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Benefits

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Probably of minimal interest to commercial fisheries. Caught as bycatch by commercial trawlers and possibly other fisheries in its range. Conservation Status : Conservation status unknown but of some concern. Utilization in aquarium trade not recorded, but an obvious candidate because of its attractive colour pattern.
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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Brief Summary

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A common but little-known bottom shark, found on the continental and insular shelves of the western Pacific,from inshore down to at least 50 m in the South China Sea, but deeper and in 150 to 200 m off Western Australia. Oviparous, details of spawning not recorded. Biology poorly known.Probably eats bottom invertebrates as with other members of the family.
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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Size

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Maximum total length about 122 cm, hatchlings at least 15 cm, males immature at 44 cm and mature at 64 to 84 cm, females to 122 cm.
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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Distribution

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Western Pacific: Japan, Korean peninsula, China, Taiwan (Province of China), Viet Nam, Indonesia (Sulawesi, Ambon), and tropical Australia (northern Western Australia).
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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Diagnostic Description

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fieldmarks: Dorsal fins with spines, anal fin present, striking zebra-striped colour pattern of numerous narrow dark vertical saddles and bands on light background. Supraorbital ridges low, gradually ending posteriorly; interorbital space very shallowly concave with depth between ridges about one-fourth eye length. Anterior holding teeth with a cusp and probably a pair of cusplets in adults, posterior molariform teeth strongly carinate and not greatly expanded and rounded. Pre-first dorsal-fin length 21 to 27% and anal-caudal space 10 to 12% of total length. Lateral trunk denticles fairly small and smooth. Propterygium fused to mesopterygium. First dorsal-fin spine directed obliquely posterodorsally in young and adults; first dorsal-fin origin anterior to pectoral-fin insertions, slightly behind pectoral-fin midbases, and well posterior to fifth gill openings; first dorsal-fin insertion well anterior to pelvic-fin origins and well behind pectoral-fin insertions; first dorsal-fin free rear tip about opposite to or somewhat behind pelvic-fin origins; first dorsal fin very high and falcate in young and moderately high and falcate in adults, first dorsal-fin height 9 to 27% of total length, first dorsal fin much larger than pelvic fins; second dorsal-fin origin behind pelvic-fin rear tips, second dorsal fin falcate and much smaller than first dorsal fin. Anal fin subangular and rounded to falcate, apex slightly anterior to lower caudal-fin origin when laid back; anal-caudal space over twice anal-fin base. Total vertebral count 117, precaudal count 74 to 81, monospondylous precaudal count 34 to 38, diplospondylous precaudal count 39 to 45, pre-first dorsal-fin spine count 15 to 17, and count from diplospondylous transition to second dorsal-fin spine 10 to 16. Egg cases with flat thin spiral flanges nearly transverse to case axis, without tendrils on case apices but with short ones on opposite end, flanges with a single turn. A large species, mature between 64 and 122 cm. Background colour of dorsal surface white or cream with a zebra-striped pattern of 22 to 36 brown or black, narrow vertical markings from snout tip to origin of caudal fin, with bold saddles and bands often separated by more diffused narrow bands, without light or dark spots, bands not arranged in a harness pattern; head with transverse dark and light bars on interorbital surface, and with a bilobate pair of dark bands separated by a light stripe under eye; fins without abrupt dark tips and white dorsal-fin apices; hatchlings without whorls on fins and body, colour pattern as in adults.

Reference

Bessednov, 1969

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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Diagnostic Description

provided by Fishbase
The Zebra bullhead shark, Heterodontus zebra, has a large blunt head, low supra-orbital crest gradually sloping behind eyes, dorsal fin spines, anal fin, and zebra-pattern of dark, narrow vertical bands on a pale background (Ref. 9838; 6871). As characteristic of members of the family, caudal fin with a moderately long dorsal lobe and moderately long ventral lobe, the latter shorter than the dorsal lobe, vertebral axis raised into caudal-fin lobe (Ref.9838).
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Recorder
Cristina V. Garilao
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Life Cycle

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Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Lays auger type eggs (about 12-18cm, 4.7-7 inches long) among rocks & kelp, often with more than female using same oviposition site, with as many eggs found in a single nest; female lay 2 eggs at a time, from spring to late summer in Japan, 6-12 times during a single spawning season. Eggs hatch in 1 year. Hatch at 18 cm (7 inches), max length at 1.2m (3.9 ft.). During courtship, male grasps pectoral fin of female & wraps posterior part of body under her so single clasper can be inserted into her cloaca. In several mating bouts observed, copulation lasted as long as 15 minutes (Ref. 12951).
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Susan M. Luna
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 2; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 0
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Cristina V. Garilao
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Trophic Strategy

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A common but little-known shark found on the continental and insular shelves in depths down to at least 50 m. Probably feeds on bottom invertebrates and small fishes (Ref. 247). In Japan, preferably near Nagasaki; inhabits rocky regions (Ref. 9137). A carnivore (Ref. 9137). Found in temperate waters where it frequents rocky reefs & kelp forests. Feeds on crustaceans, molluscs, small bony fishes, and sea urchins. Some specimens observed with hyrdroids growing in their teeth (Ref. 12951).
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Drina Sta. Iglesia
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Biology

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A common but little-known shark found on the continental and insular shelves in depths down to at least 50 m (Ref. 247, 11230) in the South China Sea, but deeper and in 150 - 200 meters off Western Australia (Ref. 43278). Probably feeds on bottom invertebrates and small fishes (Ref. 6871). Oviparous (Ref. 247).
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Kent E. Carpenter
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Importance

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fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: potential; price category: unknown; price reliability:
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分布

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
分布於西太平洋區,包括日本、韓國、臺灣、中國、越南、印尼、菲律賓及澳洲北部。臺灣分布於北部及澎湖海域。
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臺灣魚類資料庫
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利用

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
漁民以延繩釣捕獲,為較不常見之魚種,經濟價值性不高,大型水族館偶有展示。
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描述

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
體延長,前部粗大,後部漸細小;背部輪廓稍圓凸,腹面平坦;頭圓錐狀而稍住上揚。吻短寬而鈍圓。眼橢圓形,上側位,無瞬膜。眶上隆棘較低。眼上方頭背部不明顯的往後下方傾斜。口裂位於眼前下方;上下頜齒同型,前部齒細小,具3-5尖頭,後部齒寬扁,臼齒狀,中央具隆棘。鰓裂5對。噴水孔小,位於眼下方。鼻孔緣無觸鬚,但具明顯之口鼻溝;前鼻瓣往後延伸達口裂。盾鱗粗厚,呈十字形。背鰭2個,各具一硬棘,第一背鰭起點於胸鰭基部後端;第二背鰭略小於第一背鰭,距尾鰭之距離遠於距臀鰭之距離;臀鰭略小於第二背鰭,基底末端至尾鰭下葉起點之距離大於臀鰭基底長之兩倍。體淡黃色,腹面白色,體背具黑褐色且寬窄相接之橫帶。
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棲地

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
主要棲息於大陸棚之近海中小型鯊魚。主要以底棲無脊椎動物及小魚為食。行動緩慢。卵生,卵大而具螺旋形卵殼,四角皆有短鬚狀突起。
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Zebra bullhead shark

provided by wikipedia EN

[1][2][3][4][5]

The zebra bullhead shark (Heterodontus zebra) is a bullhead shark of the family Heterodontidae found in the central Indo-Pacific between latitudes 40°N and 20°S, from Japan and Korea to Australia.[6][7] It is typically found at relatively shallow depths down to 50 m (160 ft), but off Western Australia, it occurs between 150 and 200 m (490 and 660 ft).[6] It can reach a length of 1.25 m (4.1 ft).[7] The reproduction of this bullhead shark is oviparous.[7]

Description

The Zebra Bullhead shark is a member of the Bullhead and Horn Shark family called the Heterodontidae. This organism is occasionally been referred to as the Zebra horn shark, Striped Bullhead shark, and the Zebra Port Jackson shark. [4] These sharks receive their name due to their bull-like appearance because of the heavy brown bones present over each eye. [4] The taxon of the Zebra Bullhead shark is small but has had a fossil record that has been traced back closely to the beginning of the Mesozoic era. [4] This species was classified first in the genus squalus which is also known as the Linnaean shark.[4] The Linnaean shark is known to be a bottom dwelling shark which is similar to the Bullhead shark family. [4]

The Zebra Bullhead shark shows minimal interest to commercial fisheries and game fishing. [4] However, due to the unique and attractive color pattern of these sharks they are a part of the aquarium trade around the world. [4] These organisms are known to be carnivores and feed on a range of organisms including sea urchins and crustaceans. [3] The prey they feed on can be found in rocky reefs and kelp forests where Zebra Bullhead sharks live. [3] The range of these organisms within the marine habitat is from 50 meters to 200 meters. [3] Zebra Bullhead sharks are known to not have many natural predators where they live. However, in rare cases, larger sharks and human can be a threat to these organisms. [3]

Appearance

The Zebra Bullhead shark's body shape is slim, oval shaped, and ray-like.[4] The snouts on these sharks is short and rounded without the presence of lateral teeth.[4] The eyes are dorsolateral on the head with crests above the eyes.[4] The appearance of the Heterodontus zebra from an external view involves the presence of a dorsal fin and anal fin.[4] The dorsal fin on these sharks has a spine within it.[4] The length of the dorsal fin is about 21 to 27% of the total organisms length.[4] The first dorsal fin is high in the juvenile sharks, while in the adult sharks the first dorsal fin is moderately high.[4] The color of the dorsal surface is a range between white and cream depending on the shark.[4] There are five large gill openings slightly in front of pectoral-fin mid-bases on the side of these sharks heads.[4] Out of the five gill slits, the first gill slit is the largest and is closest to the front of the body.[2] The smallest gill slit is the most posterior out of the five gill slits.[2] Along with this, these organisms have a range of large to small vertical markings from the snout to the caudal fin of brown and black color.[4] Depending on size, Heterodontus zebra between 64 and 122 cm has about 22 to 36 brown or black markings.[4] The fins on this organism typically have black tips or white dorsal-fin apices.[4]

Size

The maximum total length of the Heterodontus zebra is 122 cm which is roughly four feet.[4] The hatchlings of this species are at least 15 cm at birth. Males mature between 64 and 84 cm, while females mature at 122 cm.[4]

Life History

The Zebra Bullhead sharks reproduction system is oviparous. Oviparous reproduction is the process of producing organisms by the hatching or laying eggs by a parent. A female shark lays two eggs at a time during the spring to the later summer near the coast of Japan.[3] The typical seasonal spawning pattern of the female shark is six to twelve times during a single mating season. The eggs are normally laid in rocks or fields of kelp.[3] When eggs are hatched, the embryos feed on the yolk and hatch a year after they have been produced. The typical size of these hatchlings is 18 cm.[4] The process of reproduction begins with a male grasping the pectoral fin of a female. The male inserts a single clasper into a female's cloaca.[3]

Human Impact

The Zebra Bullhead sharks are known to be a species that are characterized by slow growth which makes it difficult to cultivate these species in the laboratory.[1] Due to the slow growth and reproductivity that characterize these organisms human can have an impact. These organisms are important to humans in various ways including the aquarium trade, the study of marine ecology, and the impact these organisms have on other species.[4] Conservation efforts have been put in place to limit the impact of humans on the Zebra Bullhead sharks. Laws have been put in place on the coasts of Asia in order to protect this species and its closest relatives.[1] Although, the Zebra Bullhead shark is classified as Least Concern on the IUCN's Red list there is little information provided to fully understand the impact humans are having on these organisms.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Onimaru, Koh; Tatsumi, Koari; Shibagaki, Kazuhiro; Kuraku, Shigehiro (8 October 2018). "A de novo transcriptome assembly of the zebra bullhead shark, Heterdontus zebra". Scientific Data. 5. 180197. Bibcode:2018NatSD...580197O. doi:10.1038/sdata.2018.197. PMC 6174923. PMID 30295671.
  2. ^ a b c Nelson, Joseph; Grande, Terry; Mark, Wilson (March 28, 2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781119174844.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Gray, J.E. "Heterdontus zebra". Sharkreferences.com. Jurgen Pollerspock & Nicolas Straube. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Ebert, David; Dando, Marc; Fowler, Sarah (August 24, 2021). A Pocket Guide to Sharks of the World Volume 2. Princeton University Press. p. 288.
  5. ^ Chen, Xiao; Peng, Xin; Huang, Xiaolin; Xiang, Dan (June 12, 2013). "Complete mitochondrial genome of the Zebra bullhead shark Heterodontus zebra (Heterodontiformes: Heterodontidae)". Mitochondrial DNA. 25 (4): 280–281. doi:10.3109/19401736.2013.796514. PMID 25023667. S2CID 23852516.
  6. ^ a b c Barratt, P. & Cavanagh, R.D. (2020). SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003. "Heterodontus zebra". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2020: e.T41825A10574131. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2003.RLTS.T41825A10574131.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  7. ^ a b c Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2006). "Heterodontus zebra" in FishBase. May 2006 version.
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Zebra bullhead shark: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The zebra bullhead shark (Heterodontus zebra) is a bullhead shark of the family Heterodontidae found in the central Indo-Pacific between latitudes 40°N and 20°S, from Japan and Korea to Australia. It is typically found at relatively shallow depths down to 50 m (160 ft), but off Western Australia, it occurs between 150 and 200 m (490 and 660 ft). It can reach a length of 1.25 m (4.1 ft). The reproduction of this bullhead shark is oviparous.

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Biology

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Oviparous, details of spawning not recorded. Biology poorly known. Probably eats bottom invertebrates as with other members of the family.

Reference

Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p.

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Habitat

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on the continental and insular shelves of the western Pacific from inshore down to at least 50 m in the South China Sea, but deeper and in 150 to 200 m off Western Australia.

Reference

Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p.

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