du moucherolle vermillon (Pyrocephalus obscurus) en 2016.

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