dcsimg

Diagnostic Description

provided by Fishbase
Species distinguished by: preopercular cirrus absent; nuchal cirrus absent; dorsal-fin elements consisting only of spines. Common amongst Chaenopsids: small elongate fishes; largest species about 12 cm SL, most under 5 cm SL. Head usually with cirri or fleshy flaps on anterior nostrils, eyes, and sometimes laterally on nape; gill membranes continuous with each other across posteroventral surface of head. Each jaw with canine-like or incisor-like teeth anteriorly; teeth usually also present on vomer and often on palatines (roof of mouth). Dorsal-fin spines flexible, usually outnumbering the segmented soft rays, spinous and segmented-rayed portions forming a single, continuous fin; 2 flexible spines in anal fin; pelvic fins inserted anterior to position of pectoral fins, with 1 spine not visible externally and only 2 or 3 segmented (soft) rays; all fin rays, including caudal-fin rays, unbranched (simple). Lateral line absent. Scales absent (Ref.52855).
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
Recorder
Teresa Hilomen
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

Morphology

provided by Fishbase
Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Analspines: 2
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
Recorder
Teresa Hilomen
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

Biology

provided by Fishbase
Usually in shallow water associated with coral (Ref. 51183) but may also be found in shallow, clear water with limestone rubble (Ref. 7251).
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
Recorder
Rainer Froese
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

Importance

provided by Fishbase
aquarium: commercial
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
Recorder
Rainer Froese
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Stathmonotus hemphilli Bean

Stathmonotus hemphilli Bean, 1885:191 [Key West, Florida; lectotype USNM 37193].

Stathmonotus corallicola Beebe and Tee-Van, 1928:249 [Lamentin Reef, Port au Prince Bay, Haiti; holotype, originally New York Zoological Society 7463, now USNM 170571].

DIAGNOSIS.—Unique among the species of Stathmonotus in having an extremely reduced pectoral fin with four or five weak rays, an elongate pelvis, an ossified dorsal postcleithrum (Figure 5c), high numbers of vertebrae and dorsal-fin spines (Table 3), the maxillary of males short, similar to that of females, and usually no lateral supratemporal (LST) sensory pore (present on one side of only one specimen). Dorsal-fin spines 45–53; segmented anal-fin rays 23–29; segmented caudal-fin rays 10–12; total vertebrae 50–58; precaudal vertebrae 20–25; caudal vertebrae 30–34 (Tables 3, 4); pleural ribs 19–24; epineurals 33–46. Body naked; supraorbital, nasal, nuchal, and preopercular cirri absent.

COLORATION.—Sexually dimorphic and variable in males, with both light and dark morphs present. Some males lack any evident melanophores. Others have the head and abdomen covered with fine, evenly distributed melanophores (e.g., ANSP 147163), or the head covered with fine melanophores except for a network of pale spots and lines on the cheek and interorbit (e.g., ANSP 75231). In the dark morph, the head, body, and fins are completely dark, being covered with uniform, fully expanded melanophores, except for the distal margin of the caudal fin, the distal tips of the dorsal-fin and anal-fin elements posteriorly, the distal half of the pelvic fin, and the nostril tubes, all of which are pale (e.g., ANSP 111920). Some dark morphs have a darker blotch on the cheek, a pale distal margin on the pectoral fin, V-shape pale areas along the distal margin of the dorsal fin posteriorly, and inverted Vs along the anal fin posteriorly (e.g., ANSP 75231). These V-shape markings are especially large in two males from the Bahamas (ANSP 115005, see “Comments,” below). In one male, the dorsal Vs extend ventrally about one-fourth of the body depth but are not continuous with one another along the dorsal-fin base, and the ventral Vs are restricted to the anal fin. In the other male, the dorsal Vs are continuous with one another (such that the entire dorsal fin and the upper body are pale), the ventral Vs extend onto the body but are not continuous, the nape, interorbit, and snout are pale, there is a pale spot on the cheek, and the lateral-line placodes lack pigment.

Table 3.—Occurrence of states of meristic characters in species of Stathmonotus. X in column indicates character occurs commonly; M indicates strong mode (one for each subspecies in S. stahli); U indicates uncommon state; - indicates not present; caudal-fin rays are segmented rays. Geographic variation for certain characters is given in Tables 4 and 5).

Females lack pigment on the body, but they have a network of four to six dark lines extending from the orbit across the jaws, cheek, branchiostegals, and sometimes the nape and interorbit. These bands may be variously interrupted, appearing as spots in some specimens.

COMMENTS.—Stathmonotus hemphilli was described from two specimens, syntypes, from Key West, Florida, and originally cataloged as USNM 37193. Both syntypes are strongly arched and impossible to straighten without causing severe damage; however, both are of about the same size, ~45 mm SL, and both have (or had) 51 dorsal-fin spines and II,27 anal-fin elements. One of the syntypes is now damaged and lacks four of the dorsal-fin spines. We designate the specimen with the total complement of dorsal-fin spines to be the lectotype. The lectotype retains the original catalog number and the paralectotype is now cataloged as USNM 324027. On a radiograph, a cluster of large eggs is evident in the abdominal cavity of the lectotype, but none are evident in the paralectotype.

One collection from the Bahamas (ANSP 115005) exhibits unusually low meristics compared to other collections. The eight specimens from this lot have 45–47 dorsal-fin spines (range for other specimens = 47–53), 24–26 segmented anal-fin rays (23–29), 50–54 total vertebrae (52–58), 20–22 precaudal vertebrae (22–25), and 30–33 caudal vertebrae (31–34). They also exhibit an extreme color variation (see above). They have cephalic sensory pore counts similar to those of specimens from other localities, except that they have only a single posterior infraorbital pore; other specimens usually have two, but only one is present in some other specimens from the Bahamas (e.g., ANSP 147163). Given the amount of localized variation observed in this and other species of Stathmonotus (Table 4), we believe that recognition of a separate taxon for the specimens in ANSP 115005 is unwarranted.

DISTRIBUTION.—Western Atlantic: Primarily northern Caribbean, including the Bahamas and Florida, but also collected at Haiti, St. Croix, Yucatán, Belize, Com Island off Nicaragua, and as far east as Antigua, according to Böhlke and Chaplin (1968:512), but we have seen no specimens from this locality (Figure 14). James C. Tyler informed us that the specimen he collected at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, came from a hole in a coral, Monastrea annularis, at a depth of about six meters.

MATERIAL EXAMINED.—Bahamas: Sandy Cay, ANSP 75231 (9, 2 cleared and stained), 115005 (8); High Cay, UF 14371 (2); Green Cay, ANSP 147163 (1); Treasure Island, Salt Cay, ANSP 98929 (1); Grand Bahama Island, ANSP 98930 (2); North Bimini, ANSP 98931 (I); Eleuthera, ANSP 111920 (1); Hog Island, USNM 53225 (1). Florida: Long Reef, UMML 899 (1); Ragged Key, UMML 2960 (1), 3522 (1); Margot Fish Shoal, UMML 3394 (1); Soldier Key, UMML 7377 (1); Lower Matecumbe Key, UMML 15402 (1); Content Key, UMML 17118 (3); Looe Key, UF 16195 (1), USNM 261339 (1); Alligator Reef, UMML 18092 (1); Key West, USNM 37193 (lectotype of Stathmonotus hemphilli), 324027 (paralectotype); Crawfish Bay, USNM 62800 (1); Tortugas, USNM 116808 (1), 116809 (1), 116810 (1), 192381 (2). Mexico, Yucatán, Quintana Roo: Ascension Bay, USNM 192381 (2). Belize: Carrie Bow Cay, USNM 325132 (1). Nicaragua: Corn Island, USNM 320775 (2). Virgin Islands: St. Croix, USNM 38775 (6). Haiti: Port au Prince Bay, Lamentin, USNM 170571 (holotype of Stathmonotus corallicola).

Table 4.—Frequency distributions for certain characters in W Atlantic species and subspecies of Stathmonotus from various localities (Venezuela and Belize data in part from Cervigon, 1966, and Greenfield and Johnson, 1981). SCFR = segmented caudal-fin rays.

Auchenistius Evermann and Marsh, 1899:359 [type species by monotypy A. stahli Evermann and Marsh].

Histioclinus Metzelaar, 1919:157 [type species by monotypy H. veliger Metzelaar (= S. stahli)].

Parviclinus Fraser-Brunner, 1932:827 [type species by original designation P. spinosus Fraser-Bruner, 1932:828 (= S. stahli)].

DIAGNOSIS.—Preopercular and nuchal cirri present. Anterior pleural ribs absent such that the anteriormost vertebra with both epineurals and pleural ribs is the fourth to the seventh.

Stathmonotus stahli (Evermann and Marsh)

Auchenistius stahli Evermann and Marsh, 1899:359 [Ponce, Puerto Rico; holotype USNM 49372].

Stathmonotus tekla Nichols. 1910:161 [Sand Key, off Key West harbor, Florida; holotype AMNH 2536].

Histioclinus veliger Metzelaar, 1919:157 [Bonaire; “several specimens” (syntypes), depository not indicated; Wheeler, 1958:255, stated that “co-types” were at BMNH].

Parviclinus spinosus Fraser-Brunner, 1932:828 [mouth of the Conway River, near Tal-y-cafn bridge, North Wales; holotype BMNH 1932.10.22.1].

DIAGNOSIS.—Unique among the species of Stathmonotus in having a fully scaled body. Dorsal-fin spines 39–45; segmented anal-fin rays 21–26; pectoral-fin rays 8 or 9; segmented caudal-fin rays 10–13; total vertebrae 44–49; precaudal vertebrae 16–19; caudal vertebrae 27–31 (Tables 3, 4); pleural ribs 16–19; epineurals 25–33. Supraorbital cirrus rounded and flap-like; nasal, nuchal, and preopercular cirri present. Large males with a swollen, fleshy head, maxillary extending well posterior to the orbit (not extending beyond orbit in females), and pronounced lateral fleshy folds along the jaws.

COLORATION.—Most specimens in preservative have few, if any, melanophores. In some males, there are one or two small, irregular concentrations of melanophores just posterior to the orbit. Others may have the supraorbital cirri and/or the pelvic fins uniformly covered with fine melanophores. Some males (e.g., ANSP 98948) are pale overall, with a border of melanophores along the distal margin of the dorsal fin. One male from Panama (CAS 31638) has a distinct dark border on the distal margins of the median fins, the pectoral fin, and the supraorbital cirrus, and diffuse melanophores on the distal half of the pectoral fin (proximal to the dark border) and nuchal cirrus, but otherwise lacks melanophores. One specimen from Mexico (MPM 19708; Figure 15b) also has the distal margin of the dorsal and anal fins dark, an irregular row of dark spots subdistally on the caudal-fin rays, two rows of dark spots on the posterior one-third of the body, a dark spot on the pectoral fin, and a dark spot on the supraorbital cirrus. Dark morphs, with the entire body covered with dense melanophores, are unknown.

Females may completely lack melanophores or have only faint concentrations of melanophores along the body, faint melanophores and a series of pale spots on the head, especially on the ventral surface (giving the chin a banded appearance), and weakly banded pelvic and pectoral fins (e.g., ANSP 98948). Four color morphs of living specimens are mentioned in Böhlke and Chaplin (1968:513) but how these relate to the patterns described above is unknown.

COMMENTS.—Stathmonotus stahli is represented by two subspecies, S. s. stahli from Puerto Rico (type locality), the Virgin Islands, Leeward and Windward Islands, and Venezuela, and S. s. tekla from the Bahamas, Florida (type locality), Cuba, Haiti, Mona Island (Puerto Rico), Cayman Islands, Yucatan, Providencia Island, Belize, Panama, and Colombia (Figure 16). Springer (1955) distinguished them primarily by the number of segmented caudal-fin rays (12 in stahli versus 11 in tekla). This difference largely holds, although variants occur within the geographic ranges of both forms (Table 4). The forms also tend to differ in modal number of dorsal-fin spines (43 vs. 42) and precaudal vertebrae (17 vs. 18; Table 4). The frequencies of these meristic elements appear to change abruptly between Hispanola to the west and the main island of Puerto Rico to the east. Specimens from Mona Island (ANSP 145875), located between these areas, exhibit counts of both forms (Table 4) and were assigned to S. s. tekla, based on the higher frequency of counts typical of that form.

The synonym Histioclinus veliger Metzelaar (1919) apparently refers to S. s. stahli; the types have 12 segmented caudal-fin rays, and the type locality, Bonaire, is within the range of this subspecies (Springer, 1955). We are unable to assign the synonym Parviclinus spinosus Fraser-Brunner (1932) to a subspecies. The reported type locality. North Wales, is clearly in error, and the caudal fin is abnormal (Wheeler, 1958).

There is an apparent error in the original illustration of the holotype of S. stahli stahli in Evermann and Marsh (1900, fig. 102; our Figure 15a), which also is alluded to by the uncertainty of the fin-ray counts given in their description. They illustrate 42 dorsal-fin spines, whereas we count 41 on a radiograph of the holotype. Also, they illustrate the anal fin with one spine and 25 segmented rays, whereas we count 24 segmented rays on the radiograph; one of the anal-fin spines appears to be broken in the holotype.

DISTRIBUTION.—Western Atlantic: Widespread in the Caribbean; collected from the Bahamas, Florida, Greater and Lesser Antilles, off Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Belize, and Yucatán (Figure 16).

MATERIAL EXAMINED.—Stathmonotus stahli stahli: Puerto Rico: Ponce, USNM 49372 (holotype); Puerto Real, USNM 50163 (3); Culebra Island, USNM 126078 (7); Cabo Rojo, UF 13358 (1), USNM 128815 (1); La Parguera, USNM 205219 (1); Mayaguez, USNM 205220 (1). Virgin Islands: St. Thomas, USNM 117440 (2); St. Croix, Buck Island, USNM 120485 (1). Leeward Islands: Anguilla, USNM 191419 (3); St. Christopher, USNM 170315 (8); Barbuda, USNM 291696 (6); Guadeloupe, USNM 170261 (4); Dominica, UMML 29289 (31). Windward Islands: Little St. Vincent Island, ANSP 127032 (17); Grenadines, Carriacou, USNM 170200 (1); Grenadines, Tobago, USNM 170203 (1). Venezuela: Los Roques, USNM 195749 (2).

Stathmonotus stahli tekla: Bahamas: Hog Island, ANSP 72499 (6); Exuma Cays, ANSP 98944 (3); Double Headed Shot Cays (Cay Sal Bank), ANSP 98948 (16); Plana Cays (French Cays), ANSP 147641 (25); Ragged Islands, Nurse Cay, ANSP 148989 (4); Flamingo Cay, UMML 6333 (5); Stocking Island, UMML 6387 (2); Oyster Cay, Exuma chain, UMML 12610 (1). Florida: Key Biscayne, UMML 2624 (1); Elliot Key, UMML 5186 (1); Sand Cay, AMNH 2536 (holotype); Tortugas, UF 3411 (2), USNM 116825 (3), 116827 (1). Cuba: Havana, USNM 192114 (4). Haiti: Port au Prince, USNM 178291 (25). Puerto Rico: Mona Island, ANSP 145875 (10). Cayman Islands: Grand Cayman, ANSP 102238 (1), UF 12386 (1). Mexico, Yucatán, Quintana Roo: Akumal, MPM 19708 (1), 22473 (5), 30219 (1); Chinchorro, UMML 9339 (2); Ascension Bay, USNM 192382 (2). Belize: Carrie Bow Cay, USNM 218258 (2), 274945 (1), 276218 (2); Southwater Cay, USNM 274939 (2). Colombia: Providencia Island, UF 18902 (10, 2 cleared and stained), 19045 (3), 24366 (1), 24545 (1), 25112 (6), 25347 (6), 25403 (6), 25672 (1), 25803 (3), 25824 (1), USNM 107115 (4). Panama: Bahia Limón, Coco Solo, SIO 72–6 (2); Toro Point, SIO 67–45 (1); San Blas, CAS 31638 (1).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
bibliographic citation
Hastings, Philip A. and Springer, Victor G. 1994. "Review of Stathmonotus, with redefinition and phylogenetic analysis of the Chaenopsidae (Teleostei:Blennioidei)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-48. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.558

Stathmonotus hemphillii

provided by wikipedia EN

Stathmonotus hemphillii, the blackbelly blenny, is a species of chaenopsid blenny found in coral reefs in the western central Atlantic ocean. It can reach a maximum length of 5 centimetres (2.0 in) TL. This species can also be found in the aquarium trade.[2] The specific name honours the malacologist Henry Hemphill (1830-1914) who collected the type.[3]

References

  1. ^ Williams, J.T. (2014). "Stathmonotus hemphillii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T46104150A48385532. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T46104150A48385532.en. Retrieved 20 November 2021.
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Stathmonotus hemphillii" in FishBase. February 2013 version.
  3. ^ Christopher Scharpf; Kenneth J. Lazara (10 November 2018). "Order BLENNIIFORMES: Families CLINIDAE, LABRISOMIDAE and CHAENOPSIDAE". ETYFish Fish Name Etymology Database. Christopher Scharpf and Kenneth J. Lazara. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Stathmonotus hemphillii: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Stathmonotus hemphillii, the blackbelly blenny, is a species of chaenopsid blenny found in coral reefs in the western central Atlantic ocean. It can reach a maximum length of 5 centimetres (2.0 in) TL. This species can also be found in the aquarium trade. The specific name honours the malacologist Henry Hemphill (1830-1914) who collected the type.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN