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White Spotted Octopus

Callistoctopus macropus (Risso 1826)

Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Octopus macropus Risso, 1826

Octopus macropus Risso, 1826:3.

Octopus macropodus San Giovanni, 1829:319.

Octopus longimanus Orbigny, 1840:18.

Octopus alderi Verany, 1851:32, pl. 7bis.

Octopus bermudensis Hoyle, 1885:228.

DIAGNOSIS.—Animals medium-sized to large (25–155 mm ML). Mantle shape variable, usually elongate or ovoid, widest in posterior (MWI 32.5–75.0). Stylets present, very reduced in size. Neck often slightly constricted. Head narrower than mantle (HWI 26.5–70.5); eyes medium-sized, bulging. Mantle aperture wide. Funnel long, narrow (FLI 45–48); funnel organ W-shaped, lateral limbs shorter than median limbs. Arms long (ALI 75.5–87.5, MAI 14.1–36.1). Dorsal arms longest and stoutest; arm formula I > II > III > IV. Suckers medium-sized, arms I with largest suckers (SIn 6.9–13.5, no noticeable difference between males and females). Right arm III of male hectocotylized (HALI 40–43), shorter than opposite arm (OAI 41–51). Ligula small to medium-sized (LLI 4.5–8.0), narrow, pointed rather than blunt, with swollen margins, deep groove, and numerous delicate transverse lamellae; calamus short (CLI 13–18). Web shallow (WDI 7.3–16.7); web formula A > B > C > D > E; sector A distinctly deeper than B, sector E distinctly shallower than D. Ink sac present, well developed. Gills with 10 to 11 lamellae per outer demibranch. Mature ova 2.5 mm long, 1 mm wide. Penis small (PLI 12–28), distally rounded, with large forward- or backward-directed diverticulum. Spermatophores medium-sized (SpLI ∼50). Radula with A3 seriation of rachidian. Skin smooth, with or without large papillae over eyes. Color in life brick red or brownish with distinct pattern of white spots on dorsal mantle, head, and arms.

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION.—Risso, 1826:3.

TYPE LOCALITY.—Not indicated in original description; presumed to be western Mediterranean Sea, France, off Nice.

TYPE.—Not designated, presumed to be not extant.

DISTRIBUTION.—Mediterranean Sea: Western and eastern basins, Adriatic Sea. Eastern Atlantic Ocean: Dakar to St. Helena. Western Atlantic Ocean: United States (Florida) to Brazil, and in the Caribbean. Found in tropical to warm-temperate waters.

A shallow-water species that lives on both coral reefs and rocky and sandy bottoms mainly within the upper 20 m, at least in the Mediterranean Sea.
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bibliographic citation
Voss, N. A. and Sweeney, M. J. 1998. "Systematics and Biogeography of cephalopods. Volume II." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 277-599. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.586.277

Callistoctopus macropus

provided by wikipedia EN

Callistoctopus macropus, also known as the Atlantic white-spotted octopus, white-spotted octopus,[2][3] grass octopus or grass scuttle, is a species of octopus found in shallow areas of the Mediterranean Sea, the warmer parts of the eastern and western Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, and the Indo-Pacific region. This octopus feeds on small organisms which lurk among the branches of corals.

Description

Callistoctopus macropus grows to a mantle length of 20 cm (8 in) with a total length of 150 cm (59 in). The first pair of arms are a metre or so long, and are much longer than the remaining three pairs. The arms are all connected by a shallow web. This octopus is red, with white blotches on its body, and paired white spots on its arms. When it is disturbed, its colour becomes more intense, deimatic behaviour which may make it appear threatening to a potential predator.[4]

Distribution and habitat

Populations of Callistoctopus macropus form a species complex found in the Mediterranean Sea, the temperate and tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. It is also present in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It lives near the shore at depths down to about 17 m (56 ft). Its favoured habitat is sand, rubble or seagrass meadows, and it sometimes buries itself under the sand.[4]

Ecology

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Callistoctopus macropus

Callistoctopus macropus is more fastidious in its diet than is the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), a species with which it shares some of its range and which feeds by day.[5] Callistoctopus macropus, by contrast, feeds by night.[4] Its method of feeding is to move from one clump of branching coral to another, often Acropora or Stylophora spp.. The octopus wraps its mantle around a coral head and probes with its arms among the branches, searching for the small fish and invertebrates that seek protection there. It has been found that a number of groupers (family Serranidae) and other predatory fish associate with the octopus when it is feeding, pouncing on small organisms that are flushed from the coral head by the octopus.[6]

For many years, the breeding habits of this octopus were not known. Then a female was observed attaching short-stalked eggs, measuring 4 by 1.2 mm (0.16 by 0.05 in), to a hard surface forming a sheet of eggs. The female then brooded the eggs, caring for them by aerating them and keeping them clean. The female octopus stopped feeding at the time the eggs were laid and died soon after they had hatched, as is common among octopus species. The planktonic larvae which emerged from the eggs were each about 5.5 mm (0.2 in) in length with short, seven-suckered arms. They fed on zooplankton such as crustacean larvae.[4][7]

References

  1. ^ Allcock, L.; Taite, M.; Allen, G. (2018). "Callistoctopus macropus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T163354A1001383. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T163354A1001383.en. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  2. ^ Norman, M.D. 2000. Cephalopods: A World Guide. ConchBooks.
  3. ^ Bouchet, P. (2014). Callistoctopus macropus (Risso, 1826). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=534558 on 2015-02-01
  4. ^ a b c d Wigton, Rachel. Wood, James B. (ed.). "Grass octopus (Octopus macropus)". Marine Invertebrates of Bermuda. The Cephalopod Page. Archived from the original on 2016-01-19. Retrieved 2014-07-25.
  5. ^ Meisel, Daniela V.; Byrne, Ruth A.; Kuba, Michael; Mather, Jennifer; Ploberger, Werner; Reschenhofer, Erhard (2006). "Contrasting activity patterns of two related octopus species, Octopus macropus and Octopus vulgaris". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 120 (3): 191–197. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.120.3.191. PMID 16893256.
  6. ^ Diamant, Ariel; Shpigel, Mucky (1995). "Interspecific feeding associations of groupers (Teleostei: Serranidae) with octopuses and moray eels in the Gulf of Eilat (Agaba)". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 13 (2): 153–159. doi:10.1007/BF00002584. S2CID 45887863.
  7. ^ Boletsky, Sigurd v.; Fuentès, Michael; Offner, Nicolas (2001). "First record of spawning and embryonic development in Octopus macropus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK. 81 (4): 703–704. doi:10.1017/S002531540100443X. S2CID 85695823.
  • Norman M.D. & Hochberg F.G. (2005) The current state of Octopus taxonomy. Phuket Marine Biological Center Research Bulletin 66:127–154

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Callistoctopus macropus: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Callistoctopus macropus, also known as the Atlantic white-spotted octopus, white-spotted octopus, grass octopus or grass scuttle, is a species of octopus found in shallow areas of the Mediterranean Sea, the warmer parts of the eastern and western Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, and the Indo-Pacific region. This octopus feeds on small organisms which lurk among the branches of corals.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN