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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 11 years (wild)
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Ash-throated flycatcher

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The ash-throated flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens) is a passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family. It breeds in desert scrub, riparian forest, brushy pastures and open woodland from the western United States to central Mexico. It is a short-distance migrant, retreating from most of the U.S. and northern and central Mexico, spending the winter from southern Mexico to Honduras. This bird is also prone to wander, with single birds often seen outside its normal breeding range as far away as the east coast of North America.

 src=
South Padre Island - Texas (flash photo)

The nest is built in a tree cavity or similar natural or man-made hole, and the normal clutch is three or four eggs.

Adult ash-throated flycatchers are 7.5 to 8.5 in (19 to 22 cm) in length and weigh 0.7 to 1.3 oz (20 to 37 g) The upperparts are olive brown, with a darker head and short crest. The breast is gray and the belly is a very pale yellow. The brown tail feathers and wings have rufous outer webs, and there are two dull wing bars. The sexes are similar.

The ash-throated flycatcher is separated from other confusingly similar Myiarchus species by its calls, a burry kabrick and a rough prrt or wheer heard year-round.[2]

This species is primarily an insectivore that flies from a perch to catch prey from the ground or from foliage in the undergrowth, less often from branches and trunks, hardly ever in midair. Unlike many other tyrant flycatchers, it often moves on to another perch rather than returning to the same one. It also takes some fruit, especially in winter if insects are unavailable. Rarely, it takes small mammals and reptiles, which it kills by banging them against hard objects.[2]

Taxonomy

First described in 1851 by George Newbold Lawrence from a specimen collected in western Texas in the United States, the ash-throated flycatcher was initially given the scientific name Tyrannula cinerascens.[3] The species was mistakenly described again in 1851 as Tyrannula mexicanus — an error that was corrected in 1859 when Philip Lutley Sclater analyzed the tyrant flycatchers known from Mexico and realized that both scientific names referred to the same species.[4] During the same analysis, Slater moved the ash-throated flycatcher from the genus Tyrannula to its current genus, Myiarchus.[5] In the past, the ash-throated flycatcher has sometimes been considered to be conspecific with Nutting's flycatcher, but there are morphological and vocal differences between the two.[3] There is disagreement as to whether the two species hybridize.[6]

The ash-throated flycatcher has two recognized subspecies:

  • M. c. cinerascens, the nominate subspecies described by Lawrence in 1851, breeds from the western US down into southern and central Mexico and winters from the southern US to Honduras, principally on the Pacific slope.[3]
  • M. c. pertinax, described by Spencer Fullerton Baird in 1860, is restricted to Mexico's Baja California.[3]

The genus name Myiarchus is a compound word created from the Greek words muia (μυια), meaning "fly" and arkos (αρχος) meaning "ruler" or "chief".[7] The species epithet cinerascens is a Latin word meaning "ashen".[7]

Description

The ash-throated flycatcher is a medium-sized tyrant flycatcher, measuring 7.5 to 8.6 in (19 to 22 cm) in length with a wingspan of 11.8 to 12.6 in (30 to 32 cm) and a mass of 0.7 to 1.3 oz (20 to 37 g).[8][9] Overall, it is slim and long-tailed, with a slightly peaked crest on its relatively large head.[8]

Conservation and threats

Because of its extensive range, very large population, and generally increasing numbers, the ash-throated flycatcher has been listed as a species of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.[1] It is one of the species protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.[10] In the United States, the creation of bluebird trails, a network of nest boxes put out for the continent's three bluebird species, may benefit ash-throated flycatchers as they will also use the boxes.[11]

Parasites and predators

The ash-throated flycatcher is host to a number of parasites, including the nasal mite Tyranninyssus callinectoides (for which it is the type host)[12] and the quill mite Syringophilopsis tyranni.[13]

References

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2016). "Myiarchus cinerascens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22700427A93775259. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22700427A93775259.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b Cardiff, Steven W.; Dittmann, Donna L. (2002). Poole, A. (ed.). "Ash-throated Flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens)". The Birds of North America Online. Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  3. ^ a b c d "Ash-throated Flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens)". hbw.com. Handbook of Birds of the World. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  4. ^ Coues, Elliott (Jan 1872). "Studies of the Tyrannidæ.: Part I. Revision of the Species of Myiarchus". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 24 (1): 56–81.
  5. ^ Slater, Philip Lutley (Oct 1859). "A List of the Tyrant‐birds of Mexico, with descriptions of some new species". Ibis. 1 (4): 436–445. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1859.tb06224.x.
  6. ^ McCarthy, Eugene M. (2006). Handbook of Avian Hybrids of the World. Oxford UK: Oxford University Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-19-518323-8.
  7. ^ a b Jobling, James A. (2010). Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London, UK: Christopher Helm. pp. 107, 263. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  8. ^ a b "Ash-throated Flycatcher: Identification". All About Birds. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  9. ^ "Ash-throated Flycatcher". National Geographic. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  10. ^ "Migratory Bird Treaty Act Protected Species (10.13 List)". U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  11. ^ "Audubon Field Guide: Ash-throated Flycatcher". National Audubon Society. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  12. ^ Brooks, Derl Len & Strandtmann, R. W. (Aug 1960). "The Nasal Mites (Acarina) of Some West Texas Flycatchers (Tyrannidae)". The Journal of Parasitology. 46 (4): 418–432. doi:10.2307/3275132. JSTOR 3275132.
  13. ^ Hendricks, Sarah A.; Flannery, Maureen E.; Spicer, Greg S. (Oct 2013). "Cophylogeny of Quill Mites from the Genus Syringophilopsis (Acari: Syringophilidae) and Their North American Passerine Hosts". The Journal of Parasitology. 99 (5): 827–834. doi:10.1645/ge-2400.1. JSTOR 41982101. PMID 23638969. S2CID 21772145.

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Ash-throated flycatcher: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The ash-throated flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens) is a passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family. It breeds in desert scrub, riparian forest, brushy pastures and open woodland from the western United States to central Mexico. It is a short-distance migrant, retreating from most of the U.S. and northern and central Mexico, spending the winter from southern Mexico to Honduras. This bird is also prone to wander, with single birds often seen outside its normal breeding range as far away as the east coast of North America.

 src= South Padre Island - Texas (flash photo)

The nest is built in a tree cavity or similar natural or man-made hole, and the normal clutch is three or four eggs.

Adult ash-throated flycatchers are 7.5 to 8.5 in (19 to 22 cm) in length and weigh 0.7 to 1.3 oz (20 to 37 g) The upperparts are olive brown, with a darker head and short crest. The breast is gray and the belly is a very pale yellow. The brown tail feathers and wings have rufous outer webs, and there are two dull wing bars. The sexes are similar.

The ash-throated flycatcher is separated from other confusingly similar Myiarchus species by its calls, a burry kabrick and a rough prrt or wheer heard year-round.

This species is primarily an insectivore that flies from a perch to catch prey from the ground or from foliage in the undergrowth, less often from branches and trunks, hardly ever in midair. Unlike many other tyrant flycatchers, it often moves on to another perch rather than returning to the same one. It also takes some fruit, especially in winter if insects are unavailable. Rarely, it takes small mammals and reptiles, which it kills by banging them against hard objects.

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Tyran à gorge cendrée

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Myiarchus cinerascens

Le Tyran à gorge cendrée (Myiarchus cinerascens), aussi appelé Moucherolle à gorge cendrée, est une espèce d'oiseau de la famille des Tyrannidae, originaire de l'ouest du continent nord-américain[1].

Description morphologique

Cet oiseau de taille moyenne, entre 19 et 22 cm de longueur, a un bec fin et la poitrine d'un blanc grisâtre. Le dessus du corps est de couleur brun olivâtre, alors que le dessous est jaune pâle. Les rémiges primaires et les rectrices sont rousses. L'aile porte deux barres alaires blanches[2].

Il est parfois confondu avec le Tyran de Wied, mais ce dernier a le bec plus fort et plus sombre, la gorge et la poitrine d'un gris moins soutenu et le ventre d'un jaune plus franc, couleur de soufre[2].

Comportement

Alimentation

Cet oiseau se lance à la poursuite des insectes dont il se nourrit en partant d'une branche d'un grand arbre, généralement en lisière de forêt.

Vocalisations

Les vocalisations sont aigües, sifflées. Les appels sont des "pip" ou "pouït", ou des sons plus croassants et roulés du type "koui-rrrrrr".

Reproduction

Il fait souvent son nid dans les cavités des arbres creux.

Répartition et habitat

Le tyran à gorge cendrée vit dans les zones boisées peu denses, le chaparral, les boisés des zones désertiques ou les bosquets bordant les cours d'eau, dans la moitié ouest de l'Amérique du Nord.

Son aire de répartition s'étend aux États-Unis du sud de l'État de Washington et de l'Idaho jusque, au sud, la Californie, le Colorado, le Texas, mais aussi au Mexique.

Systématique et distribution

Cet oiseau est représenté par deux sous-espèces selon la classification de référence du Congrès ornithologique international (version 9.1, 2019)[3] :

Voir aussi

Notes et références

  1. Oiseaux.net, « Tyran à gorge cendrée - Myiarchus cinerascens - Ash-throated Flycatcher », sur www.oiseaux.net (consulté le 6 avril 2019)
  2. a et b (en) J.A. MacMahon, Deserts, New York, National Audubon Society Nature Guides, Knopf A.A. Inc, mars 1997, 9e éd., 638 p. (ISBN 0-394-73139-5), p. 594
  3. Congrès ornithologique international, version 9.1, 2019
  4. (en) Référence Congrès ornithologique international : (consulté le 10 mars 2019)
  5. (fr+en) Référence Avibase : Myiarchus cinerascens (+ répartition)
  6. (en) Référence UICN : espèce Myiarchus ferox (Gmelin, 1789) (consulté le 10 mars 2019)
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Tyran à gorge cendrée: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Myiarchus cinerascens

Le Tyran à gorge cendrée (Myiarchus cinerascens), aussi appelé Moucherolle à gorge cendrée, est une espèce d'oiseau de la famille des Tyrannidae, originaire de l'ouest du continent nord-américain.

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fr
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