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Brief Summary

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The sea potato is a large, heart-shaped sea urchin. It is sometimes referred to as a heart urchin. You often see pieces of its bare and very breakable skeleton on the beach. A live sea potato has lots of spines which are flattened across its body. Its spines are shorter than by sea urchins and look more like hair than spines. Actually, it looks a lot like a hairy potato.
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Brief Summary ( Dutch; Flemish )

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Zeeklitten zijn grote, hartvormige zee-egels. Hun kale, breekbare skelet kun je vaak op het strand vinden. Levend hebben zeeklitten veel stekels, die plat tegen het lichaam aan liggen. De stekels zijn kleiner dan die van zeeappels, en lijken meer op stugge haartjes dan op stekels. Hierdoor lijken levende zeeklitten op harige aardappels. In het Engels wordt deze soort dan ook 'zee-aardappel' genoemd.
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Hartster ( Afrikaans )

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Die Hartster (Echinocardium cordatum) is 'n seekastaiing wat voorkom aan die hele kuslyn van Suid-Afrika en word tot 4 cm groot. Op die skulp is daar 'n gesiggie patroon terwyl dit oortrek is met kort, digte wit stekeltjies. Aan die voorkant van die liggaam is die lepelagtige lip wat die diertjie gebruik om dooie plant- en diermateriaal te vreet. Die diertjie begraaf homself in fyn sand.

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Hartster: Brief Summary ( Afrikaans )

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Die Hartster (Echinocardium cordatum) is 'n seekastaiing wat voorkom aan die hele kuslyn van Suid-Afrika en word tot 4 cm groot. Op die skulp is daar 'n gesiggie patroon terwyl dit oortrek is met kort, digte wit stekeltjies. Aan die voorkant van die liggaam is die lepelagtige lip wat die diertjie gebruik om dooie plant- en diermateriaal te vreet. Die diertjie begraaf homself in fyn sand.

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Kleiner Herzigel ( German )

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 src=
Die Skelette zweier Exemplare aus den Niederlanden
 src=
Ein Kleiner Herzigel in Seitenansicht
 src=
Die Pluteuslarve des Kleinen Herzigels

Der Kleine Herzigel (Echinocardium cordatum), oft auch einfach nur Herzseeigel oder Herzigel genannt, ist eine Art der zu den Seeigeln gehörenden Herzigel und im nordöstlichen Atlantik verbreitet.

Merkmale

Die Tiere werden bis zu 6 cm groß. Die herzförmige Schale ist weiß oder gelblich. Lebende Tiere tragen ein dichtes, pelzähnliches Kleid aus gelben bis bräunlichgelben Stacheln, die dem Körper dicht anliegen und zum Körperende hin gerichtet sind. Diese kurzen und dünnen Stacheln sind weich, fühlen sich pelzig an und sind leicht zerbrechlich, weshalb die am Strand gefundenen Exemplare nur selten unbeschädigt sind. Die Art gehört zu den irregulären Seeigeln und weist nicht die für Stachelhäuter typische fünfstrahlige Symmetrie auf. Stattdessen sind die Tiere zweiseitig (bilateral) symmetrisch und besitzen ein erkennbares Vorder- und Hinterende.

Verbreitung

Die Art ist im nordöstlichen Atlantik verbreitet, inklusive der Nordsee.

An den europäischen Küsten lebt die Art von der portugiesischen Atlantikküste bis nördlich zum norwegischen Nordkap, fehlt aber vor Island oder Spitzbergen. In der Nordsee und entlang ihrer Küsten ist sie weit verbreitet und kommt auch noch im Kattegat bis hinunter zu den dänischen Inseln vor, wo sie entlang der schwedischen Küste gerade noch die Ostsee erreicht, fehlt aber im restlichen Teil der Ostsee.

Früher galt die Art als kosmopolitisch, da Arten aus dem Echinocardium cordatum-Artenkomplex auch in Meeren anderer Teile der Welt gefunden wurden, wie im Mittelmeer, vor den Vereinigten Staaten, Neuseeland, Australien, Japan, Korea, der Region Primorje in Russland, Südafrika, Madagaskar, Indonesien und anderen. Dabei wurden gemäßigte Breiten bevorzugt. In Analysen der mitochondrialen DNA konnte gezeigt werden, dass es sich bei diesen weltweiten Funden von E. cordatum um fünf verschiedene mitochondriale Kladen handelt, deren bestätigte geographische Verbreitung im nordöstlichen Atlantik, vor Australien und Neuseeland sowie vor Japan, Korea und Russland liegt. Drei dieser fünf Kladen leben auch an den europäischen Küsten, wobei eine davon nur im Mittelmeer vorkommt und eine vom Mittelmeer bis zur spanischen Atlantikküste. Morphologische Studien konnten auch morphologische Unterschiede der Kladen aufweisen, die durch Analysen der Kern-DNA als verschiedene Kryptospezies bestätigt werden konnten.[1]

Der Kleine Herzigel wurde unterhalb der Gezeitenzone in Tiefen von 0–230 m gefunden, im Litoral und vor allem der neritischen Zone, wo er 10–20 cm tief eingegraben in sandigen bis schlammigen Böden lebt. Dabei werden Sedimentgrößen von 200–300 µm mit einem geringen Schlammgehalt bevorzugt.

Lebensweise

Die Tiere leben eingegraben im Meeresboden, weshalb lebende Exemplare nur selten gefunden werden. Die leeren und zerbrechlichen Skelette gestorbener Tiere werden jedoch regelmäßig freigespült und an Stränden angeschwemmt. Im Boden stecken die Tiere in schleimverkleideten Höhlen mit einer Öffnung zur Oberfläche. Ein langer Saugfaden hält diese Öffnung ständig offen, so dass die Tiere mit Frischwasser versorgt werden. Auch die Stacheln helfen dabei, Atemwasser festzuhalten, um so einen Sauerstoffmangel zu verhindern. Die in der Regel kolonieweise (bis zu 20 Exemplare pro Quadratmeter, in Extremfällen bis zu 200) lebenden Tiere verharren allerdings nicht am Platz, sondern bewegen sich langsam durch den Boden, um dabei den Sand mit den daran haftenden Nahrungsstoffen aufzunehmen. Auch herabsinkender Detritus wird durch die Öffnung zur Oberfläche aufgenommen. Der Kleine Herzigel und die nahe verwandten Arten des Artenkomplexes bilden große Populationen in ihrem Verbreitungsgebiet und zählen zu den häufigsten Herzigel-Arten.

Die Fortpflanzung findet im Frühling statt, wenn die beiden Geschlechter ihre Gameten in die Wassersäule abgeben. Die Pluteuslarven bilden einen Teil des Zooplanktons. Die Metamorphose von der Larve zum adulten Seeigel findet etwa 39 Tage nach der Befruchtung statt. Die Lebensspanne des Kleinen Herzigels kann mehr als zehn Jahre betragen.

In den „Bauten“ der Herzigel im Sand leben manchmal Längliche Linsenmuscheln (Tellimya ferruginosa) als Kommensalen. Auch der Flohkrebs Urothoe marina wurde hier häufiger nachgewiesen.

Taxonomie

Die Art wurde 1777 von Thomas Pennant als Echinus cordatum erstbeschrieben. Weitere Synonyme der Art lauten:[2]

  • Amphidetus cordatus (Pennant, 1777)
  • Amphidetus kurtzii Girard, 1852
  • Amphidetus novaezelandiae Perrier, 1869
  • Amphidetus zealandicus (Gray, 1851)
  • Amphidotus cordatus (Pennant, 1777)
  • Echinocardium australe Gray, 1851
  • Echinocardium cordatus (Pennant, 1777)
  • Echinocardium kurtzii (Girard, 1852)
  • Echinocardium sebae Gray, 1825
  • Echinocardium stimpsonii A.Agassiz, 1864
  • Echinocardium zealandicum Gray, 1851
  • Echinus cordatus Pennant, 1777
  • Spatangus arcuarius Lamarck, 1816
  • Spatangus cordatus (Pennant, 1777)

Literatur

  • Georg Quedens: Strand und Wattenmeer – Tiere und Pflanzen an Nord- und Ostsee – ein Biotopführer. 6., durchgesehene Auflage. BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, München 1997, ISBN 3-405-15108-2, S. 90.
  • Ursula Stichmann-Marny, Wilfried Stichmann, Erich Kretzschmar: Der neue Kosmos Tier- und Pflanzenführer. Mit Sonderteil: Urlaubsgebiete Europas. 4. Auflage. Franckh-Kosmos Verlag, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-440-08041-2, S. 444.

Einzelnachweise

  1. E. Egea, B. David, T. Choné, B. Laurin, J. P. Féral, A. Chenuil: Morphological and genetic analyses reveal a cryptic species complex in the echinoid Echinocardium cordatum and rule out a stabilizing selection explanation. In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Vol. 94, Part A, 2016, S. 207–220. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.07.023.
  2. Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) in GBIF Secretariat (2021). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset, doi:10.15468/39omei, abgerufen via GBIF.org am 28. Mai 2021.
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Kleiner Herzigel: Brief Summary ( German )

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 src= Die Skelette zweier Exemplare aus den Niederlanden  src= Ein Kleiner Herzigel in Seitenansicht  src= Die Pluteuslarve des Kleinen Herzigels

Der Kleine Herzigel (Echinocardium cordatum), oft auch einfach nur Herzseeigel oder Herzigel genannt, ist eine Art der zu den Seeigeln gehörenden Herzigel und im nordöstlichen Atlantik verbreitet.

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Echinocardium australe

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Echinocardium australe, or the New Zealand heart urchin is a sea urchin of the family Loveniidae, endemic to New Zealand. Length is up to 40 mm.

 src=
Underside view of test of Echinocardium australe

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Echinocardium australe: Brief Summary

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Echinocardium australe, or the New Zealand heart urchin is a sea urchin of the family Loveniidae, endemic to New Zealand. Length is up to 40 mm.

 src= Underside view of test of Echinocardium australe
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Echinocardium cordatum ( French )

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Oursin-cœur, Souris de mer

L’oursin-cœur (Echinocardium cordatum) également appelé souris de mer[1] est une espèce d'oursins de la famille des Loveniidae (les « oursins-cœur »).

Description

C'est un oursin irrégulier à symétrie secondaire bilatérale : la bouche a migré vers l'avant du test (coquille) et l'anus vers l'arrière, créant un axe antéro-postérieur inhabituel chez les oursins (mais caractéristique des Spatangoida), et donc une forme de cœur vu du dessus (avec un sillon antérieur très visible). Son test mesure entre 7 et 9 cm de diamètre, et ses radioles (piquants) sont fines, courbes et comme brossées vers l'arrière, ressemblant à des poils[2] : leur morphologie permet à l'animal d'évoluer à son aise dans le sable, tout en créant un courant qui guide et filtre le sédiment vers la bouche. Sa couleur est proche de celle du sable[2]. Cette espèce nominale correspond en réalité à plusieurs espèces biologiques, il s'agit donc d'un complexe d'espèces[3].

Habitat et répartition

Il est présent dans toute l'Europe, dans les eaux froides ou tempérées de la mer Manche, de l'Atlantique (jusqu'en Afrique du Sud), de l'Océan Pacifique et de la Méditerranée. Il vit dans le sable dans lequel il creuse un terrier, préférant les fonds sableux aux fonds boueux (même s'il tolère une grande variété de substrats), et on le retrouve jusqu'à 200 m de profondeur, parfois en concentrations importantes[2].

Écologie et comportement

Cet oursin se nourrit en filtrant le sédiment pour en retirer des nutriments. Il se creuse un terrier (à environ 20 cm sous le sable), dont il ne sort que rarement : il communique avec la surface par une « cheminée respiratoire »[4], et est capable d'avancer sous le sable à une vitesse d'1 à 2 cm/h. Ils peuvent vivre jusqu'à 20 ans[2].

Sa reproduction a lieu en été ; elle est sexuée et gonochorique : la fécondation a lieu en pleine eau, où les larves vont se développer parmi le plancton avant de se fixer au bout de quelques semaines[2].

Ses principaux prédateurs sont les étoiles de mer vivant dans le sable (comme Astropecten aranciacus), mais aussi les poissons plats et les dorades quand il est trop près de la surface du sable[2]. On le trouve parfois en compagnie d'autres animaux, et notamment d'ophiures comme Amphiura filiformis et Ophiura albida[2].

Origine du nom

Cet oursin a de multiples surnoms, souvent liés au fait que l'on retrouve souvent le test des individus morts sur les plages : oursin-cœur, oursin-patate, souris de mer, oursin de sable, œuf de grisard... Son nom scientifique Echinocardium cordatum signifie « oursin-cœur en forme de cœur »[2].

Références taxinomiques

Notes et références

  1. Echinocardium cordatum sur le site de l'université Jussieu.
  2. a b c d e f g et h DORIS, consulté le 16 octobre 2013
  3. (en) Egea, David, Choné, Laurin, Féral & Chenuil, « Morphological and genetic analyses reveal a cryptic species complex in the echinoid Echinocardium cordatum and rule out a stabilizing selection explanation », Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 94,‎ 2016, p. 207-220
  4. (en) Christopher Mah, « The Cousin Itt of Sea Urchins : Irregular Urchins featuring Echinocardium cordatus », sur Echinoblog, 17 juin 2014.
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Echinocardium cordatum: Brief Summary ( French )

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Oursin-cœur, Souris de mer

L’oursin-cœur (Echinocardium cordatum) également appelé souris de mer est une espèce d'oursins de la famille des Loveniidae (les « oursins-cœur »).

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Zeeklit ( Dutch; Flemish )

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De zeeklit of hartegel, Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777),[1] is een zee-egel die ingegraven in het zand leeft.

Kenmerken

De zeeklit wordt tot 6 centimeter groot, en is bezet met korte grijze stekels.

Leefwijze

De zeeklit leeft tot 20 cm diep ingegraven in de zachte zeebodem en kan zich daar ook voortbewegen. Vaak vestigen de dieren zich in kolonies van wel 20 exemplaren per vierkante meter. Speciale voetjes van het watervaatstelsel houden een tot 15 cm lange buis naar het bodemoppervlak open, waardoor zuurstofrijk water langs het dier kan stromen.

Verspreiding en leefgebied

Hij komt algemeen voor in zandbodems van de Noordzee, van Noordwest-Frankrijk tot Noorwegen, en in de gehele Middellandse Zee.

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Zeeklit: Brief Summary ( Dutch; Flemish )

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De zeeklit of hartegel, Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777), is een zee-egel die ingegraven in het zand leeft.

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Biology

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Breeding occurs in summer. The pelagic larvae are sometimes found in enormous quantities and likewise the young can be found in large amounts on the sediment surface. The growth rate of E. cordatum varies with the environment. It grows faster in shallow, sandy than in deep, muddy areas, possibly under the influence of temperature. The species can live for 10 to 20 years (Mortensen, 1927; Wolff, 1973; Fish & Fish, 1989; Rees & Dare, 1993). Depending on the temperature, the species digs a few centimetres to about 20 cm deep into the sediment. A respiratory channel (chimney) leads from the hole to the surface and one or two sanitary drains are located horizontally behind the echinoid. The animal is isolated from the sediment by a mucus veil, which plasters the burrow. E. cordatum plays an important role in sediment bioturbation (Mortensen, 1927; De Ridder et al., 1987; Fish & Fish, 1989; Rees & Dare, 1993). E. cordatum is a non-selective deposit feeder. lt collects particles from the s
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Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Hansson, H. G. (1998). NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): Scandinavian Echinodermata Check-List (Comp.). Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
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Breeding

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Echinopluteus larva. Summer
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Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Hansson, H. G. (1998). NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): Scandinavian Echinodermata Check-List (Comp.). Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
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Depth range

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0-230 m

Reference

Mortensen, T. (). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, . Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.

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Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Hansson, H. G. (1998). NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): Scandinavian Echinodermata Check-List (Comp.). Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
contributor
Andreas Kroh [email]

Description

provided by World Register of Marine Species
The cordiform body of the sea potato is protected by a calcite skeleton and measures up to 60 mm. The skeleton is covered with soft spines that lie flat on the body and point towards the back. Yellowish brown in colour.
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Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Hansson, H. G. (1998). NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): Scandinavian Echinodermata Check-List (Comp.). Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
contributor
Appeltans, Ward, W.

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Cosmopolitan (World Oceans)

Reference

Hansson, H. G. (). NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): Scandinavian Echinodermata Check-List (Comp.).

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Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Hansson, H. G. (1998). NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): Scandinavian Echinodermata Check-List (Comp.). Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
contributor
Serge Rotenberg [email]

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
This cosmopolitan echinoderrn was found in about half of all samples. The species is very abundant north of the Dutch Wadden islands and is also present in Delta and the western part of the Wadden Sea. The distribution of the biomass is very patchy.
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bibliographic citation
Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Hansson, H. G. (1998). NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): Scandinavian Echinodermata Check-List (Comp.). Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
contributor
[email]

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
In the 1976-1986 period Echinocardium cordatum was mainly found near the Flemish Banks (maximum 50 ind./m2) whereas it was absent in the eastern coastal zone and near the Hinder Banks. In the 1994-2001 period the species is clearly distributed more widely: E. cordatum was only absent in the eastern coastal zone and reached densities up to 200 ind./m2. As the species lives burrowed in the sand (up to 20 cm deep) there is a real chance that the Van Veen grab fails to scoop up E. cordatum. Consequently, the species may have a broader distribution than mentioned here.
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bibliographic citation
Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Hansson, H. G. (1998). NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): Scandinavian Echinodermata Check-List (Comp.). Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
contributor
Appeltans, Ward, W.

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Lower shore and subtidal to 200 m depth, burrowing in sand or muddy sand, all round the British Isles. Apparently cosmopolitan in temperate seas
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bibliographic citation
Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Hansson, H. G. (1998). NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): Scandinavian Echinodermata Check-List (Comp.). Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
contributor
Cibran Camba Reu [email]

Ecology

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Ecology: benthic, inshore, continental shelf, deposit feeder. General distribution: temperate, discontinuous (west Pacific Ocean, NZ, South Africa, Gulf of California, north Atlantic Ocean), depth range 0-230? m. (Rowe & Gates, 1995). Also distributed in Australia (Rowe & Gates, 1995).
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WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Hansson, H. G. (1998). NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): Scandinavian Echinodermata Check-List (Comp.). Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
contributor
Edward Vanden Berghe [email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
The fact that E. cordatum is present in the entire area (North Sea) indicates that the echinoderm is not very selective with regard to the type of sediment, although a slight preference for sandy bottoms can be detected. Earlier investigations suggest that, indeed, sandy substrates may be favoured (Rees & Dare, 1993). In a study along a transect in the central and southern North Sea, Duineveld & Jenness (1984) found E. cordatum to account for 50% of the benthic biomass at sandy sites and 5% at muddy sites.
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cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Hansson, H. G. (1998). NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): Scandinavian Echinodermata Check-List (Comp.). Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
contributor
[email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Echinocardium cordatum occurs in sediments with a wide range of grain sizes (median grain size up to 650 µm), but clearly prefers sediments with a median grain size of 200 to 300 µm (relative occurrence ± 40%). The species is only found in sediments with a low mud content (< 20%).
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Hansson, H. G. (1998). NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): Scandinavian Echinodermata Check-List (Comp.). Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
contributor
Appeltans, Ward, W.

Morphology

provided by World Register of Marine Species
This sea urchin has a heart-shaped test, usually 40-50 mm in length. lt is covered with a large number of closely set spines, most of them directed backwards. In profile the highest point of the test lies towards the posterior. lt is yellow-brown in colour (Mortensen, 1927; Southward, 1972; Fish & Fish, 1989; Hayward & Ryland, 1990).
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Hansson, H. G. (1998). NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): Scandinavian Echinodermata Check-List (Comp.). Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Degraer, S.; Wittoeck, J.; Appeltans, W.; Cooreman, K.; Deprez, T.; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vincx, M. (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. <em>Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1.</em> 164 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. <i>Synopses of the British fauna (new series)</i>, 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. Clark, A. M.; Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp. Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
contributor
[email]