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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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"Maximum longevity: 57 years (captivity) Observations: There are anecdotal reports of animals living over 100 years. Presently, however, the record longevity belongs to one captive specimen called "Cocky" that lived over 57 years at London Zoo (Brouwer et al. 2000)."
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Behavior

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Sulphur-crested cockatoos are noisy birds. Their primary method of communication is their screeching voices. They also use their crest to communicate emotion. They will raise and spread their magnificent crests when excited, such as when danger is detected or during mating.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic

Other Communication Modes: mimicry

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Thomas, K. 2007. "Cacatua galerita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cacatua_galerita.html
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Kyle Thomas, Kalamazoo College
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Ann Fraser, Kalamazoo College
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Conservation Status

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Sulphur-crested cockatoos are generally common and abundant. Their population is approximated at more than 500,000 individuals. It is no longer legal to import these birds to the United States as a result of the Wild Bird Conservation Act.

US Migratory Bird Act: no special status

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix ii

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Thomas, K. 2007. "Cacatua galerita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cacatua_galerita.html
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Kyle Thomas, Kalamazoo College
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Benefits

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Sulphur-crested cockatoos can be so numerous in crop growing areas that they are often shot or poisoned as pests. Government permit is required, though, as they are a protected species under the Australian Commonwealth Law. Aside from crops, they can also be harmful to wooden structures and ornamental trees as they chew and rip at timber on houses and tree limbs.

Negative Impacts: crop pest

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Thomas, K. 2007. "Cacatua galerita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cacatua_galerita.html
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Kyle Thomas, Kalamazoo College
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Benefits

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Sulphur-crested cockatoos are popular pets and companion birds. Their yellow feathers have been used in ceremonial headdresses.

Positive Impacts: pet trade ; ecotourism

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Thomas, K. 2007. "Cacatua galerita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cacatua_galerita.html
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Kyle Thomas, Kalamazoo College
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Associations

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The role of sulphur-crested cockatoos in the ecosystems they inhabit is not well documented. They feed on seeds and nuts and may play a role in seed dispersal.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

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Thomas, K. 2007. "Cacatua galerita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cacatua_galerita.html
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Kyle Thomas, Kalamazoo College
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Trophic Strategy

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Sulphur-crested cockatoos are primarily granivores in the wild, feeding both on the ground and in trees. They feed mainly on seeds, nuts, fruits, blossoms, insects and insect larvae. They will also attack newly planted and ripening grain crops.

In captivity, C. galerita are mainly fed a diet of fresh fruits, vegetables, seeds, nuts, pellets, legumes and grains. They have a high rate of obesity so high fat foods such as peanuts and seeds are fed sparingly.

Animal Foods: insects

Plant Foods: seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit; flowers

Primary Diet: herbivore (Frugivore , Granivore )

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Thomas, K. 2007. "Cacatua galerita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cacatua_galerita.html
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Kyle Thomas, Kalamazoo College
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Ann Fraser, Kalamazoo College
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Distribution

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Cacatua galerita is native to the Australian Region and occurs in large numbers in the north and east of Australia. It has been introduced to western Australia, New Zealand and New Guinea.

Biogeographic Regions: australian (Introduced , Native ); oceanic islands (Introduced )

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Thomas, K. 2007. "Cacatua galerita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cacatua_galerita.html
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Kyle Thomas, Kalamazoo College
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Habitat

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Sulphur-crested cockatoos dwell in a variety of timbered habitats such as tropical and subtropical rainforests. They are also found in the vast savannas of northern Australia. Sulphur-crested cockatoos also occur in suburban and urban areas, especially in parks and gardens.

Range elevation: 0 to 1450 m.

Average elevation: 300-600 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest

Other Habitat Features: urban ; suburban

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Thomas, K. 2007. "Cacatua galerita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cacatua_galerita.html
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Kyle Thomas, Kalamazoo College
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Life Expectancy

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Sulphur-crested cockatoos can live for decades in the wild. Average lifespan is about 40 years, but they can live up to 100 years. In captivity, sulphur-crested cockatoos that are well-cared for can live for 65 years on average and up to 120 years.

Range lifespan
Status: wild:
57 (high) years.

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
40 years.

Range lifespan
Status: captivity:
120 (high) years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
65 years.

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
40 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
65 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
57 years.

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Thomas, K. 2007. "Cacatua galerita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cacatua_galerita.html
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Kyle Thomas, Kalamazoo College
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Ann Fraser, Kalamazoo College
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Morphology

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Sulphur-crested cockatoos are large birds, measuring 45 to 50 centimeters in length. Their average weight is 800 grams. Sulphur-crested cockatoos are white with a distinctive sulphur-yellow crest which can be erected or held folded down on top of head. The underside of their wings and tail is pale yellow. Females and males are similar in appearance (monomorphic); however, females can be identified at close range by their red tinted brown eyes, whereas males have darker brown eyes. There are four subspecies of sulphur-crested cockatoos. Cacatua galerita fitzroyi differs from C. g. galerita in having a pale blue eye ring instead of white, the yellow feathers are slightly darker, and the crest feathers are longer. Cacatua galerita eleonora and C. g. triton both average smaller in overall size than C. g. galerita.

Range mass: 700 to 950 g.

Average mass: 800 g.

Average length: 50 cm.

Average wingspan: 103 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes colored or patterned differently

Average basal metabolic rate: 3.419 W.

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Thomas, K. 2007. "Cacatua galerita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cacatua_galerita.html
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Kyle Thomas, Kalamazoo College
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Associations

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Sulphur-crested cockatoos have one primary method of detecting and avoiding predators. When feeding, a few 'sentinel' birds will perch in a tree looking out for predators. They unleash their deafening warning call when a potential predator is sighted. Their large size also protects them from predation by all but the largest birds of prey.

During the incubation period and 6 to 10 weeks thereafter, both parent birds are intentionally very quiet in order not to attract predators to their nest.

Sulphur-crested cockatoos are known to be preyed on by powerful owls (Ninox strenua). Goannas (Varanus) are also potential predators of birds on the ground, fledglings, and nestlings. Other potential predators include common avian nest predators such as pied currawongs (Strepera graculina), butcherbirds (Cracticus), and ravens.

Known Predators:

  • powerful owls (Ninox strenua)
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Thomas, K. 2007. "Cacatua galerita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cacatua_galerita.html
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Kyle Thomas, Kalamazoo College
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Reproduction

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Sulphur-crested cockatoos are monogamous birds. Signs of courtship include raising of the crest, bobbing of the head, and moving the head from side to side in a figure-of-eight pattern while uttering soft chattering notes. Before mating, the birds usually preen each other's plumage.

Mating System: monogamous

In the northern parts of their range, sulphur-crested cockatoos breed from May to September, whereas birds in the southern parts of their range breed from August to January. They generally nest in a high tree hollow, usually near water. They breed once yearly, producing a clutch containing 2 to 3 white oval eggs. Eggs hatch after an incubation period of 27 to 30 days. Fledging generally occurs at approximately 70 days. Offspring will leave the nest after this 70 day period but will remain with the parents year round. Family units will remain together indefinitely. Both male and female Cacatua galerita reach reproductive maturity around the age of 3 to 4 years.

Breeding interval: Sulphur crested cockatoos breed once yearly.

Breeding season: Sulphur-crested cockatoos breed between August and January in the southern parts of their range and between May and September in the northern parts of their range.

Range eggs per season: 2 to 3.

Average time to hatching: 27 days.

Average fledging age: 70 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 3 to 4 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 3 to 4 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

Average time to hatching: 27 days.

Average eggs per season: 2.

Both parents incubate their clutch. Once the eggs hatch, chicks are fed by both parents.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); post-independence association with parents

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Thomas, K. 2007. "Cacatua galerita" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cacatua_galerita.html
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Kyle Thomas, Kalamazoo College
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Ann Fraser, Kalamazoo College
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Biology

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Noisy and conspicuous (4), the sulphur-crested cockatoo forms large flocks of up to several hundred birds (2). As the famous naturalist Charles Darwin observed during his visit to Australia, these flocks are commonly found feeding in wheat fields, and are considered to be pests by many Australian wheat farmers (5). During feeding some members of the flock stand guard on a nearby perch, alerting the rest of the group to any danger by making a raucous alarm call (2) (4). When not feeding, the sulphur-crested cockatoo will frequently bite off smaller branches and leaves, which helps prevent the bill from growing too large. A similar behaviour is also employed by this species in urban environment, causing widespread damage to wooden panelling and timber decking (4). Flocks spend the night at a permanent roosting site, usually in trees, but may travel over several kilometres during the day in search of food (2) (6). The sulphur-crested cockatoo's breeding season varies according to location, with populations in southern Australia breeding between August and January, and populations in northern Australia breeding from May to September. Once formed, each breeding pair constructs a nest well apart from the other pairs, which usually comprises a bed of woodchips in a tree hollow. A clutch of two to three eggs is laid, which are incubated by both parent birds, with hatching taking place after 25 to 27 days. Nestlings remain in the hollow for 9 to 12 weeks and are fed by both adults, before fledging and joining a feeding flock (2).
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Conservation

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The sulphur-crested cockatoo is listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), which regulates international trade in this species through the use of permits and annual quotas (3). While this regulation remains in place, there is little cause for concern regarding this species' survival (2).
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Description

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With its pristine white plumage and striking, bright yellow crest, the sulphur-crested cockatoo is one of Australasia's most recognisable parrot species (2) (4). The crest is erectile and can reach up to 14 centimetres in length (2). The undersurfaces of the wings and tail are washed with pale yellow, while the bill and feet are black and dark-grey respectively. The sexes are almost identical, except for the eye, which is brown in the male and red-brown in the female. There are four recognised subspecies of sulphur-crested cockatoo which are distinguished by location, as well as by differences in body size, bill size, and the colouration around the eye, which is white in all of the subspecies except for Cacatua galerita fitzroyi,in which it is blue (2).
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Habitat

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In Australia, the sulphur-crested cockatoo inhabits forest, woodland and cultivated cropland, while in New Guinea it occurs in lowland forest up to elevations of 1,400 metres (2).
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Range

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The nominate subspecies Cacatua galerita galerita has the largest range, occupying eastern and south-eastern Australia, from Cape York, south to Tasmania. It has also been introduced to south-western Australia and New Zealand. Cacatua galerita fitzroyi is found in northern Australia from the Fitzroy River in the north-west to the Gulf of Carpenteria in the north-east. Cacatua galerita eleonora is found only on the Aru Islands, Indonesia, while Cacatua galerita triton is found in New Guinea and surrounding islands, with introduced populations also inhabiting the islands of Seram Laut and Kai in the Moluccas and Palau Island in the central-western Pacific (2).
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Status

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Classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1) and listed on Appendix II of CITES (3).
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Threats

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There are currently no major threats to the sulphur-crested cockatoo. Whilst this species is popular as an aviary bird, international trade is regulated and its global population is very large (2) (7).
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Sulphur-crested cockatoo

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The sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) is a relatively large white cockatoo found in wooded habitats in Australia, New Guinea, and some of the islands of Indonesia. They can be locally very numerous, leading to them sometimes being considered pests. A highly intelligent bird,[4] they are well known in aviculture, although they can be demanding pets.

Distribution

In Australia, sulphur-crested cockatoos can be found widely in the north and east, ranging from the Kimberley to as far south as Tasmania, but avoiding arid inland areas with few trees. They are numerous in suburban habitats in cities such as Adelaide, Melbourne, Canberra, Sydney and Brisbane. Except for highland areas, they occur throughout most of New Guinea and on nearby smaller islands such as Waigeo, Misool and Aru, and various islands in the Cenderawasih Bay and Milne Bay. There are four recognised subspecies:

Introduced species

Within Australia, sulphur-crested cockatoos of the nominate race have also been introduced to Perth, which is far outside the natural range. Outside Australia, they have been introduced to Singapore, where their numbers have been estimated to be between 500 and 2000. They have also been introduced to Palau and New Zealand. In New Zealand, the introduced populations may number less than 1000. This species has also been recorded as established in Hawaii and from various islands in Wallacea (e.g. Kai Islands and Ambon), but it is unclear if it has managed to become established there.[2]

Description

Sulphur-crested cockatoo in the Bushland Shire, northern suburban Sydney.
 src=
In Brisbane, Queensland.

Sulphur-crested cockatoos are 44–55 cm (17.5–21.5 in) long,[6][7] with the Australian subspecies larger than subspecies from New Guinea and nearby islands. The plumage is overall white, while the underwing and -tail are tinged yellow. The expressive crest is yellow. The bill is black, the legs are grey, and the eye-ring is whitish. Males typically have almost black eyes, whereas the females have a more red or brown eye, but this requires optimum viewing conditions to be seen. The differences between the subspecies are subtle. C. g. fitzroyi is similar to the nominate race but lacks the yellow on the ear tufts and has slightly blueish skin around the eye. C. g. eleonora is similar to C. g. fitzroyi but is smaller and has broader feathers in the crest, and C. g. triton is similar to C. g. eleonora except it has a smaller bill.[5][8][9]

It is similar in appearance to the three species of corellas found in Australia. However, corellas are smaller, lack the prominent yellow crest and have pale bills. In captivity, the sulphur-crested cockatoo is easily confused with the smaller yellow-crested cockatoo or the blue-eyed cockatoo with a differently shaped crest and a darker blue eye-ring.

Behaviour

 src=
Walking on grass in Tasmania, Australia
 src=
Perched in a tree in Victoria, Australia

Sulphur-crested cockatoos' distinctive raucous calls can be very loud, which is a result of an adaptation in order to travel through the forest environments in which they live, including tropical and subtropical rainforests. These birds are naturally curious, as well as very intelligent. They have adapted very well to European settlement in Australia and live in many urban areas.

Being intelligent, in Sydney, Australia they have learned how to open garbage bins as a source of food.[10] The behavior spreads among the birds by imitation.[11] In captivity some will spontaneously dance to music with a variety of unique moves.[12]

These birds are very long-lived, and can live upwards of 70 years in captivity,[13][14] although they only live to about 20–40 years in the wild. They have been known to engage in geophagy, the process of eating clay to detoxify their food. These birds produce a very fine powder to waterproof themselves instead of oil as many other birds do.

The sulphur-crested cockatoo is a seasonal breeder in Australia; little is known about its breeding behaviour in New Guinea. In southern Australia the breeding season is from August to January, whereas in northern Australia the season is from May to September.[5] The nest is a bed of wood chips in a hollow in a tree. Like many other parrots it competes with others of its species and with other species for nesting sites.[15] Two to three eggs are laid and incubation lasts between 25–27 days. Both parents incubate the eggs and raise the nestlings. The nestling period is between 9 and 12 weeks, and the young fledglings remain with their parents for a number of months after fledging.[5]

Sulphur-crested cockatoos have range of visually observable expressions. A 2009 study involving an Eleonora cockatoo (the subspecies Cacatua galerita eleonora) named Snowball found that sulphur-crested cockatoos are capable of synchronizing movements to a musical beat.[16] Sulphur-crested cockatoos use facial expressions (with their feathers) to indicate positive emotions.[17]

Species that feed on the ground are very vulnerable to predator attack. The cockatoo has evolved a behavioural adaptation to protect against this: whenever there is a flock on the ground, there is at least one high up in a tree (usually a dead tree), keeping guard. This is so well known that it has even entered Australian slang: a person keeping guard for sudden police raids on illegal gambling gatherings is referred to as a cockatoo or cocky for short.[18]

Pest status

 src=
Numerous cockatoos causing damage to polystyrene facade on a shopping centre, New South Wales

In some parts of Australia, sulphur-crested cockatoos can be very numerous, and may cause damage to cereal and fruit crops and newly planted tree seedlings, as well as soft timber on houses and outdoor furniture.[19] Consequently, they are sometimes shot or poisoned as pests. A government permit is required for any culling, because the birds are a protected species under the Australian Commonwealth Law.

Aviculture

Sulphur-crested cockatoos may no longer be imported into the United States as a result of the Wild Bird Conservation Act (WBCA).[20] However, they have been bred in captivity, with Eleonora and Triton cockatoos the most common subspecies seen in aviculture in the USA and Europe.[21] They are socially demanding pets and have a natural desire to chew wood and other hard and organic materials. They are also loud, often unleashing loud squawks or piercing screeches. They may also make aggressive, unpredictable movements which can frighten people and animals unaware of the accompanying affection.

One cockatoo called Fred was still alive at 100 years of age in 2014.[22] Cocky Bennett of Tom Ugly's Point in Sydney was a celebrated sulphur-crested cockatoo who reached an age of 100 years or more. He had lost his feathers and was naked for much of his life, and died in the early years of the twentieth century. His body was stuffed and preserved after death.[23] Another 'cocky', born in 1921 and residing in Arncliffe with his owner Charlie Knighton, was 76 years old in the late 1990s.[13]

Sulphur-crested cockatoos, along with many other parrots, are susceptible to psittacine beak and feather disease, a viral disease, which causes birds to lose their feathers and grow grotesquely shaped beaks. The disease occurs naturally in the wild,[24] and in captivity.[25]

References

  1. ^ "Fossilworks: Cacatua".
  2. ^ a b BirdLife International (2018). "Cacatua galerita". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22684781A131914971. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22684781A131914971.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  3. ^ "Appendices | CITES". cites.org. Retrieved 2022-01-14.
  4. ^ Salleh, Anna (17 October 2020). "Sulphur-crested cockatoos can be noisy and destructive, but they're also very clever. Here are some facts you may not know". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d Rowley (1997), pp. 246–269.
  6. ^ "Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo - Facts, Diet, Habitat & Pictures on Animalia.bio". animalia.bio. Retrieved 2021-12-02.
  7. ^ "Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo - The Animal Facts - Appearance, Diet, Habitat". The Animal Facts. Retrieved 2021-12-02.
  8. ^ "Sulphur-crested Cockatoo Fact Sheet". Northern Parrots. Retrieved 2021-12-02.
  9. ^ "Bird watching in Australia - Sulphur-crested cockatoo". www.aladdin.st. Retrieved 2021-12-02.
  10. ^ Gorman, James (2021-07-22). "Trash Parrots Invent New Skill in Australian Suburbs". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-07-25.
  11. ^ Turnbull, Tiffanie (22 July 2021). "Clever cockatoos? Scientists go beyond the garbage". The New Daily.
  12. ^ "Scientists discover Snowball the cockatoo has 14 distinct dance moves". YouTube. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21.
  13. ^ a b "Australia's Oldest Cocky: Qantas Amazing Australia". Burkes Backyard website. CTC Productions. 2006. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
  14. ^ Glenda Kwek (August 31, 2011). "Sydney's old crock of a cockie was a legend at 120". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
  15. ^ Heinsohn, Robert; Murphy, Stephen; Legge, Sarah (2003). "Overlap and competition for nest holes among eclectus parrots, palm cockatoos and sulphur-crested cockatoos". Australian Journal of Zoology. 51 (1): 81–94. doi:10.1071/ZO02003. S2CID 83711585.
  16. ^ Patel, Aniruddh D.; Iversen, JR; Bregman, MR; Schulz, I (2009-04-30). "Experimental Evidence for Synchronization to a Musical Beat in a Nonhuman Animal". Current Biology. 19 (10): 827–30. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.03.038. PMID 19409790. S2CID 8133846.
  17. ^ Bertin, Aline; Beraud, Arielle; Lansade, Léa; Mulot, Baptiste; Arnould, Cécile (2020-09-01). "Bill covering and nape feather ruffling as indicators of calm states in the Sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita)". Behavioural Processes. 178: 104188. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104188. ISSN 0376-6357. PMID 32598901. S2CID 220075824.
  18. ^ "The Sentimental Bloke". Australian Screen. 1919. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  19. ^ "Guidelines for Reducing Cockatoo Damage" (PDF). Victorian Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning. Retrieved 2021-10-31.
  20. ^ "Wild Bird Conservation Act". US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
  21. ^ "Sulphur-crested Cockatoo Fact Sheet". Northern Parrots. Retrieved 21 February 2022.
  22. ^ "Queen sends letter to 100-year-old cockatoo". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2 November 2014.
  23. ^ Lendon (1973), p. xxvi.
  24. ^ Raidal, S.; McElnea, C.; Cross, G. (1993). "Seroprevalence of psittacine beak and feather disease in wild psittacine birds in New South Wales". Australian Veterinary Journal. 70 (4): 137–139. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1993.tb06105.x. PMID 8494522.
  25. ^ Kiatipattanasakul-Banlunara, W; Tantileartcharoen R; Katayama K; Suzuki K; Lekdumrogsak T; Nakayama H; Doi K (2002). "Psittacine beak and feather disease in three captive sulphur-crested cockatoos (Cacatua galerita) in Thailand". Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 64 (6): 527–529. doi:10.1292/jvms.64.527. PMID 12130840.

Bibliography

Further reading

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Sulphur-crested cockatoo: Brief Summary

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The sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) is a relatively large white cockatoo found in wooded habitats in Australia, New Guinea, and some of the islands of Indonesia. They can be locally very numerous, leading to them sometimes being considered pests. A highly intelligent bird, they are well known in aviculture, although they can be demanding pets.

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Cacatoès à huppe jaune

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Cacatua galerita

Le Cacatoès à huppe jaune (Cacatua galerita) est une espèce d'oiseaux de la famille des Cacatuidae. C'est l'un des plus grands et des plus répandus cacatoès australiens.

Il est fréquemment recherché comme animal de compagnie en et hors d'Australie. Mais, en liberté, il est souvent abattu et empoisonné car considéré comme nuisible. En effet, en bandes ou solitaire, il peut s'attaquer aux récoltes de céréales et de fruits, ainsi qu'au bois des arbres, des abris de jardins ou des maisons. Toutefois il faut, pour les détruire, une autorisation du gouvernement australien car ce sont des animaux protégés.

Description

C'est un animal mesurant de 45 à 50 cm de longueur et pesant de 800 à 900 g. Son plumage est blanc, avec une grande huppe érectile orientée vers l'arrière au repos, d'un jaune soutenu. Le dessous des ailes et de la queue est jaune clair. Il a un bec d'un gris très foncé, presque noir. Les deux sexes sont semblables quoique la femelle soit plus petite et que les yeux ne soient pas tout à fait de la même couleur : d'un brun tirant sur le rouge chez la femelle, sur le noir chez le mâle. C'est un animal bruyant aussi bien en vol, le matin et le soir lorsqu'il va se nourrir, qu'au repos.

Distribution et habitat

 src=
Répartition de l'espèce.

C'est un animal que l'on trouve surtout en Australie : sur la partie Nord et Est du continent et en Tasmanie ainsi qu'en Nouvelle-Guinée et dans les îles Aru.
Animaux de compagnie, un certain nombre d'entre eux se sont échappés et ont créé des colonies accidentelles autour de Perth, en Australie-Occidentale, en Nouvelle-Zélande[1] et en Indonésie.

Ce sont des oiseaux sédentaires vivant en grandes bandes en dehors de la période de reproduction dans toutes les régions boisées et surtout au voisinage de l'homme.

Alimentation

Il se nourrit essentiellement de baies, de graines, de fruits à coque et de racines. Son régime alimentaire est omnivore. Un animal perché au sommet d'un arbre est chargé d'assurer la sécurité du groupe pendant qu'ils se nourrissent.

Reproduction

La reproduction a lieu d'août à janvier dans le Sud et de mai à septembre dans le Nord. La femelle pond de un à trois œufs dans un nid fait par les deux parents dans une cavité d'un arbre. Les œufs sont couvés trente jours à tour de rôle et les jeunes restent au nid 60 à 70 jours avant de pouvoir voler. Ils resteront avec leurs parents pendant leur première année d'existence.

Sous-espèces

D'après Alan P. Peterson, il existe quatre sous-espèces :

  • Cacatua galerita eleonora (Finsch, 1863) ;
  • Cacatua galerita fitzroyi (Mathews, 1912) ;
  • Cacatua galerita galerita (Latham, 1790) ;
  • Cacatua galerita triton (Temminck, 1849).
Cacatua galerita 2.jpg

Captivité

Les couples sont fidèles mais le gros problème de ce perroquet est l'agressivité du mâle envers la femelle qui peut aller jusqu'à la mort.

Notes et références

Notes

Références

  1. (en) New Zealand Birds, « New Zealand Birds | Sulphur crested cockatoo, Cacatua galerita », sur www.nzbirds.com (consulté le 12 juin 2017)

Voir aussi

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wikipedia FR

Cacatoès à huppe jaune: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Cacatua galerita

Le Cacatoès à huppe jaune (Cacatua galerita) est une espèce d'oiseaux de la famille des Cacatuidae. C'est l'un des plus grands et des plus répandus cacatoès australiens.

Il est fréquemment recherché comme animal de compagnie en et hors d'Australie. Mais, en liberté, il est souvent abattu et empoisonné car considéré comme nuisible. En effet, en bandes ou solitaire, il peut s'attaquer aux récoltes de céréales et de fruits, ainsi qu'au bois des arbres, des abris de jardins ou des maisons. Toutefois il faut, pour les détruire, une autorisation du gouvernement australien car ce sont des animaux protégés.

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큰유황앵무

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

큰유황앵무(sulphur-crested cockatoo)는 오스트레일리아뉴기니섬, 그리고 인도네시아의 일부 열도의 우림지대에서 볼 수 있는 상대적으로 크고 흰 코카투이다. 황관앵무라고도 한다.

분포

오스트레일리아에서 큰유황앵무는 북동쪽에 널리 발견되며 킴벌리에서 남쪽 태즈메이니아주로까지 이르지만 나무가 얼마 없는 건조한 섬 지역은 회피한다. 애들레이드, 멜버른, 캔버라, 시드니, 브리즈번 등의 도시의 교외 지역에 많이 산다. 고산 지대를 제외하고 뉴기니섬 대부분과 와이게오섬, 미솔섬, 아루 열도와 같은 섬들, 그리고 쯘드라와시 베이, 밀른베이의 여러 섬들 주위에서 볼 수 있다.

4가지 아종이 인지된다:

  1. Triton cockatoo, C. g. triton (Temminck, 1849)
  2. en:Eleonora cockatoo, C. g. eleonora (Finsch, 1867)
  3. Mathews cockatoo, C. g. fitzroyi (Mathews, 1912)
  4. en:Greater sulphur-crested cockatoo, C. g. galerita[1]

각주

인용
  1. Rowley (1997), pp. 246-269.
참고문헌
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큰유황앵무: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과
 src= 오스트레일리아 태즈메이니아주의 C. g. galerita.

큰유황앵무(sulphur-crested cockatoo)는 오스트레일리아뉴기니섬, 그리고 인도네시아의 일부 열도의 우림지대에서 볼 수 있는 상대적으로 크고 흰 코카투이다. 황관앵무라고도 한다.

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copyright
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