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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 19 years (wild)
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Biology

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A fast and agile predator, the spinner shark preys on a variety of pelagic, bony fish including sardines, herrings, mullet and tunas, but will also take small sharks, cuttlefish, squids and octopi (1) (4). This species employs an unusual method of hunting, which involves swimming rapidly through schools of fish, spinning on its axis, and snapping in all directions at the scattering prey, culminating in an impressive leap from the water surface. Although high-up in the food chain, the spinner shark does occasionally fall prey to larger shark species, with the smaller juveniles and sub-adults being especially vulnerable (4). Populations of the spinner shark found in the Gulf of Mexico and off the coasts of Florida and Louisiana are known to be highly migratory, forming schools that move inshore during the spring and summer to reproduce and feed (4) (5). Like many shark species, the female spinner shark gives birth to live young (2) (4), producing between 3 and 15 well-developed offspring after a gestation period of around 12 to 15 months (4). The newborn sharks quickly move into shallow estuarine waters where sources of food are numerous and predation pressure is less intense (4). Despite the fearsome reputation of many large sharks, few are considered to be dangerous to humans. Only thirteen attacks have ever been recorded for this species, none of which have proven to be fatal (4). As with other shark species, the real cause for concern is the threat posed to the spinner shark by humans (6).
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Conservation

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While there are no specific conservation measures targeting the spinner shark (1), several conservation organisations, such as the Save Our Seas Foundation, the Shark Research Institute, the Shark Trust, and Bite-back, are working diligently to eliminate unsustainable shark fishing practices (5) (6) (7) (8).
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Description

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The spinner shark is a long, slender-bodied shark, so named for its habit of leaping from the water, when hooked or pursuing prey, and spinning in mid-air along the axis of its body (2) (3). This species has greyish-bronze upperparts fading to white on the underside, with a faint white band running along the sides. The fins are slender, with pointed or rounded tips. In some large juveniles and adults, distinctive black or grey tips may be found on the pelvic, dorsal and anal fins, as well as on the upper lobe of the caudal fin (4).
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Habitat

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The spinner shark is generally found in subtropical inshore or nearshore waters, from shallow regions within bays, to depths of up to 100 metres (4).
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Range

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The spinner shark has a worldwide distribution, occurring in most of the world's major oceans, mainly within subtropical, coastal waters (1).
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Status

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Classified as Near Threatened (NT) on the IUCN Red List. North-west Atlantic subpopulation classified as Vulnerable (VU) (1).
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Threats

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Due to the fact that the spinner shark is a common, widespread species found in nearshore habitats, it suffers from heavy recreational and commercial fishing pressure, especially in the north-west Atlantic. The meat is used for human consumption, the liver for vitamin oil production, and the fins are likely to be sold in the oriental shark trade. This exploitation is compounded by the fact that the spinner shark's nursery grounds are found inshore. Therefore a large proportion of sharks caught may be pregnant females, while the estuary-dwelling pups may suffer significantly from the effects of human-induced habitat degradation (1).
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Diagnostic Description

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A slender shark with a long, narrow, pointed snout, long gill slits and small, narrow-cusped teeth; first dorsal fin small; no interdorsal ridge; labial furrows longer than in any other grey shark (Ref. 5578). Grey above, white below, with a conspicuous white band on sides; second dorsal, anal, undersides of pectorals and lower caudal-fin lobe black or dark grey-tipped in subadults and adults, but unmarked or nearly so in small individuals (Ref. 9997).
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Life Cycle

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Viviparous, with a yolk-sac placenta; bears up to 20 young (Ref. 5578); 3-15 pups (Ref.58048). Size at birth 60 to 80 cm (Ref. 6871). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
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Migration

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 0
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Trophic Strategy

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Occurs on the continental shelf (Ref. 75154). A carnivore (Ref. 9137).
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Biology

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Found on the continental and insular shelves from close inshore to offshore (Ref. 244). Makes vertical spinning leaps out of the water as a feeding technique in which the sharks spins through a school of small fish with an open mouth and then breaks the surface (Ref. 9997). Feeds mainly on pelagic bony fishes, also small sharks, cuttlefish, squids, and octopi (Ref. 244, 5578). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Forms schools (Ref. 244). Highly migratory off Florida and Louisiana and in the Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 244). Regularly caught in fisheries where found (Ref. 244). Utilized fresh and dried salted for human consumption (Ref. 244). Fins probably used in the oriental shark fin trade, and livers for vitamin oil production (Ref. 9997).
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Importance

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fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
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分布

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
分布於全球各溫、熱帶沿岸水域。臺灣東北海域可見其蹤跡。
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臺灣魚類資料庫
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利用

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主要以底拖網、流刺網及延繩釣捕獲,經濟價值高。肉質佳,可加工成各種肉製品;鰭可做魚翅;皮厚可加工成皮革;肝可加工製成維他命及油;剩餘物製成魚粉。
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描述

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體呈紡錘型。頭寬扁。尾基上下各具一凹窪。吻平直而中常。眼圓,瞬膜發達。前鼻瓣不明顯;無口鼻溝或觸鬚。口裂弧形,口閉時上下頜緊合,不露齒;上下頜齒較小,皆窄而直立,上頜齒具細鋸齒,下頜齒邊緣光滑。噴水孔缺如。背鰭2個,背鰭間無隆脊,第一背鰭中大,起點稍後於胸鰭內角,後緣深凹,下角尖突;第二背鰭小,起點稍後於臀鰭起點,後緣微凹,後角尖突;胸鰭大型,鐮刀形,後緣深凹,外角鈍圓,內角圓形,鰭端伸達第一背鰭基底後端;尾鰭寬長,尾椎軸上揚,下葉前部顯著三角形突出,中部低平延長,與後部間有一深缺刻,後部小三角形突出,尾端圓鈍。體背側灰褐色,腹側灰白;體側具一不顯之白色縱帶;幼魚時各鰭淡色,隨著成長,各鰭或多或少具有黑色鰭尖。
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棲地

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棲息於大陸棚或島嶼斜坡緣的沿海或近海大型鯊類,通常棲息在淺海0-30公尺處。具有洄游習性。性喜群游,常於水表層巡游而露出背鰭。主要以硬骨魚類、頭足類、小型鯊魚等為食。胎生,一胎可產下6-15尾幼鯊,剛出生之幼鯊體長可達60-75公分。
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Spinner shark

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The spinner shark (Carcharhinus brevipinna) is a species of requiem shark, in the family Carcharhinidae, named for the spinning leaps it makes as a part of its feeding strategy. This species occurs in tropical and warm temperate waters worldwide, except for in the eastern Pacific Ocean. It is found from coastal to offshore habitats to a depth of 100 m (330 ft), though it prefers shallow water. The spinner shark resembles a larger version of the blacktip shark (C. limbatus), with a slender body, long snout, and black-marked fins. This species can be distinguished from the blacktip shark by the first dorsal fin, which has a different shape and is placed further back, and by the black tip on the anal fin (in adults only). It attains a maximum length of 3 m (9.8 ft).

Spinner sharks are swift and gregarious predators that feed on a wide variety of small bony fishes and cephalopods. When feeding on schools of forage fish, they speed vertically through the school while spinning on their axis, erupting from the water at the end. Like other members of its family, the spinner shark is viviparous, with females bearing litters of three to 20 young every other year. The young are born in shallow nursery areas near the coast, and are relatively fast-growing. This species is not usually dangerous to humans, but may become belligerent when excited by food. Spinner sharks are valued by commercial fisheries across their range for their meat, fins, liver oil, and skin. They are also esteemed as strong fighters by recreational fishers. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed this species as vulnerable worldwide.

Taxonomy and phylogeny

The spinner shark was originally described as Carcharias (Aprion) brevipinna by Johannes Peter Müller and Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle in their 1839 Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen, based on the mounted skin of a 79-cm-long specimen collected off Java.[2] This species was subsequently moved to the genera Aprion, Squalus, and Aprionodon before being placed within the genus Carcharhinus.[3] The tooth shape and coloration of this species varies significantly with age and between geographical regions, which caused much taxonomic confusion.[2] Other common names include black-tipped shark, great blacktip shark, inkytail shark, large blacktip shark, long-nose grey shark, longnose grey whaler, and smoothfang shark.[4]

Based on similarities in morphology, tooth shape, and behavior, the closest relatives of the spinner shark were originally believed to be the blacktip shark and the graceful shark (C. amblyrhynchoides).[5] However, this interpretation was not supported by Gavin Naylor's 1992 allozyme analysis, which suggested that these similarities are the product of convergent evolution and that the closest relative of the spinner shark is the copper shark (C. brachyurus).[6] In a 2007 ribosomal DNA study, the spinner shark was found to be the most genetically divergent of all the requiem shark species examined save for the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier), being less related to other Carcharhinus species than the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris).[7]

Distribution and habitat

Some uncertainty exists in the distribution data for the spinner shark due to confusion with the blacktip shark. In the Western Atlantic Ocean, it occurs from North Carolina to the northern Gulf of Mexico, including the Bahamas and Cuba, and from southern Brazil to Argentina. In the Eastern Atlantic, it occurs from off North Africa to Namibia. In the Indian Ocean, it is found from South Africa and Madagascar, to the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, to India and nearby islands, to Java and Sumatra. In the Pacific Ocean, it occurs off Japan, Vietnam, Australia, and possibly the Philippines.[2][3] Parasitological evidence suggests that Indian Ocean spinner sharks have passed through the Suez Canal into the Mediterranean Sea, becoming Lessepsian migrants.[8]

The spinner shark has been reported from the ocean surface to a depth of 100 m (330 ft), though it prefers water less than 30 m (98 ft) deep, and occupies all levels of the water column. This species may be found from coastal waters to well offshore, over continental and insular shelves. Juveniles have been known to enter bays, but avoid brackish conditions. The northwest Atlantic subpopulation is known to be migratory; in spring and summer, they are found in warm inshore waters, and in winter, they move south into deeper water.[2][3]

Description

The average spinner shark is 2 m (6.6 ft) long and weighs 56 kg (123 lb); this species attains a maximum known length and weight of 3 m (9.8 ft) and 90 kg (200 lb). Indo-Pacific sharks are generally larger than those from the northwest Atlantic.[3] This species has a slim, streamlined body with a distinctive, long, pointed snout. The eyes are small and circular. Prominent, forward-pointing furrows occur at the corners of the mouth. The tooth rows number 15–18 in each half of the upper jaw and 14–17 in each half of the lower jaw, with two and one tiny symphysial (central) teeth, respectively. The teeth have long, narrow central cusps and are finely serrated in the upper jaw and smooth in the lower jaw. The five pairs of gill slits are long.[2]

The first dorsal fin is relatively small and usually originates behind the free rear tip of the pectoral fins. No ridge exists between the first and second dorsal fins. The pectoral fins are moderately short, narrow, and falcate (sickle-shaped).[2] The body is densely covered with diamond-shaped dermal denticles with seven (rarely five) shallow horizontal ridges. The coloration is gray above, sometimes with a bronze sheen, and white below, with a faint white band on the sides. Young individuals have unmarked fins; the tips of the second dorsal fin, pectoral fins, anal fin, and lower caudal fin lobe (and sometimes the other fins, as well) are black in larger individuals. The spinner shark differs from the blacktip shark in that its first dorsal fin is slightly more triangular in shape and is placed further back on the body. Adults can also be distinguished by the black tip on the anal fin.[2][3]

Biology and ecology

The spinner shark is a fast, active swimmer that sometimes forms large schools, segregated by age and sex. Young individuals prefer cooler water temperatures than adults.[9] Off South Africa, females are found close to shore year-round, while males only appear during the summer.[10] Smaller spinner sharks may be preyed upon by larger sharks. Known parasites of the spinner shark include the copepods Kroyeria deetsi, Nemesis pilosus, and N. atlantica, which infest the shark's gills, Alebion carchariae, which infests the skin, Nesippus orientalis, which infests the mouth and gill arches, and Perissopus dentatus, which infests the nares and the rear margins of the fins.[3]

Feeding

Spinner sharks feed primarily on small bony fish, including tenpounders, sardines, herring, anchovies, sea catfish, lizardfish, mullets, bluefish, tunas, bonito, croakers, jacks, mojarras, and tongue-soles. They have also been known to eat stingrays, cuttlefish, squid, and octopus.[2] Groups of spinner sharks are often found pursuing schools of prey at high speed.[11] Individual prey are seized and swallowed whole, as this shark lacks cutting dentition.[10] This species employs an unusual tactic when feeding on schools of small fish; the shark charges vertically through the school, spinning on its axis with its mouth open and snapping all around it. The shark's momentum at the end of these spiraling runs often carries it into the air, giving it its common name.[2][12] The blacktip shark also performs this behavior, though not as often.[3] Off Madagascar, spinner sharks follow migrating schools of mackerel, tunas, and jacks. Like blacktip sharks, they congregate around shrimp trawlers to feed on the discarded bycatch, and may be incited into feeding frenzies.[2]

Life history

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Claspers (external male copulatory parts) of a young Carcharhinus brevipinna

Like other requiem sharks, the spinner shark is viviparous. Adult females have a single functional ovary and two functional uteri; each uterus is divided into compartments, one for each embryo. The embryos are initially sustained by a yolk sac. When the embryo grows to around 19 cm (7.5 in) long, the supply of yolk has been exhausted and the empty yolk sac develops into a placental connection through which the mother provides nutrients for the remainder of gestation. This species has the smallest ova relative to the fully developed embryo of any viviparous shark known.[13] Females give birth to three to 20 (usually seven to 11) pups every other year, after a gestation period of 11–15 months. Mating occurs from early spring to summer, and parturition in August off North Africa, from April to May off South Africa, and from March to April in the northwestern Atlantic.[13][14] Young are birthed in coastal nursery areas such as bays, beaches, and high-salinity estuaries in water deeper than 5 m (16 ft).[14]

The length at birth is 66–77 cm (26–30 in) in the northwestern Atlantic,[14] 61–69 cm (24–27 in) off Tunisia,[13] and 60 cm (24 in) off South Africa.[10] Spinner sharks are relatively fast-growing sharks: 30 cm (12 in) per year for newborns, 25 cm (9.8 in) per year for one-year-olds, 10 cm (3.9 in) per year for adolescents, and 5 cm (2.0 in) per year for adults. In the northwestern Atlantic, males mature at 1.3 m (4.3 ft) long and females at 1.5–1.6 m (4.9–5.2 ft) long, corresponding to ages of 4–5 years and 7–8 years, respectively.[14] Off South Africa, males mature at 1.8 m (5.9 ft) and females at 2.1 m (6.9 ft).[10] Spinner sharks generally do not reproduce until they are 12–14 years old. The maximum lifespan has been estimated at 15–20 years or more.[14]

Human interactions

 src=
The spinner shark is valued by both commercial and recreational fisheries.

Ordinarily, spinner sharks do not pose a substantial danger to humans; they do not perceive large mammals as prey, as their small, narrow teeth are adapted for grasping rather than cutting. However, they can become excited by the presence of food, so caution is warranted if this species is encountered while spearfishing.[2] As of 2008, the International Shark Attack File listed 16 unprovoked attacks and one provoked attack attributable to the spinner shark, none of them fatal.[15]

The meat of the spinner shark is of high quality and sold fresh or dried and salted. In addition, the fins are used for shark fin soup in East Asia, the liver oil is processed for vitamins, and the skin is made into leather products. Spinner sharks are an important catch of the US commercial shark fisheries operating in the northwestern Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. The meat is marketed under the name "blacktip shark" in the United States, due to that species being considered superior in quality by consumers. It is likely also caught by other fisheries across its range, going unreported owing to confusion with the blacktip shark.[14] The spinner shark is also highly regarded by recreational fishers, being described as a "spectacular fighter" that often leaps out of the water.[16]

The IUCN has assessed the spinner shark as endangered worldwide; its frequent use of coastal habitats renders it vulnerable to human exploitation and habitat degradation.[1] The Northwest Atlantic fishery for this species is managed under the US National Marine Fisheries Service 1999 Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Tunas, Swordfish, and Sharks. For the purposes of commercial quotas and recreational bag limits, the spinner shark is categorized as a "large coastal shark".[14]

References

  1. ^ a b Rigby, C.L.; Carlson, J.; Smart, J.J.; Pacoureau, N.; Herman, K.; Derrick, D.; Brown, E. (2020). "Carcharhinus brevipinna". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T39368A2908817. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T39368A2908817.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Compagno, L.J.V. (1984). Sharks of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization. pp. 466–468. ISBN 92-5-101384-5.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Bester, C. Biological Profiles: Spinner Shark Archived 2010-04-16 at the Wayback Machine. Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department. Retrieved on May 7, 2009.
  4. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2009). "Carcharhinus brevipinna" in FishBase. May 2009 version.
  5. ^ Garrick, J.A.F. (1982). "Sharks of the genus Carcharhinus". NOAA Technical Report, NMFS CIRC-445.
  6. ^ Naylor, G.J.P. (1992). "The phylogenetic relationships among requiem and hammerhead sharks: inferring phylogeny when thousands of equally most parsimonious trees result" (PDF). Cladistics. 8 (4): 295–318. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.1992.tb00073.x. hdl:2027.42/73088. S2CID 39697113.
  7. ^ Dosay-Akbulut, M. (2008). "The phylogenetic relationship within the genus Carcharhinus". Comptes Rendus Biologies. 331 (7): 500–509. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2008.04.001. PMID 18558373.
  8. ^ Castri, F.; Hansen, A.J. & Debussche, M. (1990). Biological Invasions in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin (second ed.). Springer. p. 300. ISBN 0-7923-0411-X.
  9. ^ Compagno, L.J.V; Dando, M. & Fowler, S. (2005). Sharks of the World. Princeton University Press. pp. 293–294. ISBN 978-0-691-12071-3.
  10. ^ a b c d Van der Elst, R. & Borchert, P. (1993). A Guide to the Common Sea Fishes of Southern Africa (third ed.). Struik. p. 36. ISBN 1-86825-394-5.
  11. ^ Heemstra, E. (2004). Coastal Fishes of Southern Africa. NISC (PTY) LTD. p. 58. ISBN 1-920033-01-7.
  12. ^ "Carcharhinus brevipinna, Spinner Shark". MarineBio.org. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
  13. ^ a b c Capape, C.; Hemida, F.; Seck, A.A.; Diatta, Y.; Guelorget, O. & Zaouali, J. (2003). "Distribution and reproductive biology of the spinner shark, Carcharhinus brevipinna (Muller and Henle, 1841) (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhinidae)". Israel Journal of Zoology. 49 (4): 269–286. doi:10.1560/DHHM-A68M-VKQH-CY9F.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Fowler, S.L.; Cavanagh, R.D.; Camhi, M.; Burgess, G.H.; Cailliet, G.M.; Fordham, S.V.; Simpfendorfer, C.A. & Musick, J.A. (2005). Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras: The Status of the Chondrichthyan Fishes. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. pp. 106–109, 287–288. ISBN 2-8317-0700-5.
  15. ^ ISAF Statistics on Attacking Species of Shark. International Shark Attack File, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida. Retrieved on May 7, 2009.
  16. ^ Goldstein, R.J. (2000). Coastal Fishing in the Carolinas: From Surf, Pier, and Jetty (third ed.). John F. Blair. p. 129. ISBN 0-89587-195-5.

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Spinner shark: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The spinner shark (Carcharhinus brevipinna) is a species of requiem shark, in the family Carcharhinidae, named for the spinning leaps it makes as a part of its feeding strategy. This species occurs in tropical and warm temperate waters worldwide, except for in the eastern Pacific Ocean. It is found from coastal to offshore habitats to a depth of 100 m (330 ft), though it prefers shallow water. The spinner shark resembles a larger version of the blacktip shark (C. limbatus), with a slender body, long snout, and black-marked fins. This species can be distinguished from the blacktip shark by the first dorsal fin, which has a different shape and is placed further back, and by the black tip on the anal fin (in adults only). It attains a maximum length of 3 m (9.8 ft).

Spinner sharks are swift and gregarious predators that feed on a wide variety of small bony fishes and cephalopods. When feeding on schools of forage fish, they speed vertically through the school while spinning on their axis, erupting from the water at the end. Like other members of its family, the spinner shark is viviparous, with females bearing litters of three to 20 young every other year. The young are born in shallow nursery areas near the coast, and are relatively fast-growing. This species is not usually dangerous to humans, but may become belligerent when excited by food. Spinner sharks are valued by commercial fisheries across their range for their meat, fins, liver oil, and skin. They are also esteemed as strong fighters by recreational fishers. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed this species as vulnerable worldwide.

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Description

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Found on the continental and insular shelves, ranging close inshore and offshore. Feeds on small fishes, cuttlefish, squid, and octopi. Viviparous (with a yolk-sac placenta); litters of 2 to 15 pups, 46 to 80 cm at birth. Forms schools. Highly migratory off Florida and Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico. Utilized fresh and dried salted for human consumption. Also valuable for hides and fins, and liver for oil.
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Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Distribution

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Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to northern Gulf of Mexico and the Bahamas, then from southern Brazil to northern Argentina. Reported from Cuba
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Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat

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Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Kennedy, Mary [email]
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Kennedy, Mary [email]