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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 25 years (wild)
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Joao Pedro de Magalhaes
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Diagnostic Description

provided by FAO species catalogs
fieldmarks: Mouth well in front of eyes; spineless dorsal fins far posterior on tail, greatly elongated thick precaudal tail, long and low anal fin just anterior to caudal fin, lateral ridges on trunk, dorsal fins with straight or convex posterior margins, first dorsal-fin origin opposite or just behind pelvic-fin insertions; colour pattern of numerous white or bluish spots and dark spots, dark bands and saddles on a light background. Prepectoral length 15.0 to 19.4% of total length. Snout rounded or truncated anteriorly. Eyes moderately large, lengths 1.4 to 2.2% of total length. Body and tail fairly stout. A lateral ridge present on each side of trunk, and strong predorsal and interdorsal ridges present on midline of back. Interdorsal space short, slightly greater or less than first dorsal-fin base and 9.3 to 11.6% of total length. Snout to vent length 31.1 to 35.1% of total length; distance from vent to tail tip 61.8 to 67.1% of total length.

Dorsal fins moderately large and rounded or angular, subequal to or larger than pelvic fins, and without concave posterior margins and projecting free rear tips. First dorsal-fin origin varying from slightly anterior to slightly behind pelvic-fin insertions, first dorsal-fin base slightly longer than second dorsal-fin base, first dorsal-fin height 5.4 to 7.3% of total length. Second dorsal-fin height 4.7 to 6.8% of total length. Origin of anal fin somewhat behind free rear tip of second dorsal fin, anal-fin length from origin to free rear tip somewhat less than hypural caudal lobe from lower caudal-fin origin to subterminal notch, anal-fin base less than six times anal-fin height.

Total vertebral count between 161 and 185 (mean = 173.9, n = 8).

Intestinal valve count 16 to 17 (n = 2).

a prominent pattern of numerous white spots on a dark brown background in juveniles and adults, with small dark spots and darker brown or blackish transverse bands or saddles that are not conspicuously edged with black.

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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Distribution

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Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia (Sandakan, Sarawak, Borneo), Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia (Obi Island, Moluccas; Manado, Celebes; Sumatra), Viet Nam, China, including Taiwan Island (Province of China), Japan, and Philippines.
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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Size

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Maximum total length 95 cm; possible hatchlings or free-living specimens 9.8 to 12.5 cm; adolescent males up to 64 cm, adult males 50 to 83 cm; an adult female 95 cm.
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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Brief Summary

provided by FAO species catalogs
A little-known inshore bottom shark. Occurs on reefs in the tropics. Common but biology poorly known. Nocturnal, rests in reef crevices during the day, but feeds at night. Oviparous.

Eats bony fishes and crustaceans.

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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Benefits

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Interest to fisheries considerable. Regularly taken in inshore fisheries in India, Thailand, China, and utilized for human consumption. Conservation Status : Conservation status uncertain.Marketed in Madagascar, for human consumption.
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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Diagnostic Description

provided by Fishbase
Genus: Nostrils subterminal on snout; pre-oral snout long, mouth closer to eyes than snout tip; eyes and supraorbital ridges hardly elevated; no black hood on head or large spot or spots on sides of body above pectoral fins (Ref. 43278). Caudal fin with a pronounced subterminal notch but without a ventral lobe (Ref. 13575). Genus: Nostrils subterminal on snout; pre-oral snout long, mouth closer to eyes than snout tip; eyes and supraorbital ridges hardly elevated; no black hood on head or large spot or spots on sides of body above pectoral fins (Ref. 43278). Caudal fin with a pronounced subterminal notch but without a ventral lobe (Ref. 13575).Species: Young and adults with transverse dark bands and numerous white or bluish spots (Ref. 13575, 43278). Body with lateral dermal ridges (Ref. 43278, 13575).
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Recorder
Cristina V. Garilao
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Life Cycle

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Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Hatches at 10-13 cm TL. In Taiwan, hatching occurs in June to August (Ref.58048).
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 0
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Cristina V. Garilao
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Trophic Strategy

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A common but little-known inshore bottom shark (Ref. 247). Feeds on bony fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 43278).
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Grace Tolentino Pablico
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Biology

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A common but little-known inshore bottom shark (Ref. 247); found on rocks and coral reefs (Ref. 90102). Feeds on bony fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 43278). Oviparous (Ref. 43278, 50449). Utilized for human consumption (Ref. 247) and used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Caught by multiple hook and line and trawl (Ref. 47736). Caught rarely by demersal gillnet fisheries operating inshore (Ref.58048).
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Kent E. Carpenter
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Importance

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fisheries: commercial
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分布

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
分布於印度-西太平洋區,包括印度、斯里蘭卡、新加坡、泰國、越南、印尼、臺灣、菲律賓及日本等。臺灣分布於北部及西部海域。
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臺灣魚類資料庫
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臺灣魚類資料庫

利用

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
主要以底拖網或沈底刺網捕獲,一般被利用加工為鯊魚醃或製成魚槳、魚丸等,大型水族館偶有展示。
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描述

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
體呈圓柱形或稍平扁;體側具一隆脊;頭側不具皮瓣。吻窄圓。眼橢圓形,上側位,無瞬膜。鼻孔下側位,鼻孔緣具短而尖凸之鬚;具鼻褶;具口鼻溝。噴水孔中大,約等於眼徑。鰓裂小,第四及第五鰓裂重疊,內鰓不具濾器。口裂小,腹位,近於平直。齒具中央齒尖,側邊小齒尖或有或無。背鰭2個,小而上角鈍圓,後端平直,下角不尖突,第一背鰭起點與腹鰭基底中部;第二背鰭起點在腹鰭與臀鰭間;胸鰭與腹鰭略小,同大或胸鰭略大;臀鰭小,起點遠於第二背鰭後角之後,基底長短於尾鰭下葉基底長,而與尾鰭下葉之起點僅以一窄凹窪分隔,其間距遠短於臀鰭基底長;尾鰭上葉略往上揚,上葉略發達,腹緣明顯;尾鰭下葉低平而延長,但前部不突出,後部具缺刻。體呈灰褐色,體側具12-13條暗色橫紋,體側及各鰭另具許多淡色之斑點。
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棲地

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
主要棲息於沿海礁砂混合且海藻繁生的海床。行動緩慢。生態習性不甚清楚,可能以底棲無脊椎動物及小魚為食。卵生。
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Whitespotted bamboo shark

provided by wikipedia EN

The whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) is a carpet shark with an adult size that approaches one metre in length.[2] This small, mostly nocturnal species is harmless to humans. The whitespotted bamboo shark is occasionally kept as a pet in larger home aquaria. It can grow up to 93 centimetres (37 in) long.[3]

Description

Dorsal fins with convex posterior margins. Color pattern of purple and pink spots, with dark bands and a white body. The coloration is unique in this family making it very simple for identification.[4] The teeth of bamboo sharks are not strongly differentiated. Each tooth has a medial cusp and weak labial root lobes with 26–35 teeth on the upper jaw and 21–32 teeth on the lower jaw.[5] Bamboo Sharks commonly rest on the bottom of their habitat with their head and trunk propped up by resting on their bent and depressed pectoral fins.[6] Whitespotted bamboo sharks have a very distinct dorsal fin that can alter or effect where they choose to live, as well as their mobility methods.[7]

Distribution

These sharks are found on coral reefs of the Pacific Ocean. They are common in the coastal areas of Indonesia and surrounding waters, but the species' range extends from Japan to India.[8] These sharks are also used for human consumption in Madagascar[4] and Taiwan.[9]

Feeding

These sharks feed at night, preying on small fish and invertebrates. They have small teeth that can be used for grasping or crushing prey. Soft prey is grasped when the tips of the teeth sink into the flesh, but the teeth pivot backwards when biting hard prey. This protects the tooth tip and allows the flattened front surface of the teeth to form a continuous plate for crushing crabs.[10][11] Juvenile sharks need a higher intake of carbon than adults sharks, especially during the wet seasons. White spotted bamboo sharks have an advantage in finding carbon sources because they are benthic predators (meaning they prey on fish near the sea-bottom), as opposed to pelagic sharks like the spadenose shark. That, combined with the fact that these species of sharks have, like most sharks, electroreceptors (ampullae of lorenzini) along their snout to help them locate prey that is buried in the sand and mud, makes them very efficient users of detrital carbon resources.[12]

Reproduction

Whitespotted bamboo sharks are oviparous (egg laying). The eggs are approximately five inches long[13] and hatch after 14 or 15 weeks.[13][14] The young hatch out at approximately 6 inches in length.[15] Doug Sweet, curator of fishes at the Belle Isle Aquarium in Detroit reported that in July 2002 a clutch of eggs from a female whitespotted bamboo shark hatched without any apparent fertilization.[14] This appears to be the first reported example of parthenogenesis in this species.

Virgin egg-laying

A female Chiloscyllium plagiosum that had no contact with a male for 6 years, laid eggs which hatched 3 young at the Belle Isle Aquarium in Detroit, Michigan. There are many theories for this incident but none are confirmed. The species have been found and collected at Ternate Island and Halmahera Island, Indonesia and generally the palearctic region in Asia. Among these theories, the three most likely would be that the female contains both the male and the female reproductive organs; the female has the ability to store sperm for that long; and lastly that the female has somehow stimulated the eggs without sperm, process called parthenogenesis.[16] The offspring kept away from males produced asexually viable offspring.[17]

Albino mutations

Albinism is a very rare occurrence for sharks, and has only occurred on a few occasions. There is no exact statistic, but it is estimated that 1 in 10,000 of this species are born albino. Three albino whitespotted bamboo sharks have hatched at SeaWorld of Orlando.[18] Downtown Aquarium in Denver Colorado has had annual hatchings of albino whitespotted bamboo sharks since 2007 and they currently have some displayed on exhibit.

As pets

Because of their small size and bottom-dwelling lifestyle, these are one of the more common species of sharks to be kept in home aquariums. They feed and breed readily in captivity.[10] Because of this, they can be purchased from many sources.[19][20] Adult specimens will require tanks of at least 180 gallons, and preferably more.[21] Captive specimens may be fed chunks of squid, shrimp, clams, scallops and marine fish, as well as live ghost shrimp.[15]

See also

"Web of Science [v.5.15] - All Databases Full Record." Web of Science [v.5.15] - All Databases Full Record. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.

References

  1. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Bin Ali, A.; Fahmi, Finucci, B.; Herman, K.; Manjaji Matsumoto, B.M.; VanderWright, W.J. (2021). "Chiloscyllium plagiosum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T124554059A124453319. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-1.RLTS.T124554059A124453319.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ "White spotted bamboo shark".
  3. ^ Kindersley, Dorling (2005) [2001]. Animal. New York City: DK Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7894-7764-4.
  4. ^ a b Compagno, Leonard (2002). "Sharks of the world". 2 (1). Shark Research Center Iziko-Museums of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: 173. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. ^ Bester, Cathleen. "WHITESPOTTED BAMBOOSHARK." Florida Museum of Natural History. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 April 2010.
  6. ^ Wilga, Cheryl D.; Lauder, George V. (2001). "Functional morphology of the pectoral fins in bamboo sharks,Chiloscyllium plagiosum: Benthic vs. Pelagic station-holding". Journal of Morphology. 249 (3): 195–209. doi:10.1002/jmor.1049. ISSN 0362-2525. PMID 11517464.
  7. ^ Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl D. (2 August 2013). "Anatomy and muscle activity of the dorsal fins in bamboo sharks and spiny dogfish during turning maneuvers". Journal of Morphology. 274 (11): 1288–1298. doi:10.1002/jmor.20179. ISSN 0362-2525. PMID 23907951.
  8. ^ "White spotted bamboo shark".
  9. ^ Chen, Wei-Ke; Liu, Kwang-Ming (December 2006). "Reproductive biology of whitespotted bamboo shark Chiloscyllium plagiosum in northern waters off Taiwan". Fisheries Science. 72 (6): 1215–1224. doi:10.1111/j.1444-2906.2006.01279.x. ISSN 0919-9268.
  10. ^ a b "Shark species".
  11. ^ "Shark species".
  12. ^ Wai, Tak-Cheung; Yeung, Jamius W. Y.; Lam, Vivian Y. Y.; Leung, Kenneth M. Y.; Dudgeon, David; Williams, Gray A. (January 2012). "Monsoons and habitat influence trophic pathways and the importance of terrestrial-marine linkages for estuary sharks". Ecosphere. 3 (1): art8. doi:10.1890/es11-00276.1. ISSN 2150-8925.
  13. ^ a b "Shark species".
  14. ^ a b "Shark gives virgin birth".
  15. ^ a b "Pet sharks".
  16. ^ National Geographic, (2002). Shark gives virgin birth in Detroit. Retrieved 17 Apr. 2010, from Nationalgeographic.com Web site: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/09/0925_020925_virginshark.html.
  17. ^ Straube, N.; Lampert, K. P.; Geiger, M. F.; Weiß, J. D.; Kirchhauser, J. X. (3 January 2016). "First record of second-generation facultative parthenogenesis in a vertebrate species, the whitespotted bamboosharkChiloscyllium plagiosum". Journal of Fish Biology. 88 (2): 668–675. doi:10.1111/jfb.12862. ISSN 0022-1112. PMID 26727105.
  18. ^ Clark, Steven (2002). "Albino white spotted bamboo shark". Zoo Biology. 21 (6): 519–524. doi:10.1002/zoo.10068.
  19. ^ "Sharks for sale".
  20. ^ "Sharks for sale".
  21. ^ "FAQs".
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Whitespotted bamboo shark: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) is a carpet shark with an adult size that approaches one metre in length. This small, mostly nocturnal species is harmless to humans. The whitespotted bamboo shark is occasionally kept as a pet in larger home aquaria. It can grow up to 93 centimetres (37 in) long.

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