dcsimg
Image of African Baobab
Creatures » » Plants » » Angiosperms » » Mallows »

African Baobab

Adansonia digitata L.

Derivation of specific name

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
digitata: having digitate leaves.
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Adansonia digitata L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=139770
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
partner site
Flora of Zimbabwe

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Massive tree, not usually more than 20 m, but with a trunk up to 10 m in diameter. Stipules caducous. Leaves crowded at the ends of branches with a distinctive slightly unpleasant smell when crushed. Leaves (on very young plants) simple and sessile or 3-foliolate and petiolate (both types may be present together), entire or shallowly dentate. (See image no. 4). Leaves (on mature trees) 5-7-foliolate, palmate with petiole up to 12 cm. Leaflet lamina (mature trees) 5-15 × 3-7 cm, oblong-elliptic to obovate-elliptic, covered below when young with stellate hairs or glabrous. Flowers usually pendent. Petals 6(-10) × 7(-12) cm, white. Fruit up to c.25 × 12 cm, ovoid to oblong-cylindric, variable and sometimes irregular in shape, velvety-brown-tomentose. Seeds c.1.3 × 0.9 cm, many, reniform.
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Adansonia digitata L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=139770
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
partner site
Flora of Zimbabwe

Frequency

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Common at low altitudes.
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Adansonia digitata L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=139770
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
partner site
Flora of Zimbabwe

Worldwide distribution

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Tropical and sub-tropical Africa, parts of the Middle East and India.
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Adansonia digitata L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=139770
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
partner site
Flora of Zimbabwe

Adansonia digitata

provided by wikipedia EN

Adansonia digitata, the African baobab, is the most widespread tree species of the genus Adansonia, the baobabs, and is native to the African continent and the southern Arabian Peninsula (Yemen, Oman). These are long-lived pachycauls; radiocarbon dating has shown some individuals to be over 2000 years old. They are typically found in dry, hot savannas of sub-Saharan Africa, where they dominate the landscape and reveal the presence of a watercourse from afar. They have traditionally been valued as sources of food, water, health remedies or places of shelter and are a key food source for many animals. They are steeped in legend and superstition. In recent years, many of the largest, oldest trees have died, possibly due to climate change. Common names for the baobab include monkey-bread tree, upside-down tree, and cream of tartar tree.

Description

 src=
Each leaf comprises five leaflets
 src=
Open flower
 src=
Bisected flower
 src=
Two pollen grains overlapped
 src=
The fruit can be up to 25 centimetres (10 in) long and is used to make a drink

General

African baobabs are trees that often grow as solitary individuals, and are large and distinctive elements of savanna or scrubland vegetation. They grow from 5–25 m (16–82 ft) tall.[2] The trunk is typically very broad and fluted or cylindrical, often with a buttressed, spreading base.[3] Trunks may reach a diameter of 10–14 m (33–46 ft),[3] and may be made up of multiple stems fused around a hollow core.[4] The hollow core found in many tree species is the result of wood removal, such as decay of the oldest, internal part of the trunk. In baobabs, however, many of the largest and oldest of the trees have a hollow core that is the result of a fused circle of three to eight stems sprouting from roots.[4] The bark is gray and usually smooth. Main branches can be massive. All baobabs are deciduous, losing their leaves in the dry season, and remaining leafless for about eight months of the year. Flowers are large, white and hanging. Fruits are rounded with a thick shell.[3]

Leaves

Leaves are palmately compound with 5 to 7 (sometimes up to 9) leaflets in mature trees, but seedlings and regenerating shoots may have simple leaves. The transition to compound leaves comes with age and may be gradual. African baobabs produce simple leaves much longer than most other Adansonia species. Leaflets are stalkless (sessile) to short-stalked and size is variable.[3]

Flowers

Flowering occurs in both the dry and the wet season.[3] Buds are rounded with a cone-shaped tip. Flowers are showy and sometimes paired, but usually produced singly at the end of a 15-90 cm long hanging stalk. The calyx is typically made up of 5 (sometimes 3) green triangular bent-back lobes (sepals) with a cream-coloured, hairy interior. The petals are white, roughly the same width and length – up to 8 cm, and are crumpled in bud.[3] Flowers open during the late afternoon, staying open and fertile for only one night.[5] The fresh flowers have a sweet scent, but after about 24 hours, they start to turn brown and emit a carrion smell.[5] The androecium is white and made up of a 3-6 cm long tube of fused stamens (a staminal tube) surrounded by unfused (free) filaments 3–5 cm long. There are a large number of stamens, 720-1600 per flower. Styles are white, growing through the staminal tube and projecting beyond it. They are usually bent at right-angles and topped with an irregular stigma. Pollen grains are spherical with spikes over the surface, typical of the Malvaceae family. Pollen grain diameter is around 50 microns.[6]

Fruit

All Adansonia develop large rounded indehiscent fruits with a woody outer shell. African baobab fruits are quite variable in shape, from nearly round to cylindrical. The shell is 6-10 mm thick.[3] Inside is a fleshy, light beige coloured pulp. As it dries, the pulp hardens into a crumbly powder.[7] The seeds are hard and kidney-shaped with a .06 mm thick coat.[7] They show long-term dormancy, only germinating after fire or passing thru an animal’s digestive tract.[7] It is thought that this is because the seed coat needs to be cracked or thinned to allow to water to penetrate before the seed can germinate.[7]

History

The earliest written reports of African baobab are from a 14th-century travelogue by the Arab traveler Ibn Batuta.[3] The first botanical description was by Alpino (1592) looking at fruits that he observed in Egypt from an unknown source. They were called Bahobab, possibly from the Arabic "bu hibab," meaning "many-seeded fruit".[3] The French explorer and botanist, Michel Adanson observed a baobab tree in 1749 on the island of Sor, Senegal and wrote the first detailed botanical description of the full tree, accompanied with illustrations. Recognizing the connection to the fruit described by Alpino he called the genus Baobab. Linnaeus later renamed the genus Adansonia, to honour Adason, but use of baobab as one of the common names has persisted.[3] Additional common names include monkey-bread tree (the soft, dry fruit is edible), upside-down tree (the sparse branches resemble roots), and cream of tartar tree (cream of tartar) because of the powdery fruit pulp.[8]

Taxonomy

The scientific name Adansonia refers to the French explorer and botanist, Michel Adanson (1727–1806), who wrote the first botanical description for the full species.[3] "Digitata" refers to the digits of the hand, as the baobab has compound leaves with normally five (but up to seven) leaflets, akin to a hand.[9] A. digitata is the type species for the genus Adansonia and is the only species in the section Adansonia.[3] All species of Adansonia except A. digitata are diploid; A. digitata is tetraploid.[10] Some populations of African baobab have significant genetic differences and it has been suggested that the taxon contains more than one species. For example, the shape of the fruit varies considerably from region to region.[11] In Angola, the fruits are elongated, rather than round.[3] A proposed new species (Adansonia kilima Pettigrew, et al.), was described in 2012, found in high-elevation sites in eastern and southern Africa.[10] This is now however no longer recognized as a distinct species[6] but considered a synonym of A. digitata. Some high-elevation trees in Tanzania show different genetics and morphology but further study is needed to determine if they should be considered a separate species.[6]

Distribution

The African Baobab is associated with tropical savannahs.[7] It is found in drier climates, is sensitive to water logging and frost and is not found in areas where sand is deep.[12] It is native to mainland Africa, between the latitudes 16° N and 26° S.[4] Some references consider it as introduced to Yemen and Oman[13] while others consider it native there.[14] The tree has also been introduced to many other regions including Australia and Asia.[15]

The northern limit of its distribution in Africa is associated with rainfall patterns; only on the Atlantic coast and in the Sudanian savanna does its occurrence venture naturally into the Sahel. On the Atlantic coast, this may be due to spreading after cultivation. Its occurrence is very limited in Central Africa, and it is found only in the very north of South Africa. In East Africa, the trees grow also in shrublands and on the coast. In Angola and Namibia, the baobabs grow in woodlands, and in coastal regions, in addition to savannas.[16] The African Bayobab is native to Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria, northern Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Congo Republic, DR Congo (formerly Zaire), Eritrea, Ethiopia, southern Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, Angola, São Tomé, Príncipe, Annobon, South Africa (in Limpopo province, north of the Soutpansberg mountain range), Namibia, Botswana.[13][17] It is an introduced species in Java, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Seychelles, Comoros, India, Guangdong, Fujian, Yunnan[13] and has been planted in Penang, Malaysia, along certain streets.[18] Arab traders introduced it to northwestern Madagascar where baobab trees were often planted at the center of villages.[2]

Habitat and Ecology

All baobabs are deciduous, losing their leaves in the dry season, and remaining leafless for about eight months of the year.[3] The African Baobab is largely found in savannah habitats, which tend to be fire-prone. Adaptations to survive frequent fires include a thick and fire-resistant bark and thick-shelled fruit. Trees older than about 15 years have thick enough bark to withstand the heat of most savannah fires, while younger trees can resprout after fire.[7] The thick outer shell of the fruit may serve to protect the seeds.

Pollination in the African baobab is achieved primarily by fruit bats, in West Africa mainly the straw-coloured fruit bat, Gambian epauletted fruit bat, and the Egyptian fruit bat. The flowers are also visited by bush babies, galagos, and several kinds of insect.[19]

With their hard coat, baobab seeds can withstand drying and remain viable over long periods. The fruits are eaten by many species and the germination potential is improved when seeds have passed through the digestive tract of an animal or have been subjected to fire.[3] Elephants and baboons are main dispersal agents[3] and so the seeds can potentially be dispersed over long distances. The fruits float and the seeds are waterproof, so African bayobabs may also be spread by water.[3] Some aspects of the baobab's reproductive biology are not yet understood but it is thought that pollen from another tree may be required to develop fertile seed. Isolated trees without a pollen source from another tree do form fruit, only to abort them at a later stage. The existence of some very isolated trees may then be due to their ability to disperse long distances but self-incompatibility.[11]

Longevity

Their growth rate is determined by ground water or rainfall,[5][20] Baobab trees produce faint growth rings, but counting growth rings is not a reliable way to age baobabs because some years a tree will form multiple rings and some year none.[21]

Radiocarbon dating has provided data on a few individuals of A. digitata. The Panke baobab in Zimbabwe was some 2,450 years old when it died in 2011, making it the oldest angiosperm ever documented, and two other trees — Dorslandboom in Namibia and Glencoe in South Africa — were estimated to be approximately 2,000 years old.[22] Another specimen known as Grootboom was dated after it died and found to be at least 1275 years old.[23][14] Baobabs may be so long-lived in part due to their ability to periodically sprout new stems.[4]

Uses

 src=
A cow-herder in Senegal harvests baobab leaves for forage in the dry season

The fruit, bark, roots and leaves are a key food source for many animals and the trees themselves are an important source of shade and shelter.[24] People have traditionally valued them as sources of food, water, health remedies or places of shelter. The baobab is a traditional food plant in Africa, but is little-known elsewhere.[5] Adanson concluded that the baobab, of all the trees he studied, "is probably the most useful tree in all." He consumed baobab juice twice a day while in Africa, and was convinced that it maintained his health.[25]

Fruit

 src=
Fruit of A. digitata
 src=
The hanging fruits at Ala Moana Beach Park, Oahu in Hawaii

The fruit has been suggested to have the potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development, and support sustainable land care.[26] In Sudan — where the tree is called tebeldi تبلدي — people make tabaldi juice by soaking and dissolving the dry pulp of the fruit in water, locally known as gunguleiz.[27]

Leaves and seed

 src=
The seeds with coins

Baobab leaves can be eaten as a relish. Young fresh leaves are cooked in a sauce and sometimes are dried and powdered. The powder is called lalo in Mali and sold in many village markets in Western Africa. The leaves are used in the preparation of a soup termed miyan kuka in Northern Nigeria and are rich in phytochemicals and minerals.[28] Oil extracted by pounding the seeds can be used for cooking but this is not widespread.[29] Baobab leaves are sometimes used as forage for ruminants in dry season. The oilmeal, which is a byproduct of oil extraction, can also be used as animal feed.[30]

Bark

The fiber of the bark can be used to make cloth.[31] In times of drought, elephants consume the juicy wood beneath the bark of the baobab.[31]

For export

In 2008, the European Union approved the use and consumption of baobab fruit. It is commonly used as an ingredient in smoothies and cereal bars.[32] In 2009, the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) granted generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status to baobab dried fruit pulp as a food ingredient.[33]

Legends and stories

Along the Zambezi, the tribes believed that baobabs were upright and too proud. The gods became angry and uprooted them and threw them back into the ground upside-down. Evil spirits now cause bad luck to anyone that picks up the sweet white flowers. More specifically, a lion will kill them.[34] In Kafue National Park, one of the largest baobabs is known as “Kondanamwali” or the “tree that eats maidens.” The tree fell in love with four beautiful maidens. When they reached puberty, they made the tree jealous by finding husbands. So, one night, during a thunderstorm, the tree opened its trunk and took the maidens inside. A rest house has been built in the branches of the tree. On stormy nights, the crying of the imprisoned maidens can still be heard.[34] Some people believe that women living in kraals where baobabs are plenty will have more children. This is scientifically plausible as those women will have better access to the tree's vitamin-rich leaves and fruits to complement a vitamin-deficient diet.[34]

The tree also plays a role in Antoine De Saint-Exupéry’s fictional children’s book, The Little Prince. In the story, baobabs are described as dangerous plants which must be weeded out from the good plants, lest they overcome a small planet and even break it to pieces.[35]

Conservation status and threats

The baobab is a protected tree in South Africa,[36] and yet is threatened by various mining and development activities.[37] In the Sahel, the effects of drought, desertification and over-use of the fruit have been cited as causes for concern.[38] As of March 2022 African baobab is not yet classified by the IUCN Red List, although there is evidence that populations may be declining. Many of the largest and oldest African baobabs have died in recent years.[24] Greenhouse gases, climate change, and global warming appear to be factors reducing baobab longevity.[39]

Prominent specimens

A number of individual baobab trees attract sightseers due to their age, size, history, location or isolated occurrence.

Botswana

Around Gweta, Botswana, some have been declared national monuments. Green's Baobab, 27 km south of Gweta was inscribed by the 19th-century hunters and traders Frederick Thomas Green and Hendrik Matthys van Zyl besides other ruthless characters. Fred and Charles Green passed the baobab during an expedition to Lake Ngami and left the inscription "Green’s Expedition 1858–1859". An earlier inscription by an unknown traveller reads "1771".[40] About 11 km south of Green's Baobab is the turn-off to Chapman's Baobab, also known as Seven Sisters or Xaugam, i.e. "lion's tail" in Tsoa. It was once an enormous multi-stemmed tree, used by passing explorers, traders and travellers as a navigation beacon. It guided them as they navigated the extensive salt pan northwards, while a hollow in the trunk served as a letterbox. The explorer and hunter James Chapman left an engraving on a large root when he passed the tree with artist Thomas Baines in 1861, but Livingstone, Oswell, Moffat, and Selous also camped here. Livingstone supposedly carved a cross and his initials, and conveyed his 1853 sojourn in Missionary Travels, noting: "about two miles beyond [the immense saltpan Ntwetwe] we unyoked under a fine specimen of baobab, ... It consisted of 6 branches united into one trunk."[41] It had a circumference of 25 m before its constituent trunks collapsed outward on 7 January 2016. Not all its trunks are confirmed dead however,[42] one showing signs of life in 2019.[43] Seven trees known as the Sleeping Sisters or Baines' Baobabs grow on a tiny islet in Kudiakam Pan, Botswana. They are named for Thomas Baines who painted them in May 1862, while en route to Victoria Falls. The fallen giant of Baines' day is still sprouting leaves (as of 2004), and a younger generation of trees are in evidence. The islet is accessible in winter when the pan is dry.[44] Some large specimens have been transplanted to new sites, as was the one at Cresta Mowana lodge in Kasane.[45]

Ghana

At Saakpuli (also Sakpele) in northern Ghana the site of a 19th-century slave transit camp is marked by a stand of large baobabs, to which slaves were chained.[46] The chains were wrapped around their trunks or around the roots. Similarly, two trees at Salaga in central Ghana are reminders of the slave trade. One, located at the former slave market at the center of town, was replanted at the site of the original to which slaves were shackled. A second larger tree marks the slave cemetery, where bodies of dead slaves were dumped.

India

Inside the Golconda Fort in Hyderabad, India, is a baobab tree estimated to be 430 years old. It is the largest baobab outside of Africa.[47]

Madagascar

 src=
The baobab in Mahajanga, Madagascar

The African baobab in Mahajanga, Madagascar, had a circumference of 21 metres by 2013. It became the symbol of the city and was formerly a place for executions and important meetings.[48]

Mozambique

The Lebombo Eco Trail tree is about 18.5 m tall with a diameter of almost 22 m. It was found to be about 1400 years old and made up of five stems with ages between 900 and 1400 years, fused in a ring leaving a large central cavity.[4]

Namibia

The Ombalantu baobab in Namibia has a hollow trunk that can accommodate some 35 people. At times it has served as a chapel, post office, house, and hiding site. The Holboom baobab (Holboom, Nyae Nyae Conservancy, Namibia) is one of the trees with a hollow core. It measures 35.10 m around and radiocarbon dating shows it to be about 1750 years old.[4]

Republic of the Congo

The Arbre de Brazza is a baobab in the Republic of the Congo under which de Brazza and his companions Dolisie, Chavannes and Ballay made a stop in 1877, as their engraving "EB 1887" still attests. Another engraving, "Mâ Prince", was left by president Nguesso in his youth.

Senegal

The first botanical description of A. digitata was done by Adanson based on a tree on the island of Sor, Senegal. On the nearby Îles des Madeleines Adanson found a baobab that was 3.8 metres (12 ft) in diameter, which bore the carvings of passing mariners on its trunk, including those of Prince Henry the Navigator in 1444 and André Thevet in 1555.[2] When Théodore Monod searched the island in the 20th century, this tree was not to be found. The Gouye Ndiouly or Guy Njulli (Wolof for "baobab of circumcision") may be the oldest baobab in Senegal and the northern hemisphere.[49] The partially collapsed tree from which new stems have emerged is situated near the bank of the Saloum River at Kahone. It was formerly the venue for the gàmmu, an annual festival during which the kingdom's provincial rulers pledged their loyalty to the king.[50] From 1593 to 1939, 49 kings of the Guélewars dynasty were inducted at this tree. It was beside the place where the Buur Saloum organized circumcision ceremonies,[49][51] and in 1862, it became the scene of a battle.

US Virgin Islands

The Grove Place Baobab, listed as a Champion Tree, is believed to be the oldest (250–300 years) of some 100 baobabs on Saint Croix in the US Virgin Islands. It is seen as a living testament to centuries of African presence, as the seeds were likely introduced by an African slave who arrived at the former estate during the 18th century. According to the bronze memorial plaque, twelve women were rounded up during the 1878 Fireburn labor riot, and burned alive beneath the tree. It has since been a rallying place for plantation laborers and unions.[52]

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe’s Big Tree, near Victoria Falls, stands 25-meters tall and is visited by hundreds of thousands of tourists yearly. Radiocarbon dating has shown this one to be made up of several stems of various ages – with the oldest about 1150 years old.[21]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Science, Kew. " https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:558628-1". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  2. ^ a b c Wickens, Gerald E.; Lowe, Pat (2008). The baobabs pachycauls of Africa, Madagascar and Australia. New York: Springer Science + Business Media, B.V. pp. 31–. ISBN 9781402064319.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Baum, D.A., 1995, A Systematic Revision of Adansonia (Bombacaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 1995, Vol. 82, No. 3 (1995), pp. 440-471
  4. ^ a b c d e f Patrut A, Woodborne S, von Reden KF, Hall G, Hofmeyr M, Lowy DA, et al. (2015) African Baobabs with False Inner Cavities: The Radiocarbon Investigation of the Lebombo Eco Trail Baobab. PLoS ONE 10(1): e0117193. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0117193
  5. ^ a b c d Hankey, Andrew (February 2004). "Adansonia digitata A L." PlantZAfrica.com. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  6. ^ a b c Cron, Glynis & Karimi, Nisa & Glennon, Kelsey & Udeh, Chukwudi & Witkowski, E & Venter, Sarah & Assogbadio, A & Baum, David. (2016). "One African baobab species or two? A re-evaluation of Adansonia kilima." South African Journal of Botany. 103. 312. 10.1016/j.sajb.2016.02.036.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Kempe et al. 2081. Adansonia digitata and Adansonia gregorii fruit shells serve as a protection against high temperatures experienced during wildfires. Bot Stud (2018) 59:7 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40529-018-0223-0
  8. ^ "Monkey-bread tree (Adansonia digitata) | spotwild". spotwild.org. Retrieved 2020-05-29.
  9. ^ du Plessis, Doep (November 2011). "Die Thabazimbi-bosveld se groot kremetart" (PDF). Dendron (43): 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  10. ^ a b Pettigrew, J. D.; et al. (2012). "Morphology, ploidy and molecular phylogenetics reveal a new diploid species from Africa in the baobab genus Adansonia (Malvaceae: Bombacoideae)" (PDF). Taxon. 61 (6): 1240–1250. doi:10.1002/tax.616006.
  11. ^ a b van Wyk, Braam, Prof. (November 2011). "Kommentaar oor die groot kremetart van Gannahoek" (PDF). Dendron (43): 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  12. ^ "Descriptions and articles about the Baobab (Adansonia digitata) - Encyclopedia of Life". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  13. ^ a b c "Catalogue of Life - Adansonia digitata L." catalogueoflife.org. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  14. ^ a b "Adansonia digitata (baobab)". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original on 2014-02-20. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
  15. ^ "Curious Kimberley: Scientists disagree how boab trees got to Australia from Africa and Madagascar - ABC News". www.abc.net.au. August 6, 2018.
  16. ^ "Adansonia digitata:Plant Database of India". Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
  17. ^ "Descriptions and articles about the Baobab (Adansonia digitata) - Encyclopedia of Life". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  18. ^ Simon Gardner, Pindar Sidisunthorn and Lai Ee May, 2011. Heritage Trees of Penang. Penang: Areca Books. ISBN 978-967-57190-6-6
  19. ^ Baum, David A. (1995). "The Comparative Pollination and Floral Biology of Baobabs (Adansonia- Bombacaceae)". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 82 (2): 322–348. doi:10.2307/2399883. ISSN 0026-6493. JSTOR 2399883.
  20. ^ Grové, Naas (November 2011). "Redaksionele Kommentaar" (PDF). Dendron (43): 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  21. ^ a b Kornei, Katherine. 2021. Scientists determine the age of one of Africa’s most famous trees. Science News. www.science.org
  22. ^ Adrian Patrut et al. (2018) The demise of the largest and oldest African baobabs. Nature Plants 4: 423–426. DOI: 10.1038/s41477-018-0170-5
  23. ^ Patrut, A., et al. (2010). Fire history of a giant African baobab evinced by radiocarbon dating. Archived 2014-10-22 at the Wayback Machine Radiocarbon 52(2), 717-26.
  24. ^ a b Pennisi, Elizabeth. "Africa's strangest trees are stranger than thought—and they're dying mysteriously". Science News. Science. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  25. ^ "The Baobab Tree". Powbab. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  26. ^ National Research Council (October 27, 2006). "Baobab". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume II: Vegetables. Lost Crops of Africa. Vol. 2. National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/11763. ISBN 978-0-309-10333-6. Retrieved July 15, 2008.
  27. ^ Gebauer, J. (2013). "A note on baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in Kordofan, Sudan". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 60 (4): 1587–1596. doi:10.1007/s10722-013-9964-5. S2CID 6884609.
  28. ^ Ogbaga, Chukwuma; Nuruddeen, Fatima; Alonge, Olatunbosun; Nwagbara, Onyinye (November 2017). "Phytochemical, elemental and proximate analyses of stored, sun-dried and shade-dried baobab (Adansonia digitata) leaves". 2017 13th International Conference on Electronics, Computer and Computation (ICECCO). pp. 1–5. doi:10.1109/ICECCO.2017.8333339. ISBN 978-1-5386-2499-9.
  29. ^ Sidibe, M.; Williams, J. T. (2002). Baobab - Adansonia digitata (PDF). Southampton, UK: International Centre for Underutilised Crops. ISBN 978-0854327768. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-05-06. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
  30. ^ Heuzé, V.; Tran, G.; Bastianelli, D.; Archimède, H. (January 25, 2013). "African baobab (Adansonia digitata)". Feedipedia.org. A programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
  31. ^ a b Sheehan, Sean (2004). Zimbabwe (Vol. 6 of Cultures of the World) (2nd ed.). New York: Benchmark Books/Marshall Cavendish. p. 13. ISBN 9780761417064.
  32. ^ "Baobab dried fruit pulp". Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-06-03.
  33. ^ Laura M. Tarantino (July 25, 2009). "Agency Response Letter GRAS Notice No. GRN 000273". FDA.
  34. ^ a b c "Boabab Tree - Southern African Trees - Adansonia digitata". krugerpark.co.za. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  35. ^ Saint-Exupéry, Antoine (1943). Le Petit Prince [The Little Prince]. Reynal and Hitchcock.
  36. ^ "Protected Trees" (PDF). Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Republic of South Africa. 3 May 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July 2010.
  37. ^ Bega, Sheree (20 March 2021). "Plan to uproot 100 000 trees in Limpopo 'sacrilege', says baobab expert". Environment. mg.co.za. Mail & Guardian. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  38. ^ Osman, Siham M. (2014). "Save the Baobab". practicalaction.org. ITDG Practical Action Sudan. Archived from the original on 2015-12-02. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
  39. ^ Ed Yong (11 June 2018). "Trees That Have Lived for Millennia Are Suddenly Dying The oldest baobabs are collapsing, and there's only one likely explanation". The Atlantic. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
  40. ^ "The Historic Baobabs in Botswana". discoverafrica.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  41. ^ Davidson, Julie (2012). Looking for Mrs Livingstone. Saint Andrew Press. p. 213. ISBN 9780715209646.
  42. ^ "Chapman's Baobab – one of Africa's largest trees – falls". africageographic.com. Africa Geographic. 14 January 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  43. ^ le Breton, Gus. "Is Chapman's Baobab Still Alive? Update from Botswana". African Plant Hunter. YouTube. Archived from the original on 2021-12-14. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  44. ^ Watson, Rupert (2007). The African baobab. Cape Town: Struik. pp. 190–191. ISBN 9781770074309.
  45. ^ Ashby, Alison (26 June 2013). "The baobab's secret". zambezitraveller.com. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  46. ^ Briggs, Philip (2014). Ghana: the Bradt travel guide (6 ed.). Chalfont St. Peter, Bucks: Bradt Travel Guides. p. 427. ISBN 9781841624785.
  47. ^ Syed Akbar. "ASI conducts health check up of 430-year-old baobab tree of Golconda, says it's healthy". The Times of India. Retrieved 2019-04-15.
  48. ^ Sipa, Masika (2013). "The Old Baobab of Mahajanga". madamagazine.com. MadaMagazine. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  49. ^ a b Pătruţ, prof. dr. Adrian (project manager) (2015). "New research in dendrochronology and environmental climate change by using AMS/CFAMS radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analysis". chem.ubbcluj.ro. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  50. ^ Ross, Eric (25 January 2012). "Historic baobab trees of Senegal: Kahone". ericrossacademic.wordpress.com. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  51. ^ "Kahone, Ancienne capitale du Saloum: Passé-présent d'une ville pluricentenaire". sinesaloum.info. 7 November 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  52. ^ "New St. Croix Park Celebrates the Legacy of the Baobab Tree". Repeating Islands. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2020.

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Adansonia digitata: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Adansonia digitata, the African baobab, is the most widespread tree species of the genus Adansonia, the baobabs, and is native to the African continent and the southern Arabian Peninsula (Yemen, Oman). These are long-lived pachycauls; radiocarbon dating has shown some individuals to be over 2000 years old. They are typically found in dry, hot savannas of sub-Saharan Africa, where they dominate the landscape and reveal the presence of a watercourse from afar. They have traditionally been valued as sources of food, water, health remedies or places of shelter and are a key food source for many animals. They are steeped in legend and superstition. In recent years, many of the largest, oldest trees have died, possibly due to climate change. Common names for the baobab include monkey-bread tree, upside-down tree, and cream of tartar tree.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN