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Football Octopus

Ocythoe tuberculata Rafinesque 1814

Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Ocythoe tuberculata Rafinesque, 1814

Ocythoe tuberculata Rafinesque, 1814, p.29.—Berry, 1916, p.l, fig. 1; 1955, p. 177, fig. 1.—Naef, 1923, p. 749, text figs. 447—454.–Sasaki, 1929, p.26, pl.3, figs. 13, 14, pl.8, figs. 12–16, text fig.8.—Robson, 1932, p.201, text fig.27.

DESCRIPTION.—The thick, muscular mantle is short and broad. The free edge extends to the level of the dorsal margin of each eye. The ventral surface of the mantle is covered with tubercules and inner connecting ridges in females. The tubercules are more closely spaced at the posterior end of the mantle, along the ventral mantle margin, and along the lateral sides.

The funnel is very large; it reaches anteriorly well past the bases of the arms. Laterally, the basal portion is fused to the head; the tubular portion is long and free. Between the base of each arm IV and the funnel is a large pore. The funnel organ is very large; the dorsal pad has the shape of an inverted V. The 2 ventral pads are separate and elongate. The locking-apparatus on the funnel consists of a knob with an anterior flaring lip that lies above a deep pit. The structure locks with a corresponding groove and ridge on the mantle. The “olfactory” organ consists of a flattened pad which may either protrude from the body surface or reside in a shallow pit and is located near the dorsoposterior edge of each eye. The eyes are moderately large. The arms have the characteristic formula I=IV>II=III. There is no web connecting the bases of the arms. The suckers, which are biserial and project well above the surface of each arm, are connected along either margin by a muscular membrane. The arms lack keels or at most are merely angled aborally.

The males are much the smaller. The only male in the present collections has a M.L. of 15 mm, but is immature. The right arm III is hectocotylized and enrolled in a membranous sac. This arm has 2 well-separated rows of flattened suckers. The inner aperatures of the suckers are small and displaced toward the medial end of the transversely oval sucking disk. The lateral margin of the suckers is fused to a marginal membrane which extends along both sides of the arm. There are 66 of these large suckers on the arm. The arm narrows abruptly at the distal end of the sucker-bearing portion and continues as a slender and attenuate filament which appears to be considerably longer than the sucker-bearing portion of the arm. The proximal portion of the filament is enrolled in a separate sac which forms a bulb at the tip of the sucker-bearing portion of the arm. There are 2 small pads that appear to be reduced suckers on the surface of this sac.

Females have approximately 34 gill filaments, and the only male specimen has 21.

The radula has a tricuspid rachidian tooth, tricuspid first lateral, bicuspid second laterals, unicuspid third laterals, and marginal plaques.
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bibliographic citation
Young, Richard E. 1972. "The systematics and areal distribution of pelagic cephalopods from the seas off Southern California." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-159. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.97

Ocythoe tuberculata

provided by wikipedia EN

Ocythoe tuberculata, also known as the tuberculate pelagic octopus or football octopus, is a pelagic octopus. It is the only known species in the family Ocythoidae.

Ocythoe tuberculata is found in warm and temperate seas, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, such as the North Pacific Ocean off California.

Description

Morphology

Ocythoe are one of the few cephalopods to have a swimbladder.[3] In captivity, two specimens were observed controlling their buoyancy and shooting water "forwards, upwards, sideways, and backwards" from the upper channel of the mantle cavity. Ocythoe achieves this by altering the dorso-lateral corners of the mantle opening.[3] The entire swimbladder structure rests on the "visceral mass" and connects to the mantle cavity. It is also innervated and vascular.[3] Juvenile and adult swimbladders exhibit key differences. Juveniles tend to have thicker and "gelatinous" walls with more spherical cells.[3] Adults on the other hand have a less gelatinous appearance and a constitutively open lumen.[3] Dwarf males do not possess swimbladders.[3] Ocythoe is the only cephalopod to possess a proper gas bladder, based on specimens kept in captivity, although the origins of the gas is still an area of research.[3]

Sexual dimorphism

Female and male tuberculate pelagic octopuses have distinct morphological differences. Females exhibit a larger dorsal mantle length upon maturity around 300 millimeters, while males only reach a dorsal mantle length of around 30 millimeters.[4] The females are around 1 m (3.3 ft) long when full-grown. The males are considerably smaller, around 10 cm (3.9 in). Males also have a well-developed hectocotylus on the third arm.[4] This structure contains the spermatophores and is dislodged and detached in the mantle of the female during mating and remains for an extended period of time for fertilization.[4]

Young females and mature males have been observed residing inside salps, although little is known about this relationship.

Distribution

O. tuberculata have been well known for inhabiting mainly northern hemisphere waters, typically in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the eastern and western parts of the North Atlantic.[4] O. tuberculata has also been found in the northern Pacific waters, with very few individuals found in the southern hemisphere, either in the Indian or Pacific oceans.[4] O. tuberculata has typically been found in warmer waters. There is some speculation that warm ocean currents moving eastward from the Indian Ocean are responsible for the small sample of specimens found in northern pacific waters, but this has yet to be confirmed or denied.[4]

O. tuberculata is a near-surface dwelling pelagic octopus, living between depths of 100 and 200 meters.[4]

Lifespan and reproduction

Female tuberculate pelagic octopuses are known to have a high fecundity, producing nearly 100,000 eggs. One female specimen caught in May 2003 had a record-breaking 1 million eggs, the most of any Octopoda.[5] Egg size is typically very small, measuring 1.75 mm long and 1.00 mm wide.[4] This has been seen as a trend in other pelagic octopus species. Tuberculate pelagic octopuses is said to be viviparous, meaning their offspring develop with in the body of the parent.[4] However, several different authors dispute exactly how and where this development occurs. The general consensus is the eggs develop in expanded oviducts.[4] Fertilization occurs when the hectocotylus is deposited from the male in the female's mantle cavity.[4]

Diet

The diet of Ocythoe is undocumented, however most octopuses are predatory. It is known that open ocean octopuses typically feed on prawns, fish, or other cephalopods.[6]

Predators

There are a number of known predators that prey on Ocythoe. These are lancet fishes (Alepisaurus borealis and A. ferox), tunas (Thunnus alalunga, T. thunnus, and Germon germon), and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).[4] These predators have a large vertical range, and typically prey on O. tuberculata between 100 and 200 meters.[4]

Gallery

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Lower (left) and upper beaks of female Ocythoe tuberculata in lateral view
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References

  1. ^ Allcock, L. (2014). "Ocythoe tuberculata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T163075A969155. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T163075A969155.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b Serge Gofas (2017). "Ocythoe Rafinesque, 1814". World Register of Marine Species. Flanders Marine Institute. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Packard, A; Wurtz, M (28 May 1994). "An Octopus, Ocythoe, with a Swimbladder and Triple Jets". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 344 (1309): 261–275. doi:10.1098/rstb.1994.0065.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Roper, Clyde; Sweeney, Michael (March 1976). "THE PELAGIC OCTOPOD OCYTHOE TUBERCULATA RAFINESQUE, 1814" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Malacological Union: 21–28 – via The Smithsonian Institution.
  5. ^ Salman, Alp; Meryem, Akalin (2012). "A Rare Pelagic Cephalopod Ocythoe tuberculata (Octopoda: Argonautoidea): The Record Fecundity for Octopoda and New Data on Morphometry" (PDF). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 12: 339–344 – via Direct.
  6. ^ Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu. "3. – Octopus and squid – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". teara.govt.nz. Retrieved 27 February 2018.

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Ocythoe tuberculata: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Ocythoe tuberculata, also known as the tuberculate pelagic octopus or football octopus, is a pelagic octopus. It is the only known species in the family Ocythoidae.

Ocythoe tuberculata is found in warm and temperate seas, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, such as the North Pacific Ocean off California.

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Distribution

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cosmopolitan, temperate-tropical
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bibliographic citation
Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication. van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).
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Jacob van der Land [email]
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Jacob van der Land [email]

Distribution

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Western Atlantic: Massachusetts to the West Indies
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WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication. van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]
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Kennedy, Mary [email]

Habitat

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epipelagic
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bibliographic citation
Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication. van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).
contributor
Jacob van der Land [email]
contributor
Jacob van der Land [email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Known from seamounts and knolls
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication. van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).
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[email]
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