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Colonial Tunicate

Botrylloides violaceus Oka 1927

Botrylloides violaceus

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Botrylloides violaceus is a colonial ascidian. It is commonly known as the chain tunicate,[2] but has also been called several other common names, including: lined colonial tunicate, orange sheath tunicate, orange tunicate, and violet tunicate.[3] Its native range is in the northwest Pacific from southern China to Japan and Siberia.[4] Colonies grow on solid substrates and consist of individuals arranged in twisting rows. Outside its native range, it is considered an invasive species and is becoming more common in coastal waters of North America and other waters around the world, likely being spread by shipping industries.[5]

In the San Francisco Bay area, B. violaceus can be readily found on boat docks in the Richmond Marina.[6] The ecological impact of B. violaceus in this region remains unknown.

Morphology

Zooids are embedded in a transparent tunic and connected by a network of blood vessels that terminate in ampullae (small sac-like structures) at the periphery of the colony. Colony color varies from bright orange to reddish or dull purple. These tunicates usually have 8 branchial tentacles and 11 rows of stigmata.[7]

Significance and Interest

Colonial ascidians are the only known chordates capable of regenerating all body tissues. Because of chordates' close developmental relationship to vertebrates,[8] the regenerative processes in colonial ascidians are of great interest to researchers. Whole body regeneration can be observed in B. violaceus after removal of all body tissues except the peripheral vasculature, suggesting the presence of circulating pluripotent or totipotent stem cells in the blood.[9][10]

References

  1. ^ Gittenberger, Arjan (2015). "Botrylloides violaceus Oka, 1927". WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2016-02-25.
  2. ^ Lorne Curran and Samuel Chan. "Invasive tunicates in the Pacific Northwest" (PDF). Oregon Sea Grant.
  3. ^ "Purple Colonial Tunicate (Botrylloides violaceus)". WhatsThatFish.
  4. ^ Cohen, Andrew N. (2005). "Botrylloides violaceus". Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute. Retrieved 2009-03-03.
  5. ^ Fuller, Pam (2006-04-24). "NAS - Species FactSheet (Botrylloides violaceus)". USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL. Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  6. ^ Stephen Foss. "A Survey of Non-indigenous Aquatic Species in San Francisco Bay Updated July 2009 California Department of Fish and Game / Office of Spill Prevention and Response San Jose State University Foundation / Moss Landing Marine Laboratories".
  7. ^ "Fact sheet 15" (PDF). NON-INDIGENOUS AQUATIC SPECIES OF CONCERN FOR ALASKA. Prince William Sound Regional Citizens’ Advisory Council. 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-11-27. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
  8. ^ Delsuc, Frédéric; Brinkmann, Henner; Chourrout, Daniel; Philippe, Hervé (23 February 2006). "Tunicates and not cephalochordates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates". Nature. 439 (7079): 965–968. Bibcode:2006Natur.439..965D. doi:10.1038/nature04336. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 16495997. S2CID 4382758.
  9. ^ Brown, Federico (2009). "Whole body regeneration in a colonial ascidian, Botrylloides violaceus". Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution. 312B (8): 885–900. doi:10.1002/jez.b.21303. PMID 19588490.
  10. ^ Rinkevich, B (1995). "Whole-body protochordate regeneration from totipotent blood cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 92 (17): 7695–7699. Bibcode:1995PNAS...92.7695R. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.17.7695. PMC 41212. PMID 11607571.
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Botrylloides violaceus: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Botrylloides violaceus is a colonial ascidian. It is commonly known as the chain tunicate, but has also been called several other common names, including: lined colonial tunicate, orange sheath tunicate, orange tunicate, and violet tunicate. Its native range is in the northwest Pacific from southern China to Japan and Siberia. Colonies grow on solid substrates and consist of individuals arranged in twisting rows. Outside its native range, it is considered an invasive species and is becoming more common in coastal waters of North America and other waters around the world, likely being spread by shipping industries.

In the San Francisco Bay area, B. violaceus can be readily found on boat docks in the Richmond Marina. The ecological impact of B. violaceus in this region remains unknown.

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Alien species

provided by World Register of Marine Species
The colony-forming sea squirt Botrylloides violaceus was originally only found in the northwest of the Pacific Ocean. Transported via attachment to ship hulls or to living marine organisms, the species reached Europe before 1998, where it spread further through attachment on yachts. Established colonies of this sea squirt were observed for the first time along the Belgian coast in 2004 in the port of Zeebrugge. Different colonies of this species are known to display different colourations (including pink, yellow and orange). Occasionally different specimens within a single colony can display a different colouration.
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bibliographic citation
Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Faasse, M.; De Blauwe, H. (2002). De exotische samengestelde zakpijp Botrylloides violaceus Oka, 1927 in Nederland (Ascidiacea: Pleurogona: Styelidae) [The exotic colonial tunicate Botrylloides violaceus Oka, 1927 in the Netherlands (Ascidiacea: Pleurogona: Styelidae)]. <em>Het Zeepaard.</em> 62(5): 136-141. Stolfi, A.; Sasakura, Y.; Chalopin, D.; Satou, Y.; Christiaen, L.; Dantec, C.; Endo, T.; Naville, M.; Nishida, H.; Swalla, B. J.; Volff, J.-N.; Voskoboynik, A.; Dauga, D.; Lemaire, P. (2014). Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes. <em>Genesis.</em> 53(1): 1-14. Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Gittenberger, A.; Moons, J.J.S. (2011). Settlement and possible competition for space between the invasive violet tunicate Botrylloides violaceus and the native star tunicate Botryllus schlosseri in The Netherlands. Aquatic Invasions 6(4): 435–440. Martin, J.L.; LeGresley, M.M.; Thorpe, B.; McCurdy, P. (2011). Non-indigenous tunicates in the Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada (2006–2009). Aquatic Invasions 6(4): 405–412. Minchin, D.; Cook, E.; Clark, P. (2013). Alien species in British brackish and marine waters. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 8(1): 3-19. Minchin, D.; Cook, E.; Clark, P. (2013). Alien species in British brackish and marine waters. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 8(1): 3-19. Wagstaff, M. (2017). Life history variation of an invasive species Botrylloides violaceus (Oka, 1927) between novel coastal habitats in the Gulf of Maine. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 43-51. Freeman, A. S.; Frischeisen, A.; Blakeslee, A. M. (2016). Estuarine fouling communities are dominated by nonindigenous species in the presence of an invasive crab. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 18(6): 1653-1665. Simkanin, C.; Davidson, I. C.; Therriault, T. W.; Jamieson, G.; Dower, J. F. (2017). Manipulating propagule pressure to test the invasibility of subtidal marine habitats. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 19(5): 1565-1575. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484.
contributor
Vandepitte, Leen [email]
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Vandepitte, Leen [email]

Alien species

provided by World Register of Marine Species
De gewone slingerzakpijp Botrylloides violaceus is een kolonievormende zakpijp die voordien enkel terug te vinden was in het noordwesten van de Stille Oceaan. Getransporteerd via scheepsrompen of vastgehecht op levende mariene organismen kwam de soort naar Europa vóór 1998, waar hij zich verder verspreidde door vasthechting op plezierjachten. Gevestigde kolonies van deze zakpijp werden langs onze kust voor de eerste keer waargenomen in 2004, in de haven van Zeebrugge. De soort valt op omwille van de verschillende kleuren (waaronder geel, oranje en paars) van verschillende kolonies. Ook binnen 1 kolonie kunnen er uitzonderlijk verschillend gekleurde exemplaren voorkomen.
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copyright
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bibliographic citation
Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Faasse, M.; De Blauwe, H. (2002). De exotische samengestelde zakpijp Botrylloides violaceus Oka, 1927 in Nederland (Ascidiacea: Pleurogona: Styelidae) [The exotic colonial tunicate Botrylloides violaceus Oka, 1927 in the Netherlands (Ascidiacea: Pleurogona: Styelidae)]. <em>Het Zeepaard.</em> 62(5): 136-141. Stolfi, A.; Sasakura, Y.; Chalopin, D.; Satou, Y.; Christiaen, L.; Dantec, C.; Endo, T.; Naville, M.; Nishida, H.; Swalla, B. J.; Volff, J.-N.; Voskoboynik, A.; Dauga, D.; Lemaire, P. (2014). Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes. <em>Genesis.</em> 53(1): 1-14. Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Gittenberger, A.; Moons, J.J.S. (2011). Settlement and possible competition for space between the invasive violet tunicate Botrylloides violaceus and the native star tunicate Botryllus schlosseri in The Netherlands. Aquatic Invasions 6(4): 435–440. Martin, J.L.; LeGresley, M.M.; Thorpe, B.; McCurdy, P. (2011). Non-indigenous tunicates in the Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada (2006–2009). Aquatic Invasions 6(4): 405–412. Minchin, D.; Cook, E.; Clark, P. (2013). Alien species in British brackish and marine waters. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 8(1): 3-19. Minchin, D.; Cook, E.; Clark, P. (2013). Alien species in British brackish and marine waters. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 8(1): 3-19. Wagstaff, M. (2017). Life history variation of an invasive species Botrylloides violaceus (Oka, 1927) between novel coastal habitats in the Gulf of Maine. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 43-51. Freeman, A. S.; Frischeisen, A.; Blakeslee, A. M. (2016). Estuarine fouling communities are dominated by nonindigenous species in the presence of an invasive crab. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 18(6): 1653-1665. Simkanin, C.; Davidson, I. C.; Therriault, T. W.; Jamieson, G.; Dower, J. F. (2017). Manipulating propagule pressure to test the invasibility of subtidal marine habitats. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 19(5): 1565-1575. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484.
contributor
Vandepitte, Leen [email]
contributor
Vandepitte, Leen [email]