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Orthione griffenis

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Orthione griffenis, or Griffen's isopod,[1] is an isopod parasite present in the waters off East Asia and the West Coast of North America.[2]

Description

Orthione griffenis is an Epicaridean isopoda parasite that is found on the gill chamber of Upogebia mud shrimp.[3] Female O. griffenis are quite different from their male counterpart. Females have an oblong body, that is typically 6-24mm long with a width of half the length. Males are the smaller sex with a body that resembles more of a cylinder than an oval, 8mm long and 3mm wide. Females have 6 pleons and males have 7.[2][4] O. griffenis are hatched as larva that attach themselves to copepod, and then metamorphose into a microniscus larva. After that they molt several times until they become cryptonicus larva that then infest mud shrimp.[4]

Distribution

Orthione griffenis is native to the coasts of Asia. O. griffenis was first recorded on the coast of Willapa Bay, Washington, in 1988. Since then, O. griffenis has established itself from British Columbia, Canada to Baja California, Mexico.[4] They were likely introduced from cargo ships bound from Asia emptying their ballast tanks off the coast of North America.[5]

In 2017 this bopyrid was found in mud shrimp in British Columbia.[6][7]

Ecology

After being introduced from Asia, Orthione griffenis have established themselves by infesting the mud shrimp Upogebia pugettensis. O. griffenis typically infests female U. pugettensis rather than male (80% compared to 57%).[8] They attach themselves to the gill chamber, where they suck the host's blood. This causes a metabolic burdening effect that greatly hampers reproductive ability, which has led to a significant decline in U. pugettensis. Hatfield Marine Science Center has found that all documented populations of U. pugettensis are infested with O. griffenis, and mud shrimp populations in 4 of 18 estuaries have gone extinct as of 2008.[5] It has been proposed that Orthione griffenis also induced sex change and male mortality in U. pugettensis. However O. griffenis have been associated with modification of secondary sex characteristics and showed no signs of increasing male mortality.[9]

References

  1. ^ "Invasive Species Compendium: Orthione griffensis (Griffen's isopod)". Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. Retrieved November 29, 2020.
  2. ^ a b Dave Cowles. "Orthione griffenis". inverts.wallawalla.edu. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
  3. ^ "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Orthione griffenis Markham, 2004". www.marinespecies.org. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
  4. ^ a b c "NEMESIS Database Species Summary". invasions.si.edu. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
  5. ^ a b "Research". Hatfield Marine Science Center. February 29, 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
  6. ^ "A Mud Shrimp's Worst Nightmare - Hakai Institute".
  7. ^ Whalen, Matthew; Millard-Martin, Ben; Cox, Kieran; Lemay, Matthew; Paulay, Gustav (2020). "Poleward range expansion of invasive bopyrid isopod, Orthione griffenis Markham, 2004, confirmed by establishment in Central British Columbia, Canada". BioInvasions Records. 9 (3): 538–548. doi:10.3391/bir.2020.9.3.09.
  8. ^ "Upogebia pugettensis". inverts.wallawalla.edu. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
  9. ^ Asson, D.; Chapman, J.W. & Dumbauld, B.R. (2017). "No evidence that the introduced parasite Orthione griffenis Markham, 2004 causes sex change or differential mortality in the native mud shrimp, Upogebia pugettensis (Dana, 1852)" (PDF). Aquatic Invasions. 12 (2): 213–224. doi:10.3391/ai.2017.12.2.09.
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Orthione griffenis: Brief Summary

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Orthione griffenis, or Griffen's isopod, is an isopod parasite present in the waters off East Asia and the West Coast of North America.

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Alien species

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This parasitic bopyrid isopod is associated with the severe decline in populations of the inter-tidal estuarine mud shrimp Upogebia pugettensis

Reference

Chapman, J. W.; Dumbauld, B. R.; Itani, G.; Markham, J. C. (). An introduced Asian parasite threatens northeastern Pacific estuarine ecosystems. Biological Invasions. (): -.

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bibliographic citation
Schotte, M.; Kensley, B. F.; Shilling, S. (1995 onwards). World list of Marine, Freshwater and Terrestrial Crustacea Isopoda. National Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution: Washington D.C., USA - no longer online. [website archived on 2018-01-25]. Schotte, M.; Kensley, B. F.; Shilling, S. (1995 onwards). World list of Marine, Freshwater and Terrestrial Crustacea Isopoda. National Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution: Washington D.C., USA - no longer online. [website archived on 2018-01-25]. Chapman, J. W.; Dumbauld, B. R.; Itani, G.; Markham, J. C. (2012). An introduced Asian parasite threatens northeastern Pacific estuarine ecosystems. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 14(6): 1221-1236.
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Shyama Pagad [email]
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Shyama Pagad [email]

ecology

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Host is Upogebia pugettensis (Dana, 1852)
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Schotte, M.; Kensley, B. F.; Shilling, S. (1995 onwards). World list of Marine, Freshwater and Terrestrial Crustacea Isopoda. National Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution: Washington D.C., USA - no longer online. [website archived on 2018-01-25]. Schotte, M.; Kensley, B. F.; Shilling, S. (1995 onwards). World list of Marine, Freshwater and Terrestrial Crustacea Isopoda. National Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution: Washington D.C., USA - no longer online. [website archived on 2018-01-25]. Chapman, J. W.; Dumbauld, B. R.; Itani, G.; Markham, J. C. (2012). An introduced Asian parasite threatens northeastern Pacific estuarine ecosystems. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 14(6): 1221-1236.
contributor
Marilyn Schotte [email]
contributor
Marilyn Schotte [email]