dcsimg

Distribution in Egypt

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Nile Valley North of Nubia (Location: Delta).

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Global Distribution

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Cosmopolitan weed.

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Comments

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Rumex crispus (belonging to subsect. Crispi Rechinger f.; see K. H. Rechinger 1937) is the most widespread and ecologically successful species of the genus, occuring almost worldwide as a completely naturalized and sometimes invasive alien. It has not been reported from Greenland, but it probably occurs there.

Rumex crispus hybridizes with many other species of subg. Rumex. Hybrids with R. obtusifolius (Rumex ×pratensis Mertens & Koch) are the most common in the genus, at least in Europe, and have been reported for several localities in North America. Rumex crispus × R. patientia (Rumex ×confusus Simonkai) was reported from New York. According to R. S. Mitchell (1986, p. 47), “this hybrid is now spreading along highway shoulders, and it has replaced R. crispus in some local areas.” However, that information should be confirmed by more detailed studies since spontaneous hybrids between species of sect. Rumex usually are much less fertile and ecologically successful than the parental species. Hybrids of Rumex occuring in North America need careful revision.

Numerous infraspecific taxa and even segregate species have been described in the Rumex crispus aggregate. Many seem to represent minor variation of little or no taxonomic significance, but some are geographically delimited entities that may deserve recognition as subspecies or varieties. The typical variety has inner tepals with three well-developed tubercles; the less common var. unicallosus Petermann, with one tubercle, occurs sporadically in North America.

Some eastern Asian plants differ from typical Rumex crispus is having somewhat smaller inner tepals, longer pedicels, lax inflorescences with remote whorls, and narrower leaves that are almost flat or indistinctly undulate at the margins. These plants, originally described as R. fauriei Rechinger f., are now treated as R. crispus subsp. fauriei (Rechinger f.) Mosyakin & W. L. Wagner; the subspecies was recently reported from Hawaii (S. L. Mosyakin and W. L. Wagner 1998) and may be expected as introduced in western North America.

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Flora of North America Vol. 5 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Comments

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The typical variety, Rumex crispus var. crispus, has valves with 3 tubercles; the less common variety with 1 tubercle, R. crispus var. unicallosus Petermann, also sporadically occurs in China. Forms currently recognized as R. crispus subsp. fauriei (K. H. Rechinger) Mosyakin & W. L. Wagner (R. fauriei K. H. Rechinger) probably also occur in China (see Mosyakin & Wagner, Bishop Mus. Occas. Pap. 55: 39–44. 1998), but their distribution is insufficiently known.
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Flora of China Vol. 5: 337 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Comments

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Though it is indicated by various authors but I have seen no specimens from Pakistan. Likely to occur in Pakistan as it is reported from adjacent regions of Afghanistan and Iran. Evidently replaced in the region by R. crispellus Rech. f.

R. crispus is variable in all its parts. Variation in Asia is discussed by Rechinger, l.c.: 82-84. 1949.

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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 205 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Plants perennial, occasionally bi-ennial, glabrous or very indis-tinctly papillose normally only on veins of leaf blades abaxially, with fusiform, vertical rootstock. Stems erect, branched distal to middle, 40-100(-150) cm. Leaves: ocrea deciduous, rarely partially persistent at maturity; blade lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate or lanceolate-linear, normally 15-30(-35) × 2-6 cm, base cuneate, truncate, or weakly cordate, margins entire to subentire, strongly crisped and undulate, apex acute. Inflorescences terminal, occupying distal 2 of stem, dense or interrupted at base, narrowly to broadly paniculate, branches usually straight or arcuate. Pedicels articulated in proximal 3, filiform, (3-)4-8 mm, articulation distinctly swollen. Flowers 10-25 in whorls; inner tepals orbiculate-ovate or ovate-deltoid, 3.5-6 × 3-5 mm, base truncate or subcordate, margins entire or subentire to very weakly erose, flat, apex obtuse or subacute; tubercles normally 3, rarely 1 or 2, unequal, at least 1 distinctly larger, more than (1-)1.5 mm wide. Achenes usually reddish brown, 2-3 × 1.5-2 mm. 2n = 60.
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Description

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Herbs perennial. Roots large. Stems erect, 50-120(-150) cm tall, simple or branched above, glabrous, grooved. Basal leaves shortly petiolate, lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, 10-25 × 2-5 cm, glabrous or indistinctly papillose along veins below, base usually cuneate to truncate, margin strongly crisped and undulate, apex acute; cauline leaves shortly petiolate, narrowly lanceolate, small; ocrea fugacious, membranous. Inflorescence terminal, paniculate, narrow; branches erect or ascending. Flowers bisexual. Pedicel slender, articulate in proximal third, articulation distinctly swollen. Inner tepals enlarged in fruit; valves broadly ovate, 3.5-6 × 3-5 mm, all with tubercles, rarely only 1 valve bearing a tubercle, conspicuously net veined, base nearly truncate, margin entire, rarely weakly erose, apex obtuse to subacute; tubercle ovate, 1.5-2 mm. Achenes dark brown, shiny, ovoid, trigonous, ca. 2 mm, apex acute. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Jun-Jul. 2n = 60.
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Flora of China Vol. 5: 337 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Perennial with tap root. Stem erect, up to 1 m high. Branches erect or erect-patent forming a narrow panicle. Leaves all lanceolate, narrowed at both ends, acute, crispate, up to 30 cm long and up to 6 cm broad, broadest in the middle; petiole shorter than the blade; stem leaves similar, upwards gradually smaller, narrower and with shorter petiole. Flower whorls many-flowered, contiguous, the lowest ones only remote and with a subtending leaf. Pedicels thin, of varyig length, usually about twice as long as the valves. External perianth segments appressed to the valves, nearly as long as half of the breadth of the valves. Valves usually 4-5 mm long and broad, rotundate or subtriangular-cordate, finely articulate, entire or subentire, all or the anterior one grain bearing. Nut c. 3 mm long, brown, broadest below the middle.
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 205 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Distribution

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introduced; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Ala., Alaska, Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.; Eurasia; introduced almost worldwide.
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Distribution

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Gansu, Guizhou, ?Hainan, Heilongjiang, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, ?Zhejiang [Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Myanmar, Russia, Thailand; Europe, North America; widely naturalized elsewhere].
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Flora of China Vol. 5: 337 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Distribution

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Distribution: Probably indigenous in Europe and SW Asia; evidently rare in Pakistan and India. Introduced and largely naturalized over most parts of the world except the Arctic and the Tropics.
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 205 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Flowering late spring-early fall.
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Habitat

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Very broad range of ruderal, segetal, and seminatural habitats, disturbed soil, waste places, cultivated fields, roadsides, meadows, shores of water bodies, edges of woods; 0-2500m.
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Flora of North America Vol. 5 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Habitat

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Field margins, streamsides, waste areas; sea level to 2500 m.
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Flora of China Vol. 5: 337 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Synonym

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Lapathum crispum (Linnaeus) Scopoli
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Synonym

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Lapathum crispum (Linnaeus) Scopoli.
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Flora of China Vol. 5: 337 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Synonym

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R. elongatus Guss., Pl. Rar. 150: pl. 128. 1826.
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 205 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Derivation of specific name

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crispus: with a wavy or curled margin
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Rumex crispus L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=121710
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Description

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Erect perennial herb. Leaves lanceolate; margin usually undulate and strongly crisped. Inflorescence usually simple or little branched. Fruit perianth segments ovate-cordate, usually all three with tubercles; margin entire or minutely dentate.
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Rumex crispus L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=121710
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Frequency

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Local
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Rumex crispus L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=121710
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Worldwide distribution

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Europe, Macaronesia and most of Africa; widely naturalised elsewhere.
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Rumex crispus L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=121710
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Rumex crispus

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Rumex crispus, the curly dock,[1] curled dock or yellow dock, is a perennial flowering plant in the family Polygonaceae, native to Europe and Western Asia.[2]

Description

The plant produces an inflorescence or flower stalk that grows to 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) high.[3] It has smooth leaves shooting off from a large basal rosette, with distinctive waved or curled edges; these can grow to 14–24 cm (5.5–9.4 in).[3] On the stalk, flowers and seeds are produced in clusters on branched stems, with the largest cluster being found at the apex. The seeds are shiny, brown and encased in the calyx of the flower that produced them. This casing enables the seeds to float on water and get caught in wool and animal fur, and this helps the seeds spread to new locations.[4] The root structure is a large, yellow, forking taproot.

Rumex crispus has a number of subspecies with distinctive habitat preferences. Rumex crispus ssp. crispus occurs on waste and cultivated ground. Rumex crispus ssp. littoreus has a coastal distribution, and Rumex crispus ssp. uliginosus occurs on tidal estuarine mud.[5] The species hybridizes readily with other Rumex species including Rumex obtusifolius, Rumex obovatus, Rumex palustris and Rumex maritimus.[5]

Distribution

Common in Ireland,[6][7] the United States, and southern Canada.[8]

Ecology

Fruits of curled dock, showing typical arrowhead shape
Fruits of curled dock (Rumex crispus)

Curly dock grows in a wide variety of habitats, including disturbed soil, waste areas, roadsides, fields/meadows, shorelines, and forest edges.[9] It is widely naturalised throughout the temperate world and has become a serious invasive species in many areas, including throughout North America, southern South America, New Zealand and parts of Australia. It spreads through the seeds contaminating crop seeds, and sticking to clothing. It is classified as an "injurious weed" under the UK Weeds Act 1959.[10] In the United States, it is classified as a noxious weed in the states of Arkansas and Iowa.[11] It is often seen in disturbed soils at the edges of roadsides, railway beds, and car parks.

Host plant

The curled dock is an optimal host plant for certain Lepidoptera species including, Agrotis ipsilon (black cutworm). Adult moths oviposit on these dense, low-lying leaves during the spring/summer season.[12]

Uses and toxicity

It can be used as a wild leaf vegetable; the young leaves should be boiled in several changes of water to remove as much of the oxalic acid in the leaves as possible or can be added directly to salads in moderate amounts.[13] Once the plant matures it becomes too bitter to consume. Dock leaves are an excellent source of both vitamin A and vitamin C, as well as a source of iron and potassium.[14] Curly Dock leaves are somewhat tart due to the presence of high levels of oxalic acid, and although quite palatable, this plant should only be consumed in moderation as it can irritate the urinary tract and increase the risk of developing kidney stones. It should be used with care during lactation, as it may cause a laxative effect in the infant.

The seeds of the yellow dock, once dried thoroughly, are edible as well.[15] The dark-brown to black seed pods remain on the stalk until the spring when leaves start growing again. While many wild foraged grains must be winnowed, the pods of Rumex crispus are small enough that it is more efficient to grind them with the grain. The resulting flour[3] is much like buckwheat in flavor, and while some may find it too bitter, many prefer the seeds over the tartness of the leaves.

In Western herbalism, the root is often used for treating anemia, due to its high level of iron.[16] It can be powdered and given in capsules, often in combination with stinging nettle – Urtica dioica. This is a classic combination with the plant. Both the leaves and root may be laxative in some individuals, though not in all, and generally it is mild. This is due to the presence of anthroquinone glycosides,[17] and is not an action that should be relied upon, but seen as a possible effect of the plant when taken. The plant may also cause intestinal discomfort to some people. The plant will help with skin conditions if taken internally or applied externally to things like itching, scrofula, and sores. Some studies show that certain anthroquinones can help stop or slow cancer growth, but this may or may not apply to the ones in yellow dock.

Yellow dock is part of the homeopathic pharmacopoeia. It is used mainly for respiratory conditions, specifically those with a tickling cough that is worse when exposed to cold air. It mentions also passing pains, excessive itching, and that it helps enlarged lymphs.[18]

The Zuni people apply a poultice of the powdered root to sores, rashes and skin infections, and use infusion of the root for athlete's foot.[19]

References

  1. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Rumex crispus". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  2. ^ "Rumex crispus". Flora of North America: Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, pt. 2. Oxford University Press. 2005. p. 522. ISBN 978-0-19-522211-1.
  3. ^ a b c Elias, Thomas S.; Dykeman, Peter A. (2009) [1982]. Edible Wild Plants: A North American Field Guide to Over 200 Natural Foods. New York: Sterling. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-4027-6715-9. OCLC 244766414.
  4. ^ Richard H. Uva, Joseph C. Neal and Joseph M. Ditomaso, Weeds of The Northeast, (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997), Pp. 286-287.
  5. ^ a b Stace, C. A. (2010). New Flora of the British Isles (Third ed.). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. p. 450. ISBN 978-0-521-70772-5.
  6. ^ Hackney, P. 1992. Stewarts & Corry's Flora of the North-east of Ireland. Third Edition. Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast ISBN 0-85389-446-9
  7. ^ Parnell, J. and Curtis, T. 2012. Webb's An Irish Flora. Cork University Press ISBN 978-185918-4783
  8. ^ Muenscher, Walter Conrad Leopold (1987). Weeds ([1st pbk. ed.] ed.). Ithaca, N.Y.: Comstock Pub. Associates. ISBN 0801494176. OCLC 20614563.
  9. ^ "Rumex crispus". Flora of North America: Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, pt. 2. Oxford University Press. 2005. p. 523. ISBN 978-0-19-522211-1.
  10. ^ "[Withdrawn] Wild plants: dangerous, invasive and protected species – Detailed guidance – GOV.UK". www.gov.uk.
  11. ^ "Rumex Crispus". usda.gov. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  12. ^ Busching, M. K., and F. T. Turpin. “Oviposition Preferences of Black Cutworm Moths Among Various Crop Plants, Weeds, and Plant Debris12.” Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 69, no. 5, Jan. 1976, pp. 587–590., doi:10.1093/jee/69.5.587.
  13. ^ Lee Allen Peterson, Edible Wild Plants, (New York City: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1977), p. 154.
  14. ^ http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/vegetables-and-vegetable-products/2734/2 "Nutritional Facts and Analysis of Dock, raw"
  15. ^ Thayer, Samuel, March 1, 2010. Nature's Garden: A Guide to Identifying, Harvesting, and Preparing Wild Plants Forager's Harvest Press
  16. ^ Lust, John B.. The herb book. New York: B. Lust Publications, 1974.
  17. ^ "A Modern Herbal - Docks". botanical.com.
  18. ^ "Rumex Crispus." - Homeopathic Remedies. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2014
  19. ^ Camazine, Scott and Robert A. Bye 1980 A Study Of The Medical Ethnobotany Of The Zuni Indians of New Mexico. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2:365-388 (p. 378)

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Rumex crispus: Brief Summary

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Rumex crispus, the curly dock, curled dock or yellow dock, is a perennial flowering plant in the family Polygonaceae, native to Europe and Western Asia.

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