dcsimg

Diagnostic Description

provided by FAO species catalogs
Head rather short, 24.4 to 27.4% of standard length. Measurements in relation to head length: upper jaw 50.0 to 54.4%; snout 31.2 to 35.1%; interorbital width 24.0 to 29.8%

; gill rakers long and slender, total number on first arch 16 to 20.

First dorsal fin with 1 spine and 10 to 12 rays; second dorsal with 37 to 42 rays; anal fin with 37 to 42 rays; tips of pectoral fins reaching origin of anal fin in young fishes; caudal fin margin truncate in smaller fishes but slightly concave in larger individuals.

Scales rather large, 101 to 110 along lateral line.

Number of vertebrae 26 to 29 (precaudal) + 27 to 29 (caudal) = 53 to 57 (total).

Colour: silvery white.

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bibliographic citation
FAO species catalogue. Vol.10. Gadiform Fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cods, Hakes, Grenadiers and other Gadiform Fishes Known to Date.Daniel M.Cohen Tadashi Inada Tomio Iwamoto Nadia Scialabba 1990. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, Vol.10. Rome, FAO. 1990. 442p.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Distribution

provided by FAO species catalogs
Atlantic coast of Canada and USA from Bell Isle Channel (52°N) to the Bahamas (24°N), most common from southern Newfoundland to South Carolina.
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bibliographic citation
FAO species catalogue. Vol.10. Gadiform Fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cods, Hakes, Grenadiers and other Gadiform Fishes Known to Date.Daniel M.Cohen Tadashi Inada Tomio Iwamoto Nadia Scialabba 1990. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, Vol.10. Rome, FAO. 1990. 442p.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Size

provided by FAO species catalogs
Maximum recorded length 76 cm (2.3 kg weight); common: 37 and 65 cm for males and females respectively.
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bibliographic citation
FAO species catalogue. Vol.10. Gadiform Fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cods, Hakes, Grenadiers and other Gadiform Fishes Known to Date.Daniel M.Cohen Tadashi Inada Tomio Iwamoto Nadia Scialabba 1990. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, Vol.10. Rome, FAO. 1990. 442p.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Brief Summary

provided by FAO species catalogs
Abundant on the continental shelfin depths from 55 m to 300 m on sandy grounds but can be found up to 914 m depth; sometimes strays into shallower waters.Females grow faster than males. Intensive spawning occurs from June to July on the southeastern and southern slopes of Georges Bank, from June to September on the Scotian shelf, and from August to September off Sable Island Bank. Spawning appears to be strongly influenced by water temperature, and annual variations occur both in the peak and the range of the spawning period, which may influence considerably the growth of juveniles.

This hake exhibits a seasonal onshore-offshore migration: spawning adults and feeding juveniles move inshore during spring and, when winter cooling occurs on the shelf, they migrate to warmer waters on the continental edge and slope.Growth is rapid; maximum age is about 12 years.A voracious predator with cannibalistic habits: individuals over 40 cm total length prey on fishes such as gadoids and herring, while smaller ones feed on crustaceans, i.e. euphausiids and pandalids.

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bibliographic citation
FAO species catalogue. Vol.10. Gadiform Fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cods, Hakes, Grenadiers and other Gadiform Fishes Known to Date.Daniel M.Cohen Tadashi Inada Tomio Iwamoto Nadia Scialabba 1990. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, Vol.10. Rome, FAO. 1990. 442p.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Benefits

provided by FAO species catalogs
The total catch reported to FAO in 1987 amounted to 77 920 t (434 937 t in 1973); of which 41 329 were taken by the USSR (an important constituents of their fisheries since 1962), 20 219 t by Cuba, and 19 by the USA. The main fishery for this hake takes place off the coast of Nova Scotia, in the Gulf of Maine and on the Georges Bank in depths up to 220 m. The most common fishing technique is "demersal bottom trawling". The estimated catch potential of this hake in the Northwest Atlantic is estimated to be 350 000 to 500 000 t. The flesh is firm-textured and very tasty. Marketed filleted, frozen, hot-smoked and boiled, and fried.The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 27 567 t. The countries with the largest catches were USA (14 039 t) and Canada (9 676 t).
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
bibliographic citation
FAO species catalogue. Vol.10. Gadiform Fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cods, Hakes, Grenadiers and other Gadiform Fishes Known to Date.Daniel M.Cohen Tadashi Inada Tomio Iwamoto Nadia Scialabba 1990. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, Vol.10. Rome, FAO. 1990. 442p.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Diagnostic Description

provided by Fishbase
Head large, about 30% of SL . Pectoral fins long, reaching origin of anal fin. Overall color is silvery, somewhat brownish on back, whitish on belly.
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Recorder
Rodolfo B. Reyes
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Life Cycle

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Spawning appears to be strongly influenced by water temperature, and annual variations occur both in the peak and the range of the spawning period, which may influence considerably the growth of juveniles.
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Recorder
Susan M. Luna
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Migration

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 1; Dorsal soft rays (total): 47 - 54; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 37 - 41
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Rodolfo B. Reyes
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Trophic Strategy

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Benthic. It is reyed upon by fishes, including cod, pollock, swordfish and spiny dogfish. Parasites of the species include Anthocotyle merlucii (monogenean), Clestobothrium crassiceps (cestode), Anisakis simplex and Thynnascaris adunca (nematodes), Caligus curtus, C. elongatus, Chondracanthus merlucci and Sphyrion lumpi (copepods) (Ref. 5951). See also Ref. 8999.
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Biology

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Abundant on sandy grounds and strays into shallower waters. A voracious predator with cannibalistic habits. Individuals over 40 cm TL prey on fishes such as gadoids and herring, while smaller ones feed on crustaceans, i.e. euphausiids and pandalids; food also includes gaspereau, myctophids, smelt, silversides, mackerel, sand lance, butterfish, snakeblennies, longhorn sculpins and squids (Ref. 5951). The smallest specimen feeds mostly on crustaceans (Ref. 58452). Exhibits seasonal onshore-offshore migration (Ref. 9988). Spawning takes place from June-July in the mid-Atlantic region; July-August in the Gulf of Maine and to the north of Georges Bank, and August-September on the Scotian Shelf (Ref. 58452). Marketed fresh, smoked and frozen; fresh fish are exported to European markets; eaten fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
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Susan M. Luna
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Importance

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fisheries: highly commercial; price category: low; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Silver hake

provided by wikipedia EN

The silver hake, Atlantic hake, or New England hake (Merluccius bilinearis) is a merluccid hake of the genus Merluccius, found in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. It is highly predatory and typically feeds on fish and crustaceans.[2]

Appearance

The silver hake is a long, thin species with a protruding lower jaw and two dorsal fins. This hake is named as such for its silvery coloring, while darker dorsally. They typically grow to be about 37 cm (15 in), but can reach a maximum length of 76 cm (2.5 ft).[2]

Occurrence

The silver hake typically inhabits warm waters around 5-10 °C.[3] The species is found in the northwest Atlantic Ocean at depths between 55 and 914 m (180 and 2,999 ft).[2] It is found along the eastern coast of Canada and United States, as well as in the Bahamas, but it is most common between Newfoundland and South Carolina.[2]

References

  1. ^ Carpenter, K.E. (2015). "Merluccius bilinearis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T16466393A16509787. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T16466393A16509787.en.
  2. ^ a b c d Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2014). "Merluccius bilinearis" in FishBase. July 2014 version.
  3. ^ 1. Reed D, Plourde S, Cook A, et al. Response of scotian shelf silver hake (merluccius bilinearis) to environmental variability. Fish Oceanogr. 2019;28(3):256-272. https://doi.org/10.1111/fog.12406. doi: 10.1111/fog.12406.
  • An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cods, Hakes, Grenadiers and other Gadiform Fishes Known to Date.Daniel M.Cohen Tadashi Inada Tomio Iwamoto Nadia Scialabba 1990. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, Vol.10. Rome, FAO. 1990. 442p.
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Silver hake: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The silver hake, Atlantic hake, or New England hake (Merluccius bilinearis) is a merluccid hake of the genus Merluccius, found in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. It is highly predatory and typically feeds on fish and crustaceans.

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Diet

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Feeds on Atlantic herring, crustaceans, gaspereau, mackeral, and occasionally cannibalistic
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North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]
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Kennedy, Mary [email]

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Belle Isle Channel to Bahamas; most common from southern Newfoundland to South Carolina
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bibliographic citation
North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
benthic species, prefers warmer waters
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bibliographic citation
North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
benthic
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cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]