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Biology

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Roach feed on both animal matter and vegetation, principal foods being insect larvae, small molluscs and waterweed. They are tolerant of poor water conditions, even polluted water low in oxygen. The fish spawn from April to June in shallow water and attach their eggs – as many as 100,000 – to stones and plants. These hatch within four to 10 days, the fish larvae remaining attached to the vegetation until they have exhausted their yolk sacs. The young roach remain in shallow water and grow slowly, the males reaching maturity at two years, the females at three. Although used as a source of cheap food in some eastern parts of its range, the roach is known primarily as a sport-fish. Its sheer abundance and ability to tolerate poor quality water means that it one of the most common fish caught by anglers. The fish's natural predators include pike, eels and other large carnivorous fish, herons, osprey and aquatic mammals such as mink and otter.
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Conservation

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Apart from the close season for coarse angling in the UK (15 March to 15 June), roach can be fished from any river provided the angler holds a standard rod license and has the permission of the owner of that stretch of river. Commercially, the fish is of little value apart from around parts of the Black Sea coast where it is caught as a source of cheap food. However, the roach is an important part of the aquatic food chain in its native rivers and, by being a prey species in its own right, supports populations of other animals.
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Description

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The roach is a common fish of fresh and brackish water, and one that is likely to be the most familiar to anglers. The eyes are red; the body silvery with a blue iridescence and prominent scales; the rays of the fins and tail are blue, with the webbing between fin spines an orange-red. They are not large fish and the body size varies considerably depending on the food available and other local conditions. The largest roach recorded weighed less than two kilograms.
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Habitat

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Roach are found in freshwater lakes, canals and slow-moving rivers, and brackish waters and lakes.
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Range

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The roaches range extends from the UK, through central Europe and eastern Scandinavia, south and east through Asia Minor, Russia and into Siberia. They have also been introduced into Australia, Cypress, Morocco, Ireland, Italy and Spain.
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Status

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Common
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Threats

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There appears to be no major threat to this species, and its ability to live in conditions that other fish find intolerable has meant that the roach is a common species across most of its range. In some areas where it has been introduced, it has become to be regarded as a nuisance species.
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Brief Summary

provided by Ecomare
Roach rarely grow larger than 35 centimeters. They are found in stationary as well as moving water. Roach swim in schools which forage in the vicinity of vegetation (reed, rush), therefore shallow waters, but also in deeper open water. They are true omnivores. Young roach eat mostly water fleas while older specimen eat small snails, zebra mussels, insect larvae, worms and crustaceans. They use the teeth in their throat to crack open shellfish. Adult roach eat mainly plant material, such as algae and detritus.
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Diagnostic Description

provided by Fishbase
The only species of the genus in Atlantic basin north of Pyrénées which can be distinguished from its congeners in Black and Caspian Sea basins and Apennine Peninsula by the combination of the following characters: 39-41 + 2-3 (41-44 total) scales along lateral line; dorsal and anal fins with 10½ branched rays; body laterally compressed, depth 25-35% SL; mouth terminal; snout pointed; iris from yellow in juveniles to deep red in adults; pectoral, pelvic and anal fins orange to red; and no midlateral stripe. Differs from its congeners in Balkan Peninsula by uniquely possessing 10½ branched anal rays (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 18-19 rays (Ref. 2196). Also Ref. 96829.
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Recorder
Pascualita Sa-a
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Diseases and Parasites

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Worm Cataract. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Black Spot Disease 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Life Cycle

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Spawns in shoals among dense among dense submerged vegetation in backwaters or lakes, flooded meadows or in shallow, fast-flowing river habitats on plant or gravel bottom. Eggs are sticky and hatch in about 12 days (Ref. 59043). Pale yellow eggs are attached to vegetation and tree roots (Ref. 41678).
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Migration

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Potamodromous. Migrating within streams, migratory in rivers, e.g. Saliminus, Moxostoma, Labeo. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Susan M. Luna
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 3; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9 - 12; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 9 - 13; Vertebrae: 39 - 41
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Trophic Strategy

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Facultative schooling fish (Ref. 46093). Large fish are solitary or congregate in small groups of up to 8 fish (Ref. 46637). Specimens ranging from 1.1 - 3.59 cm start exogenous feeding on pollen grains and vegetal cells (Ref 4938). Omnivore (Ref. 75154); feed on benthic organisms, plants and detritus (Ref. 26323).
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Biology

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Found in a wide variety of habitats, mainly in lowland areas. Most abundant in nutrient-rich lakes and large to medium sized rivers and backwaters. Also recorded from small lowland streams and from brackish coastal lagoons. In fast-flowing rivers, confined to stretches where backwaters or shelters allow for overwintering. Larvae and juveniles live in wide variety of littoral habitats. Preys predominantly on benthic invertebrates, zooplankton, plant material and detritus. May shift from littoral to pelagic habitats and between benthic food and zooplankton when abundance of a specific food item is high or for avoidance of predation and/or competition. Breeds among dense submerged vegetation in backwaters or lakes, flooded meadows or in shallow, fast-flowing river habitats on plant or gravel bottom. Undertakes short spawning migrations. Stays in backwaters or in deep parts of lakes to overwinter. Produces fertile hybrids with Abramis brama (Ref. 59043). Pale yellow eggs are found attached to vegetation and tree roots (Ref. 41678). There is only little commercial fishing for this species, but valued for recreational fishing. Utilized fresh and dried or salted; can be pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988).
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Importance

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fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
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Common roach

provided by wikipedia EN

The roach, or rutilus roach (Rutilus rutilus), also known as the common roach, is a fresh- and brackish-water fish of the family Cyprinidae, native to most of Europe and western Asia. Fish called roach can be any species of the genera Rutilus and Hesperoleucus, depending on locality. The plural of the term is also roach.[3]

Description

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Roach in an aquarium

The roach is a small fish, often reaching no more than about 35 centimetres (14 in); maximum length is 50 cm (20 in). Its body has a bluish-silvery colour and becomes white at the belly. The fins are red. The number of scales along the lateral line is 39–48. The dorsal and anal fins have 12–14 rays. Young specimens have a slender build; older specimens acquire a higher and broader body shape. The roach can often be recognized by the big red spot in the iris above and beside the pupil. Colours of the eye and fins can be very pale, however, in some environments.

In Central and Northern Europe, the common roach can most easily be confused with the common rudd (Scardinius erythropthalmus), the dace (Leuciscus leuciscus), or the ide (Leuciscus idus). They can be distinguished by these characteristics:

  • The common rudd has a more yellow/greenish or golden colour. The backfin is placed more backwards and between the tip of the ventral scales and the first ray of the anal fin are only one or two scales. The roach has four or five scales there. The mouth of the rudd is more upturned and the head appears sharper.
  • The dace has a greenish body, colorless eyes and fins, and a distinct 'nose'.
  • The ide has a higher number of scales along its lateral line (55–61), a rounder body, and a bigger mouth and head.

Distribution

The common roach is found throughout Europe except for the area around the Mediterranean, and its distribution reaches eastward into Siberia. Eastern Europe and Asia have several subspecies, some with an oceangoing lifecycle living around the Caspian and Black Seas.[4] Around the Mediterranean and in northwestern parts of Spain and Portugal, several closely related species occur with no overlap in their distribution.

It was introduced in Australia in the Murray River and coastal drainages of southern New South Wales and Victoria from Europe during the 1860s and 1880s for sport purposes.

Ecology

The common roach is very adaptable and can be found in any freshwater ecosystem, ranging from small ponds to the largest rivers and lakes. It feeds at any depth, although its preferred food sources tend to be in shallower water. It tolerates organic pollution and is one of the last species to disappear in polluted waters; it is also often the most numerous cyprinid in nutrient-poor waters. It also tolerates brackish water. Roach survive in temperatures from close to freezing 4 °C (39 °F) up to around 31 °C (88 °F).

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Large female roach before spawning season

In most parts of its distribution, it is the most numerous fish, but it can be surpassed by the common bream in biomass in water bodies with high turbidity and sparse vegetation. The roach is a shoaling fish and is not very migratory with the exception of the oceangoing subspecies. In the cold season, they migrate to feed in deeper waters, whereas they prefer to feed near the surface during warmer weather.

Roach mostly inhabit freshwater ecosystems that are somewhat vegetated, because larval and young fish are protected by the vegetation and the mature fish can use it for food. The common roach eats a wide range of foods, from plant material, bottom-dwelling (benthic) invertebrates, to worms and maggots. Young fish feed mainly on plankton, until they are of a size to use a wider diet. Roach can adapt to environments where invertebrates are scarce by slowing their growth, maintaining slender body shapes, and maturing early.

Roach may live for 15 years or more.[5]

Reproduction

The spawning season is generally from March to June, with some variation due to spawning being triggered by the rising of water temperature during spring and summer. Roach generally spawn at the same location each year. Large males form schools, which females enter. Males trail the females and fertilize their eggs. Their behaviour is rough and the fish often jump out of the water. A female can lay up to 100,000 eggs. When the pH of the water is below 5.5, the roach cannot reproduce successfully.

See also

References

  1. ^ Freyhof, J.; Kottelat, M. (2008). "Rutilus rutilus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T19787A9014741. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T19787A9014741.en.
  2. ^ "Synonyms of Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758)". Fishbase. Archived from the original on 3 December 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2006). "Rutilus rutilus" in FishBase. April 2006 version.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-07-03. Retrieved 2006-05-14.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Rutilus rutilus caspicus (Jakowlew, 1870)] Roach fact sheet about a Caspian subspecies. www.caspianenvironment.org
  5. ^ "Scottish Government: Marine environment: Roach". Retrieved 9 February 2020.

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Common roach: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The roach, or rutilus roach (Rutilus rutilus), also known as the common roach, is a fresh- and brackish-water fish of the family Cyprinidae, native to most of Europe and western Asia. Fish called roach can be any species of the genera Rutilus and Hesperoleucus, depending on locality. The plural of the term is also roach.

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