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Flamboyant Cuttlefish

Metasepia pfefferi (Hoyle 1885)

Behavior

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Cuttlefish in general have a well-developed brain that can see, smell, and sense sound waves. The cuttlefish will change colors in response to its environment, either to lure in prey or avoid predators. Males may put on displays to attract a female. Some cuttlefish are able to go through mazes through use of visual cues.

Cuttlefish also have a well developed eye which can detect polarized light, but it is likely color-blind. Reshaping the eye allows it to focus on specific objects.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; polarized light ; tactile ; acoustic ; vibrations ; chemical

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Patel, C. and M. Smith 2011. "Metasepia pfefferi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Metasepia_pfefferi.html
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Chandni N. Patel, Rutgers University
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Michael J. Smith, Rutgers University
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David V. Howe, Rutgers University
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Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Conservation Status

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There has been little or no research into the status of Metasepia pfefferi in the wild.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

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Patel, C. and M. Smith 2011. "Metasepia pfefferi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Metasepia_pfefferi.html
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Chandni N. Patel, Rutgers University
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Michael J. Smith, Rutgers University
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David V. Howe, Rutgers University
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Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Life Cycle

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The eggs initially are round and white, and become clear as the egg develops. Development timing depends on water temperature.

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

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Patel, C. and M. Smith 2011. "Metasepia pfefferi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Metasepia_pfefferi.html
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Chandni N. Patel, Rutgers University
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Michael J. Smith, Rutgers University
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David V. Howe, Rutgers University
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Benefits

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Metasepia pfefferi is one of only three known venomous species of cephalopods. The venom that M. pfefferi contains is shown to have similar lethal effects as that of the blue-ringed octopus, Hapolochlaena maculosa. The venom is very toxic and it may possibly be able to quickly kill an adult human.

Negative Impacts: injures humans (bites or stings, venomous )

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Patel, C. and M. Smith 2011. "Metasepia pfefferi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Metasepia_pfefferi.html
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Chandni N. Patel, Rutgers University
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Michael J. Smith, Rutgers University
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David V. Howe, Rutgers University
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Benefits

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Currently, there are no known positive effects of Metasepia pfefferi on humans. However, it has recently been discovered that the venom it possesses is of a new class that may possibly have uses in medicine.

Positive Impacts: source of medicine or drug

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Patel, C. and M. Smith 2011. "Metasepia pfefferi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Metasepia_pfefferi.html
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Chandni N. Patel, Rutgers University
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Michael J. Smith, Rutgers University
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David V. Howe, Rutgers University
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Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Associations

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Metasepia pfefferi is a predatory animal. It helps to keep fish and crustacean population sizes in check.

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Patel, C. and M. Smith 2011. "Metasepia pfefferi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Metasepia_pfefferi.html
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Chandni N. Patel, Rutgers University
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Michael J. Smith, Rutgers University
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David V. Howe, Rutgers University
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Trophic Strategy

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Cuttlefish are carnivorous animals. They feed primarily on crustaceans and bony fish. The beak is used to capture prey.

Animal Foods: fish; aquatic crustaceans

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore , Eats non-insect arthropods)

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Patel, C. and M. Smith 2011. "Metasepia pfefferi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Metasepia_pfefferi.html
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Chandni N. Patel, Rutgers University
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Michael J. Smith, Rutgers University
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David V. Howe, Rutgers University
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Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Distribution

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Pfeffer's flamboyant cuttlefish, Metasepia pfefferi, is found in Tropical Indo-Pacific oceans, especially along the coast of northern Australia, western Australia, and across to the southern edge of New Guinea.

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native ); australian (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )

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Patel, C. and M. Smith 2011. "Metasepia pfefferi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Metasepia_pfefferi.html
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Chandni N. Patel, Rutgers University
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Michael J. Smith, Rutgers University
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David V. Howe, Rutgers University
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Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Habitat

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Metasepia pfefferi is typically a bottom-dweller living from depths of 3 to 86 m. It prefers living among sandy and muddy substrates in tropical waters.

Range depth: 3 to 86 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: benthic ; reef ; coastal

Other Habitat Features: intertidal or littoral

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Patel, C. and M. Smith 2011. "Metasepia pfefferi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Metasepia_pfefferi.html
author
Chandni N. Patel, Rutgers University
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Michael J. Smith, Rutgers University
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David V. Howe, Rutgers University
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Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Life Expectancy

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The lifespan of Metasepia pfefferi is estimated to be between 18 and 24 months based on knowledge of other species in the same family. However, many females do not survive post-spawning. Metasepia pfefferi is rarely held in captivity, and therefore, its lifespan in captivity has not been described.

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Patel, C. and M. Smith 2011. "Metasepia pfefferi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Metasepia_pfefferi.html
author
Chandni N. Patel, Rutgers University
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Michael J. Smith, Rutgers University
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David V. Howe, Rutgers University
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Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Morphology

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Metasepia pfefferi is a small cephalopod with a dark brown base color. This cuttlefish has overlaying patterns of white and yellow and its arms are purple-pink. The skin contains many chromatophores, which are pigment cells that can be manipulated to change colors. Females and males have similar colors except when spawning.

Metasepia pfefferi has a very broad, oval mantle that is flattened dorsoventrally. The dorsal mantle has three pairs of large, flat, flap-like papillae, which cover its eyes. The dorsal anterior edge of the mantle lacks the tongue-like projection that is common among all other species of cuttlefish. The head is slightly narrower than the mantle. The mouth is surrounded by ten appendages. Two of the appendages are tentacles and eight of them are arms. The arms are broad and blade-like. On males, one of the arms is modified into a hectocotylus for holding and transferring spermatophores. The cuttlebone, the defining feature of a cuttlefish, is approximately two thirds to three quarters the length of the mantle. Metasepia pfefferi is also venomous.

Range length: 60 (high) mm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry ; venomous

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

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Patel, C. and M. Smith 2011. "Metasepia pfefferi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Metasepia_pfefferi.html
author
Chandni N. Patel, Rutgers University
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Michael J. Smith, Rutgers University
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David V. Howe, Rutgers University
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Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Associations

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In general, cuttlefish are preyed upon by seals, dolphins and fish. When Metasepia pfefferi is threatened, it quickly change its colors through the manipulation of its chromatophores. It creates black, white and yellow patches on its dark brown skin and turns the tips of its arms bright red. These bright colors are used to warn other creatures of its venomous nature. It will keep this color pattern while waving its protective arm membranes, until it no longer feels threatened. Cuttlefish in general will secrete ink to disorient a predator and escape.

Anti-predator Adaptations: aposematic ; cryptic

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Patel, C. and M. Smith 2011. "Metasepia pfefferi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Metasepia_pfefferi.html
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Chandni N. Patel, Rutgers University
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Michael J. Smith, Rutgers University
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David V. Howe, Rutgers University
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Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Reproduction

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The females generally mate with more than one male. Sometimes male cuttlefish may spray water into the female's buccal area to clear out spermatophores from previous mates.

Mating System: polyandrous

Males will put on colorful displays to attract females. Some males may change color to look like a female to avoid a more aggressive male, but gain access to a female.

Sexes are separate. Metasepia pfefferi reproduces by internal fertilization. Males have a specialized, hectocotyl arm that is used for holding and transferring spermatophores (packets of sperm) into the females buccal areas during mating. The female grabs the spermatophores with her arms and wipes them onto her eggs. After fertilization, the female lays her eggs one by one in hard to reach cracks and crevices to hide and provide protection against predators.

Breeding interval: Cuttlefish breed six to eight weeks in the spring.

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous

The females lay eggs in places that hide them from predators, but there is no parental care post-hatching as cuttlefish die after spawning.

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female)

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Patel, C. and M. Smith 2011. "Metasepia pfefferi" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Metasepia_pfefferi.html
author
Chandni N. Patel, Rutgers University
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Michael J. Smith, Rutgers University
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David V. Howe, Rutgers University
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Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Brief Summary

provided by EOL authors

Pfeffer's flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi) is a small (6-8 cm long, excluding the tentacles) species of cuttlefish occurring in tropical Indo-Pacific waters off northern Australia, New Guinea and the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia.These creatures live in shallow waters, on mud or sandy bottoms, and are remarkable in being the only cuttlefish known to “walk” along the sea floor rather than swim.When threatened, they boldly hold their ground rather than dart away as do other cuttlefish species. This strategy is thought possible because M. pfefferi has recently been discovered to have poisonous flesh (the only toxic cuttlefish), perhaps with toxicity similar to that of the deadly blue-ringed octopuses, genus Hapalochlaena.Its toxins, a very different class from those used by Hapalochlaena, are being investigated for potentially useful bioactive molecules (Fremlin 2011; Allen et al. 2013; Williams et al. 2011).

The common name of M. pfefferi describes well their dramatic color and pattern changing abilities, used for communication and camouflage. As soon as they hatch, the direct-developing juveniles, miniature versions of the adults, are able to color-change as adults do (Protect our coral sea 2009-14; Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation 2014; MarineBIo Conservation Society 2013).

Although not especially common, flamboyant cuttlefish have been cultured in captivity.The Monterey Bay Aquarium has bed many generations and makes them available to other institutions.They are also popular in the aquarium industry, though they live only about a year and are very difficult to breed.Their population status and the impact of potential threats such as harvesting and ocean acidification, is at this point unknown (Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation 2014; Barratt and Allcock 2012).

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Comprehensive Description

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Metasepia pfefferi wanda Iredale, 1954

Species in Group 3b,c have previously been placed in the genus or subgenus Doratosepion. The Australian species was placed in the genus Arctosepia by Iredale.

d. Outer cone with or without wings; posterior spine keeled. Tentacular suckers unequal or subequal in size.

South Africa: S. australis.

Arafura Sea: S. sulcata.

Gulf of Omar: S. omani.

Species in Group 3d have previously been placed in the genus or subgenus Rhombosepion.

e. Outer cone with wings; posterior spine absent. Tentacular suckers subequal or unequal in size.

Indian Ocean, Red Sea: S. arabica.

Europe, West Africa: S. elegans.

Japan: S. erostrata.

Species in Group 3e have previously been placed in the genera or subgenera Rhombosepion and Parasepia.

GROUP 4.—Sepion relatively broad, with developed inner cone and without posterior wings at outer cone; posterior spine absent. Tentacular suckers unequal or subequal in size.

Central Indo-West Pacific: S. bandensis.

Red Sea: S. dollfusi, S. gibba.

South Africa: S. angulata, S. elobyana (West Africa), S. hieronis, S. insignis, S. papillata, S. tuberculata.

Species of Group 4 have previously been placed in the genera or subgenera Lophosepion, Spathidosepion, and Rhombosepion.

GROUP 5.—Sepion completely chitinous, oval, acuminate anteriorly. Tentacular suckers subequal in size; dorsal arms with finger-like tips, devoid of suckers.

South Africa: S. faurei, S. robsoni.

Sepia robsoni was described as Rhombosepion robsoni by Massy.

GROUP 6.—Subgenus Hemisepius. Sepion very thin, without posterior spine, phragmocone considerably shorter than dorsal shield; inner cone reduced. Tentacular suckers subequal in size.

South Africa: S. dubia, S. typica.

Sepia typica has been placed in the genus Rhombosepion by Massy.

GROUP 7.—Genus Metasepia. Sepion rhomboidal, much shorter than mantle, with completely chitinous dorsal surface. Tentacular suckers few, unequal in size. Inner cone very narrow; posterior spine absent.

Arafura Sea, Northern Australia: M. pfefferi.

Japan: M. tullbergi.

GROUP 8.—Genus Sepiella. Mantle with posterior gland and characteristic locking apparatus. Tentacular suckers subequal in size, in 8–32 longitudinal series. Sepion with outer cone expanded, inner cone reduced, posterior spine absent.

Members of this genus are restricted to the Indo-West Pacific, Red Sea, South Africa, and West Africa. Rochebrune (1884) has placed individuals of Sepiella inermis in the genera Sepiella, Diphtherosepion, and Rhombosepion.

Recommendations

As discussed earlier, characters of the sepion are important in the species identification of cuttlefish. The following cautions and recommendations are made in order to avoid or minimize some of the pitfalls discussed earlier.

(1) Care must be taken in identifying cuttlefish using sepions alone. All character components described above must be examined, and consideration must be given to individual and geographical variations and to changes due to growth and sexual dimorphism. For comparison, a large series of specimens is recommended.

(2) Descriptions of cuttlefish taxa must contain information on both the sepion and the soft parts of the animal. Avoid describing a new taxon based on beach-collected sepions alone. Taxa based on beach-collected sepions, although permitted by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1985), are incompletely known and often leave gaps in our knowledge that may not be filled for years. For example, Sepia bartletti (Iredale, 1954), Sepia baxteri (Iredale, 1940), Sepia glauerti (Cotton, 1929), and Sepia mira (Cotton, 1932), are still in question as they are only known from the sepion types. Beach-collected specimens do not provide either gender information or adequate distribution information because sepions can be carried over long distances by ocean currents.

(3) To prevent decalcification of sepions during specimen preparation and storage, cuttlefish specimens must be fixed in 10% buffered formalin and stored in 70% alcohol with glycerol (5% concentration) added. Adding two or three marble chips as a chemical buffer in the jar is beneficial. Liquid storage also is beneficial because sepions stored in dry conditions often suffer damages, such as cracking and chipping.
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Voss, N. A. and Sweeney, M. J. 1998. "Systematics and Biogeography of cephalopods. Volume I." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-276. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.586

Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Metasepia pfefferi (Hoyle, 1885)

Sepia (Metasepia) pfefferi Hoyle, 1885:199. [Holotype, BMNH 1890.I.24.II, female, 52 mm ML, in alcohol; not examined.]

Metasepia pfefferi laxior Iredale, 1926b:240. [Syntypes: AM C133326, sepion, 50.5 mm SL, Masthead Island, Qld (23°32′S, 151°43′E); AM C19084, 2 sepions, 26.4 mm SL and 1 incomplete specimen, Masthead Island, Qld (23°32′S, 151°43′E).]

Metasepia pfefferi wanda Iredale, 1954:78. [Holotype, AM C133314, sepion, 30 mm SL, Denham Bay, Shark Bay, WA (25°31′S, 112°29′E).]

DIAGNOSIS.—Mantle broadly oval; anterior dorsal margin slightly angular; ventral margin broadly emarginate. Tentacular club (Figure 27a) short, swimming membrane twice club length. Protective membranes separated at base of club. Club suckers in 5 to 6 longitudinal series, 4 median suckers much larger than others. Arm suckers quadriserial. Left arm IV of male hectocotylized.

Sepion (Figure 27b–e) rhomboidal diamond-shaped, acuminate at both ends, more so on posterior end, much shorter than mantle. Dorsal surface completely chitinous, without ribs, slightly convex in middle, flatter toward margins. Ventral surface thick in anterior , with deep median groove in anterior part of striated zone. Striae reversed V-shaped. Last loculus short. Inner cone forming narrow, rounded ridge, ridge diminishing toward posterior end. Outer cone narrow, surrounding inner cone.

ORIGINAL REFERENCE.—Hoyle, 1885:199.

TYPE LOCALITY.—H.M.S. Challenger sta 188, 9°59′S, 139°42′E, South of Papua, Arafura Sea, 28 fathoms (51.2 m).

TYPE.—Holotype: BMNH 1890.I.24.II, by original designation, female specimen in alcohol, 52 mm ML (fide Adam and Rees, 1966); not examined.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.—Northern Australia from Mandurah, WA (32°33′S, 115°04′E), to Moreton Bay, southern Qld (27°25′S, 151°43′E), at depths of 3–86 m.
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bibliographic citation
Voss, N. A. and Sweeney, M. J. 1998. "Systematics and Biogeography of cephalopods. Volume I." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-276. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.586

Metasepia pfefferi

provided by wikipedia EN

Flamboyant cuttlefish neutral palette

Metasepia pfefferi, also known as the flamboyant cuttlefish, is a species of cuttlefish occurring in tropical Indo-Pacific waters off northern Australia, southern New Guinea, as well as numerous islands of the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia. The flesh of this colorful cephalopod contains unique acids, making it unsuitable for consumption.[3]

Distribution

The natural range of M. pfefferi extends from Mandurah in Western Australia (), northeastward to Moreton Bay in southern Queensland (), and across the Arafura Sea to the southern coast of New Guinea.[4] The species has also been recorded from Sulawesi and the Maluku Islands in Indonesia, and even as far west as the Malaysian islands of Mabul and Sipadan.[5] They are also common in the Philippines and are frequently sighted in the Visayas.

The type specimen, a female, was collected off Challenger Station 188 in the Arafura Sea () at a depth of 51 m on October 9, 1874, as part of the Challenger expedition.[4][6] It is deposited at The Natural History Museum in London.[7]

Description

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Individual from Bitung, North Sulawesi

M. pfefferi is a robust-looking species, having a very broad, oval mantle. Arms are broad and blade-like and have four rows of suckers. The modified arm used by males for fertilisation, called the hectocotylus, is borne on the left ventral arm. The oral surface of the modified region of the hectocotylus is wide, swollen, and fleshy. It bears transversely grooved ridges and a deep furrow running along the middle. The sucker-bearing surface of the tentacular clubs is flattened, with 5 or 6 suckers arranged in transverse rows. These suckers differ greatly in size, with the largest located near the centre of the club. Three to four median suckers are especially large, occupying most of middle portion of the club. The swimming keel of the club extends considerably near to the carpus. The dorsal and ventral protective membranes are not joined at the base of the club, but fused to the tentacular stalk. Dorsal and ventral membranes differ in length and extend near to the carpus along the stalk. The dorsal membrane forms a shallow cleft at the junction with the stalk.[4] This particular species of cuttlefish is the only one known to walk upon the sea floor. Due to the small size of its cuttlebone, it can float only for a short time.

Most sources agree that M. pfefferi grows to 8 cm (3.1 in) in mantle length,[5][8] although others give a maximum mantle length of 6 cm (2.4 in).[4] The dorsal surface of the mantle bears three pairs of large, flat, flap-like papillae. Papillae are also present over the eyes.[4]

The cuttlebone of this species is small, two-thirds to three-quarters the length of the mantle, and positioned in its anterior. Characteristic of the genus Metasepia, the cuttlebone is rhomboidal in outline. Both the anterior and posterior of the cuttlebone taper gradually to an acute point. The dorsal surface of the cuttlebone is yellowish and evenly convex. The texture throughout is smooth, lacking bumps or pustules. The dorsal median rib is absent. A thin film of chitin covers the entire dorsal surface. The cuttlebone lacks a pronounced spine; if present, it is small and chitinous. The striated zone of the cuttlebone is concave, with the last loculus being strongly convex and thick in the front third. The sulcus is deep and wide and extends along the striated zone only. Striae (furrows) on the anterior surface form an inverted V-shape. The limbs of the inner cone are very short, narrow, and uniform in width, with the U-shape thickened slightly towards the back. The cuttlebone of M. pfefferi does not possess an outer cone, unlike that of most other cuttlefish species.[4]

Habitat and biology

 src=
M. pfefferi in lateral view, displaying a threatening pattern of bright colours.

M. pfefferi has been recorded from sand and mud substrate in shallow waters at depths of 3 to 86 m. The species is active during the day and has been observed hunting fish and crustaceans. It employs complex and varied camouflage to stalk its prey. The normal base color of this species is dark brown. Individuals that are disturbed or attacked quickly change colour to a pattern of black, dark brown, white, with yellow patches around the mantle, arms, and eyes. The arm tips often display bright red coloration to ward off would-be predators. Animals displaying this colour pattern have been observed using their lower arms to walk or "amble" along the sea floor while rhythmically waving the wide protective membranes on their arms.[4] This behavior advertises a poisonous nature: The flesh of this cuttlefish contains a unique toxin.[5][3]

Reproduction

Copulation occurs face-to-face, with the male inserting a packet of sperm into a pouch on the underside of the female's mantle. The female then fertilises her eggs with the sperm. The eggs are laid singly and placed by the female in crevices or ledges in coral, rock, or wood. In one instance, around a dozen eggs were found under an overturned coconut half. They had been placed there by a female which had inserted them through the central hole of the husk. Thereby, the eggs were protected from predatory fish.[4][5]

Freshly laid eggs are white, but slowly turn translucent with time, making the developing cuttlefish clearly visible. From emergence, juvenile M. pfefferi are capable of producing the same camouflage patterns as adults.[4][5]

Commercial value

A toxicology report has confirmed that the muscle tissue of flamboyant cuttlefish is highly toxic, making it only the third cephalopod found to be poisonous. Research by Mark Norman with the Museum Victoria in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, has shown the toxin to be as lethal as that of fellow cephalopod the blue-ringed octopus.[3]

M. pfefferi represents no interest to fisheries for the above reason. If its supply were steady, the spectacular colour and textural displays of this species would make it an excellent candidate for private aquariums.[4] The species is sometimes seen in public aquariums, available through captive breeding programs, such as the Monterey Bay Aquarium.[9][10]

References

  1. ^ Barratt, I.; Allcock, L. (2012). "Metasepia pfefferi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012: e.T162681A943607. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T162681A943607.en. Retrieved 20 November 2021.
  2. ^ Julian Finn (2016). "Metasepia pfefferi (Hoyle, 1885)". World Register of Marine Species. Flanders Marine Institute. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  3. ^ a b c NOVA, 2007. Cuttlefish: Kings of Camouflage. [television program] NOVA, PBS, April 3, 2007. (Transcript)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Reid, A., P. Jereb, & C.F.E. Roper 2005. Family Sepiidae. In: P. Jereb & C.F.E. Roper, eds. Cephalopods of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species known to date. Volume 1. Chambered nautiluses and sepioids (Nautilidae, Sepiidae, Sepiolidae, Sepiadariidae, Idiosepiidae and Spirulidae). FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 4, Vol. 1. Rome, FAO. pp. 57–152.
  5. ^ a b c d e Norman, M.D. 2000. Cephalopods: A World Guide. ConchBooks.
  6. ^ Latitude and Longitude Data for Metasepia pfefferi Archived 2004-11-19 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Current Classification of Recent Cephalopoda
  8. ^ Okutani, T. 1995. Cuttlefish and squids of the world in color. Publication for the 30th anniversary of the foundation of the National Cooperative Association of Squid Processors.
  9. ^ Monterey Bay Aquarium: Flamboyant cuttlefish. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
  10. ^ Grasse, Bret (2014). The Biological Characteristics, Life Cycle, and System Design for the Flamboyant and Paintpot Cuttlefish, Metasepia sp., Cultured Through Multiple Generations. Drum and Croaker 45: 58-71.

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Metasepia pfefferi: Brief Summary

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Metasepia pfefferi, also known as the flamboyant cuttlefish, is a species of cuttlefish occurring in tropical Indo-Pacific waters off northern Australia, southern New Guinea, as well as numerous islands of the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia. The flesh of this colorful cephalopod contains unique acids, making it unsuitable for consumption.

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Seiche flamboyante

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Metasepia pfefferi

La seiche flamboyante (Metasepia pfefferi) est une espèce de seiche des eaux tropicales Indo-Pacifique au large de l'Australie du Nord, le sud de la Nouvelle-Guinée, ainsi que de nombreuses îles des Philippines, l'Indonésie et la Malaisie. Cette espèce de seiche est toxique. Son nom scientifique fait référence au zoologiste allemand Georg Johann Pfeffer qui étudiait principalement les céphalopodes.

Description

La seiche flamboyante est une espèce robuste, avec un manteau très large, de forme ovale. Elle mesure 6 ou 7 cm[1]. Les bras sont larges et comme des lames, avec une paire des bras plus courtes que les autres. Les membranes de protection sont étroites chez les deux sexes. Les ventouses sont disposées en quatre rangées. Le bras modifié du mâle pour la fertilisation, appelé hectocotyle, se situe sur le bras ventral gauche.

Cette espèce de seiche est la seule à être capable de marcher sur le plancher océanique en utilisant ses tentacules (bras). En raison de la petite taille de son os de seiche, elle peut flotter seulement pendant une courte durée.

Habitat et biologie

La seiche flamboyante vit sur les fonds sableux à des profondeurs allant de 3 à 86 m. Durant la journée, elle est active et chasse des poissons et des crustacés. Elle utilise un camouflage complexe et varié pour traquer sa proie. La couleur de base de cette espèce est brun foncé. Les individus qui sont dérangés ou agressés peuvent changer rapidement de couleur pour un modèle de noir, de brun foncé et blanc, avec des taches jaunes sur le manteau, les bras et les yeux. Les bras présentent souvent une coloration rouge vif pour repousser les prédateurs. La seiche flamboyante utilise deux de ses bras pour marcher sur le fond marin tout en agitant rythmiquement ses larges membranes de protection sur les bras. Les scientifiques suggèrent que ce comportement sert à avertir les prédateurs de sa toxicité. En effet, la chair de cette seiche est toxique, elle contient une toxine unique.

Reproduction

La copulation se produit en face-à-face, le mâle insérant un spermatophore dans une poche sur la face inférieure du manteau de la femelle. La femelle fertilise ses œufs avec le sperme. Les œufs sont pondus individuellement et placés par la femelle dans des crevasses ou des rebords de corail, de roches ou de bois. Dans un cas, environ une douzaine d'œufs ont été trouvés placés sous une demi-noix de coco renversée. Ainsi, les œufs ont été protégés des prédateurs.

Les œufs fraîchement pondus sont blancs, mais deviennent translucides avec le temps, rendant l'embryon clairement visible. Dès la naissance, les jeunes sont capables d'utiliser leur camouflage.

Relation avec l'homme

Un rapport de toxicologie a découvert et confirmé que les tissus musculaires de la seiche flamboyante sont hautement toxiques, ce qui en fait le troisième céphalopode toxique et l'unique seiche toxique. Les recherches menées par Mark Norman avec le Museum Victoria dans le Queensland, en Australie ont montré que sa toxine est aussi meurtrière que celle des pieuvres à anneaux bleus[2].

La seiche flamboyante ne représente aucun intérêt pour la pêche pour la raison citée ci-dessus. Si son offre était stable, les couleurs spectaculaires et le comportement de cette espèce en feraient un excellent candidat pour la maintenance en aquarium privé.

Galerie

Références

  • (en) Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu de l’article de Wikipédia en anglais intitulé .
  1. Collectif (trad. Michel Beauvais, Marcel Guedj, Salem Issad), Histoire naturelle [« The Natural History Book »], Flammarion, mars 2016, 650 p. (ISBN 978-2-0813-7859-9), Seiche flamboyante page 309
  2. (en) NOVA episode - Kings of Camouflage

Annexes

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Seiche flamboyante: Brief Summary

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Metasepia pfefferi

La seiche flamboyante (Metasepia pfefferi) est une espèce de seiche des eaux tropicales Indo-Pacifique au large de l'Australie du Nord, le sud de la Nouvelle-Guinée, ainsi que de nombreuses îles des Philippines, l'Indonésie et la Malaisie. Cette espèce de seiche est toxique. Son nom scientifique fait référence au zoologiste allemand Georg Johann Pfeffer qui étudiait principalement les céphalopodes.

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프페퍼 불꽃 갑오징어

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프페퍼 불꽃 갑오징어(Pfeffer's flamboyant cuttlefish)는 인도양과 서태평양 쪽에 서식하는 갑오징어목의 한 종이다. 주로 호주, 파푸아뉴기니 남쪽, 필리핀, 말레이시아 등에서 발견된다. 마크 노르만은 이 종이 독을 가지고 있다는 사실을 발견하였다.[1]

분포

웨스턴오스트레일리아주 만두라()에서 퀸즐랜드주 모턴만() 북동쪽과 아라푸라 해부터 파푸아 뉴기니 남해안에 걸쳐 사는 걸로 알려져 있다.[2] 인도네시아의 술라네시 섬말루쿠 제도에서 발견된 적이 있으며, 말레이시아의 마불 섬시파단 섬에서도 발견된 적이 있다.[3] 필리핀 비사야 제도에서 발견된다고도 한다.

각주

  1. NOVA, 2007. Cuttlefish: Kings of Camouflage. [television program] NOVA, PBS, April 3, 2007. (Transcript)
  2. Reid, A., P. Jereb, & C.F.E. Roper 2005. Family Sepiidae. In: P. Jereb & C.F.E. Roper, eds. Cephalopods of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species known to date. Volume 1. Chambered nautiluses and sepioids (Nautilidae, Sepiidae, Sepiolidae, Sepiadariidae, Idiosepiidae and Spirulidae). FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 4, Vol. 1. Rome, FAO. pp. 57–152.
  3. Norman, M.D. 2000. Cephalopods: A World Guide. ConchBooks.
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