Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Iphione ovata Kinberg, 1856

Iphione ovata Kinberg, 1855[1856]:383 [type-locality: Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii]; 1858:8, pl. 3: fig. 8, pl. 10: fig. 45.—Chamberlin, 1919:64.—Monro, 1928a:557; 1928b:471.—Hartman, 1939:27, pl. 3: figs. 31, 32.—Rioja, 1962[1963]: 137, figs. 30–36.—Wu, 1968:30, fig. I N–P.—Fauchald, 1977a:5.—Buzhinskaja, Obut, and Potin, 1980:229, 246, 247, 250.

Iphione spinosa Kinberg, 1858:8, pl. 10:fig. 46 [type-locality: Port Natal, South Africa].

Iphione muricata.—Treadwell, 1906:1154 [in part].—Potts, 1910:341 [in part].—Pruvot, 1930:3, fig. la–d.—Monro, 1939:168 [in part].—Fauvel, 1943:2.—Cloud, 1959: 422.—Day, 1962:628 [in part].—Reish, 1968:211 [in part?].—Gibbs, 1971:123 [in part]. [Not Savigny, 1818].

Iphione hirotai Izuka, 1912:63, pl. 7: figs. 8–15 [type–locality: Bonin Islands, Japan].

MATERIAL EXAMINED.—BAJA CALIFORNIA. Isla Cerralbo, Piedras Gordas, 24°09′N, 109°52′W, 26 m, 1 Jun 1969, G.E. Radwin and F.H. Wolfson, collectors, 1 specimen (USNM 81965).

GULF OF CALIFORNIA. 24° 22′N, 110° 19′W, 15 m, broken shells, Albatross sta 2824, 30 Apr 1888, 1 specimen (USNM 81964).

CLIPPERTON ISLAND. NE side, 13 m, 28 Aug. 1958, T. Chess, A. Hambly, and C. Limbaugh, collectors, 1 specimen (USNM 81966).

PANAMA (Pacific). Perlas Islands, Gonzales Island, SW shore, 08°22′N, 79°05′W, Panama Survey sta. 33–3, 30 Apr 1971, M.L. Jones, collector, 1 specimen (USNM 81962). Perico Island, SE side, tide pool at low tide, under rocks, Panama Survey sta. 82B, 12 Apr 1972, M.L. Jones, collector, 2 specimens (USNM 81963).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. Honolulu, Oahu, Eugenie Exp., holotype of I. ovata (NRS 388). South coast of Molokai Island, 42–44 m, sand and stones, Albatross sta. 3847, 8 Apr 1902, 1 specimen (USNM 5434; as I. muricata by Treadwell, 1906). French Frigate shoal, 23°46′N, 116°18′W, 26–30 m, coarse sand and coral, Albatross sta 3968, 29 May 1902, 4 specimens (USNM 5438; BMNH; as I. muricata by Treadwell, 1906).

MARIANA ISLANDS. N.W. Saipan, lagoon N of Matuis beach, picked from dead and porous Lithophyllum on base of head of brown Acropora, 12 Dec 1948, P.E. Cloud, collector, 1 specimen (USNM 26061; as I. muricata by Cloud, 1959).

CAROLINE ISLANDS. Ifalik Atoll, reef flat halfway between NW end of Falarik and Elangelap, beneath large rock, 21 Sep 1953, F.M. Bayer, collector, 1 specimen (USNM 81952). Ifalik Atoll, south end of Falarik, 32 Oct 1953, F.M. Bayer, collector, 1 specimen (USNM 29962). Palau, Ngadarak Reef, north of mouth of Malakae Pass, 07°16′N, 134°28′E, exposed coral rubble and residual pools with sponges, 17 Aug 1955, F.M. Bayer, collector, 1 specimen (USNM 81953). Palau, Ngaremdin Reef, east side of Urukthapel, 07°13′N, 134°26′E, exposed boulder tract, 19 Aug 1955, F.M. Bayer, collector, 2 specimens (USNM 81954).

MARSHALL ISLANDS. Rigoman Island, Rongelap Atoll, 17 Jun 1947, M.W. Johnson, collector, 1 specimen (USNM 81955).

BIKINI ATOLL. Enyu Island, ocean side, under old coral head on reef flat, 6 Sep 1956, D.J. Reish, collector, 1 specimen (USNM 29892; as I. muricata by Reish, 1968).

GILBERT ISLANDS. Onotoa, 1 Aug 1951, A.H. Banner, collector, 1 specimen (USNM 26062).

TUAMOTU ARCHIPELAGO. Paumotu Islands, Rangiroa Island, Mohican Reef, Albatross East Pacific Expedition, 23 Sep 1899, 1 specimen (USNM 19385; id. Chamberlin, 1919).

SOCIETY ISLANDS. Tahiti, Hitiaa, reef flat, from coral heads, May 1978, A.H. Banner, collector, 1 specimen (USNM 81956).

SOLOMON ISLANDS. Tetel Island, with Porites, 28 Jul 1965, P.E. Gibbs collector, 1 specimen (BMNH 1970.109; as I. muricata by Gibbs, 1971).

SOUTH AFRICA. Port Natal, J.A. Walberg, collector, holotype of I. spinosa (NRS 392).

MOMBASA. Nyali, 1 specimen (BMNH 1961.8.2; mixed with I. muricata by Day, 1962). Andromach Reef, mouth of Mombasa Harbor, 04°05′S, 39°40′E, 3–10 m, calcareous algae and Caulerpa, R/V Anton Bruun cruise 9, 18 Nov 1964, S.A. Earle, collector, 2 specimens (USNM 81959).

COMORO ISLAND. Outer reef at south end of Pamanzi Island, 1 m, associated with coral, R/V Anton Bruun cruise 9, 25 Nov 1964, S.A. Earle, collector, 1 specimen (USNM 81960).

MADAGASCAR. Diego Suarez and Nossi-Bé, D. McGregor, collector, 2 specimens (BMNH 1961.8.4/5; mixed with I. muricata Day, 1962).

SEYCHELLES. Coetivy, Percy Slade Trust Exp. Indian Ocean 1905, 1 specimen (BMNH 1941.4.4.175; as I. muricata by Potts, 1910 and Monro, 1939). Aldabra Island, 3 m, associated with coral in main channel, R/V Anton Bruun cruise 9, 4 Dec 1964, S.A. Earle, collector, 3 specimens (USNM 81961).

RED SEA. Suakim Harbor, on coral, C. Crossland, collector, 1 specimen (BMNH 1941.4.4.173; as I. muricata by Monro, 1939).

MALDIVES. Reef Manadu, Addu Atoll, on “white-brown holothurian,” 1899, J.S. Gardiner, collector, 1 specimen (BMNH 1941.4.4.174; as I. muricata by Potts, 1910 and Monro, 1939).

AUSTRALIA. Queensland: Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, coral reef flat, 1954, J.K. Howard, collector, 1 specimen (USNM 81957). Lizard Island, Coconut Beach, limestone platform with coral rubble, 1–2 m, 20 Nov 1977, R. and J. Brock, collectors, 2 specimens (USNM 81958).

MEASUREMENTS.—Species moderate in size, with 29 segments, ranging from 7 to 22 mm in length and from 4.5 to 12 mm in greatest width. Length × greatest width in mm of specimens examined measured as follows: from Baja California, 9.5 × 6; from Gulf of California, 11 × 7; from Clipperton Island, 15 × 8; from Panama (Pacific), 11–22 × 7–12; from Hawaiian Island (holotype of Iphione ovata), 9 × 6; and 9–12 × 6–8; from Mariana Islands, 9–16 × 6–10; from Caroline Islands, 10–20 × 6–10; from Marshall Islands, 10 × 7; from Bikini, 13 × 6; from Gilbert Islands, 19 × 9; from Tuamotu Archipelago, 17 × 10; from Society Islands, 14 × 7; from Solomon Islands, 11 × 7; from South Africa (holotype of Iphione spinosa), 10 × 8; from Mombasa, 8–11 × 4.5–6; from Comoro Island, 10 × 7; from Madagascar, 11–12 × 7–8; from Seychelles, 10–15 × 6–8; from Red Sea, 12 × 7; from Maldives, 20 × 12; from Queensland, Australia, 12–15 × 6–9.

DESCRIPTION.—The thirteen pairs of tightly imbricated elytra covering the dorsum are generally uniformly red-brown in color. The elytra are variable in shape along the body (Figure 6F). The polygonal or hexagonal areas, with secondary areolae, nearly cover the surface of the elytra except for narrow anterior and lateral borders; the areas become smaller toward the lateral and posterior borders where there are several rows of large spinous tubercles. The distal spines of the conical spinous tubercles are large, with a few short papillae between the spines. The lateral spinous papillae with flexible bases, as found in I. muricata, are absent. Along the posterior borders the areolae of some of the smaller polygonal areas are raised into low conical spines (Figure 6F; Kinberg, 1858, pl. 3: fig. 8H; Rioja, 1963, figs. 34, 35).

The prostomium, anterior segments and pharynx follow the usual pattern in Iphione (Figure 6A,B; Kinberg, 1858, pl. 3: figs. 8b, 45). The palps extend slightly beyond the tentacular cirri. The lateral antennae and tentacular cirri are about equal in length. A small occipital papilla is hidden by the nuchal lobe of segment 2. Paired oval nodules occur on anterior segments 4–6, with delicate transverse folds or crests between the dorsal tubercles on segments 6 and 8 (Figure 6B). Single middorsal nodules occur on segments 17–22, followed by the dorsal anal ridge on segments 23–29, with the anal opening between the elytrophores of segment 27.

The parapodia follow the general pattern of Iphione (Figure 6C,D). The bushy white bundles of feathery capillary notosetae extend about to the tips of the neurosetae (not quite as long as in I. muricata). The neurosetae of segments 2 and 3 differ from the following neurosetae: they are slender, tapering to sharp tips, with longer regions of close-set spinous rows. The numerous copper-colored stout neurosetae have close-set spinous rows and slightly hooked bare tips (Figure 6E; Kinberg, 1858, pl. 3: fig. 8b; Rioja, 1963, figs. 30–33).

DISTRIBUTION.—Widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the Eastern, Central and Western Pacific, Indian Ocean and Red Sea, mainly intertidal and shallow depths, associated with coral reefs.
bibliographic citation
Pettibone, Marian H. 1986. "Review of the Iphioninae (Polychaeta: Polynoidae) and revision of Iphione cimex Quatrefages, Gattyana deludens Fauvel and Harmothoe iphionelloides Johnson (Harmothoinae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-43. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.428