dcsimg

Life Cycle

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Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
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Susan M. Luna
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Biology

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Demersal inshore, in shallow depths to at least 37 m (Ref.58048). Also found offshore (Ref. 9918). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Smallest individual was 27 cm WD. Caught often by demersal trawl, trammel and gillnet fisheries, and occasionally using tangle nets. Utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its typically small size (Ref.58048).
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Importance

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fisheries: commercial
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分布

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
分布於印度、南洋群島、中國南海至臺灣海峽。
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利用

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偶由底拖網捕獲,非重要之經濟魚類。
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描述

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體盤呈菱形,體盤寬為體盤長的2.1倍,吻長為體盤寬之7%,吻鈍,眼睛小,眼徑為體盤寬之2%,噴水口較大,約為眼徑之2倍。體盤最寬處在體盤長27%處,吻端至尾棘長為體盤寬之54%,兩眼間隔為體盤寬之10%,鼻瓣膜基部之距離為體盤寬之7%。口寬為體盤寬之9%,口內無乳頭狀突起;上顎齒列雌魚62-64行,雄魚72-74行,下顎齒列雌魚58-60行,雄魚64-67行。齒形尖突,基部內凹。第一至四鰓裂等長,為體盤寬之2%,第五鰓裂為前四鰓裂之一半。第一鰓裂內緣間隔為體盤寬之16%,第五鰓裂內緣間隔為體盤寬之12%,體長為體盤寬之47%。出水口邊緣平滑無皺褶。皮膚平滑;尾短如鞭。背鰭小,位於尾巴前部,後有鋸齒小刺分布。體盤背部呈橄欖綠,有細小的深色斑點及較大黃綠色斑塊分布,胸鰭下緣並有三個中心黑色,而尾巴有六個白色環帶,腹面成白色。胸鰭伸展的很寬。(陳柔蓉、林沛立2012/11編寫)
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棲地

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底棲型,深度至少30公尺以上。
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Zonetail butterfly ray

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The zonetail butterfly ray (Gymnura zonura) is a species of fish in the family Gymnuridae. It is found in India, Indonesia, Singapore, and Thailand. Its natural habitats are open seas, shallow seas, subtidal aquatic beds, and estuarine waters.

References

  1. ^ Sherman, C.S.; Bin Ali, A.; Bineesh, K.K.; Derrick, D.; Dharmadi, Fahmi, Fernando, D.; Haque, A.B.; Maung, A.; Seyha, L.; Tanay, D.; Utzurrum, J.A.T.; Vo, V.Q.; Yuneni, R.R. (2021). "Gymnura zonura". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T60113A124439689. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-1.RLTS.T60113A124439689.en. Retrieved 16 November 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
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Zonetail butterfly ray: Brief Summary

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The zonetail butterfly ray (Gymnura zonura) is a species of fish in the family Gymnuridae. It is found in India, Indonesia, Singapore, and Thailand. Its natural habitats are open seas, shallow seas, subtidal aquatic beds, and estuarine waters.

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