dcsimg

Distribution in Egypt

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Sinai (St.Katherine).

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Global Distribution

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Tropical and warm regions.

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Comments

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The cultivated subsp. sativa (Haw) Celak., (Prodr. Fl. Bohm. 484. 1875) is used as a pot herb and sold in market under the name Kulfe Ka Sag. The extract of stem is applied on skin against burning sensation and prickly heat. The purslane constitutes a useful article of diet in scurvy and diseases of lungs, liver and kidney. The leaves are slightly acidic and used as refrigerant, anti-scorbutic, astringent in dysuria, irritation of bladder, haematuria, haemoptysis and gonorrhoea. The black granulated seeds are called Tukhm-i-Khurfa-ae-Siyah and used in preparation of Unani and Ayurvedic medicines, as a demalcent, astringent, diuretic and vermifuge.
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Comments

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A. P. Simopoulos and N. Salem Jr. (1986) and A. P. Simopoulos et al. (1992) have shown Portulaca oleracea to have the highest content of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants of any green leafy vegetable examined to date, suggesting that common purslane should be considered for its nutritional value and not for its weediness. It has long been used as fodder and may have been present in the New World in pre-Columbian times (R. Byrne and J. H. McAndrews 1975). Currently, it is fed to poultry to reduce egg cholesterol.

Portulaca oleracea is a highly variable species with worldwide distribution in temperate to warm regions and is the most winter-hardy of all the portulacas. It is a very aggressive weed, one of the ten most noxious weeds worldwide (J. S. Singh and K. P. Singh 1967). As such, many variants have been named (C. D. Legrand 1962) based on seed surface differences, size of seeds, or on variable characters of growth habit, leaf length, and number of stamens. Seven subspecies were recognized by A. Danin et al. (1978): subsp. oleracea, subsp. impolita Danin & H. G. Baker, subsp. granulatostellulata Danin & H. G. Baker, subsp. nicaraguensis Danin & H. G. Baker, subsp. nitida Danin & H. G. Baker, subsp. papillatostellulata Danin & H. G. Baker, and subsp. stellata Danin & H. G. Baker.

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Flora of North America Vol. 4: 499 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Comments

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Danin et al. (Israel J. Bot. 27: 177–211. 1978) recognized a series of eight subspecies, but they are rather poorly correlated with geography and their status needs re-evaluation. The Chinese material seems to belong to the most common and weedy form placed in subsp. oleracea. There has been some selection of more robust forms for use as a vegetable; these are sometimes placed in subsp. sativa (Haworth) Celakovský.

The plants, which are common weeds of cultivation, are eaten as a vegetable and used for medicinal purposes.

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Flora of China Vol. 5: 443 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Annual or perennial, prostrate or erect, c. 25 cm tall, succulent, glabrous, green or purplish green herb. Branches and stem with 3-20 mm rarely up to 50 mm long internodes. Leaves alternate or subopposite, closely crowded below the flowers, spathulate or obovate-oblong to linear-oblong, attenuate at the base, sub-sessile, obtuse or truncate, 3-25 mm long, 1.5-8 mm broad, thick, fleshy, glabrous, glistening white below, green or purplish-green above; stipular appendages usually absent, or rarely every minute and setaceous. Inflorescence usually in the forks of branches, cymose, with clusters of 3-6 flowers subtended by 4-leaved involucre, rarely flowers solitary and terminal. Flowers sessile, yellow, 5-8 mm across, bracteate; bracts membranous, ovate, c. 3 mm long, acuminate, white or somewhat purplish. Sepals subequal, basally united into a short, 2-3 mm long tube, keeled; lobes 2-3 mm long, slightly hooded, margin broad membranous, acute, deciduous. Petals 5, deliquescent, slightly united at the base, obovate, 5-6 mm long, 2.5-3 mm wide, yellow, emarginate with mucronulate notch. Stamens 7-12, basally somewhat united and adnate to petals, filaments c. 2.5 mm long, sensitive to touch, anthers ovoid. Ovary c. 2 mm long, half embedded in calyx tube, ovoid; style 1.5-2 mm long, stigmas 4-5, sticky, c. 1 mm long. Capsule many-seeded, 6-8 mm long, 3-4 mm in diam. Seeds shining black, c. 0.5-0.8 mm, reniform, testa tuberculate.
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Plants annual, glabrous; taproot 2-10 cm. Stems prostrate, succulent; trichomes at nodes and in inflorescence absent or inconspicuous; branches to 56 cm. Leaf blades obovate or spatulate, flattened, 4-28 × 2-13 mm, apex round to retuse or nearly truncate; involucrelike leaves 1-4. Flowers 3-10 mm diam.; petals yellow, oblong, 3-4.6 × 1.8-3 mm; stamens 6-12(-20); stigmas 3-6. Capsules ovoid, 4-9 mm diam. Seeds black or dark brown, orbiculate or elongate, flattened, 0.6-1.1 mm; surface cells ± smooth, granular, or stellate, with rounded tubercles. 2n = 18, 36, 54.
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Flora of North America Vol. 4: 499 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Herbs annual. Stems sometimes flushed red or purple, not articulated, prostrate or decumbent, less often ± erect, diffuse, much branched; leaf axils with a few inconspicuous stiff bristles. Leaves alternate or occasionally subopposite; petiole short; leaf blade flat, obovate, 10-30 × 5-15 mm, base cuneate, apex obtuse, rounded, truncate, or retuse. Flowers in clusters of 3-5, 0.4-0.5 cm in diam., surrounded by involucre of 2-6 bracts. Sepals green, helmeted, ca. 4 mm, apex acute, keeled. Petals 5, yellow, obovate, 3-5 mm, slightly connate at base, apex retuse. Stamens 7-12, ca. 12 mm; anthers yellow. Ovary glabrous. Stigma 4-6-lobed. Capsule ovoid, ca. 5 mm. Seeds glossy black when mature, never iridescent, obliquely globose-reniform, 0.6-1.2 mm; testa cells stellate, usually with central peglike tubercle, sometimes without and then surface ± granular. Fl. May-Aug, fr. Jun-Sep.
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Flora of China Vol. 5: 443 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Distribution

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Pantropical.
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Distribution

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Distribution: A cosmopolitan weed in cultivated fields and waste moist places. Probably native of South-West parts of United States and now widely distributed in warm temperate, tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world.
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Distribution

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introduced; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask.; Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.; Europe
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Flora of North America Vol. 4: 499 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Elevation Range

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300-1500 m
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flower/Fruit

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Fl. Per. Flowers open in morning throughout the year.
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Flowering late spring-early fall.
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Flora of North America Vol. 4: 499 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Habitat

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Fields, waste places; 0-2800m.
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Flora of North America Vol. 4: 499 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Habitat & Distribution

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Cultivation, disturbed urban sites. Throughout China [tropical and temperate regions worldwide].
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Flora of China Vol. 5: 443 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Synonym

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Portulaca neglecta Mackenzie & Bush; P. retusa Engelmann
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Flora of North America Vol. 4: 499 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Derivation of specific name

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oleracea: vegetable-garden herb used in cooking
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Portulaca oleracea L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=123210
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Description

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Prostrate, succulent annual, branches up to 30 cm. Leaves alternate, sessile, glabrous, broadly rounded, usually crowded near the ends of branches. Flowers terminal, 1-5, bright yellow, surrounded by a cluster of leaves.
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Portulaca oleracea L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=123210
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Frequency

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Common
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Portulaca oleracea L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=123210
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Insects whose larvae eat this plant species

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Hypolimnas misippus (Common diadem)
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Portulaca oleracea L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=123210
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Worldwide distribution

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Native of Europe, a cosmoplitan weed.
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Portulaca oleracea L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=123210
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Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Portulaca neglecta Mackenzie & Bush, Trans. Acad. St. Louis
12:81. 1902.
A robust annual, forming tufts mostly 5-10 dm. in diameter; stems fleshy, reddish-purple, often upright or ascending, 1.2 cm. thick; axillary hairs few and inconspicuous; leaves alternate, the flat blades obovate-cuneate, obovate-spatulate, or oblanceolate, 2.5-6 cm. long, 0.8-2.5 cm. broad, mostly obtuse or retuse at the apex; buds flattened, acute ; flowers mostly clustered, the hairs surrounding them inconspicuous or wanting; sepals triangular-orbicular, 4.5 mm. long, 4 mm. broad, keeled; flowers 8-12 mm. wide; corolla yellow; petals oblong, deeply cleft; stamens 12-18; style-lobes 5 or 6; capsule 8-12 mm. high, circumscissile at about the middle; seeds 0.6 mm. wide, black, minutely muricate.
Type locality: Courtney. Jackson County, Missouri. DISTRIBUTION: Missouri, Kansas, and Arkansas.
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bibliographic citation
Percy Wilson, Per Axel Rydberg. 1932. CHENOPODIALES. North American flora. vol 21(4). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Portulaca retusa Engelm. Boat. Jotir. Nat. Hist. 6: 154. L850
tnual, similar to /'. olrrticru in habit, but rather more
k-af-U . 9 mm broad, mo i1 the
apex, some of them rounded oi nearlj ti ! in bud obtuse, carinate-wii
fellow, smaller than in /'. nlcrti, ■ 6 mm high
0.9 1 nun '.-. :
iwn, III. PI, I
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Percy Wilson, Per Axel Rydberg. 1932. CHENOPODIALES. North American flora. vol 21(4). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Portulaca oleracea L. Sp. PI. 445. 1753
Portulaca parvifolia Haw. Syn. PI. Succ. 122. 1812. Porlulaca oleracea parviflora Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 57. 1S59. Portulaca oleracea parvifolia Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 707. 1864. Porlulaca oleracea macrantha Eggers. Fl. St. Croix 27. 1879. Porlulaca oleracea micrantha Eggers, Fl. St. Croix 27. 1879.
A glabrous fleshy annual, with often stout prostrate or ascending branches, the branches spreading radially, 0.6-3 dm. or more long; axillary hairs few and inconspicuous; leaves alternate, the flat blades obovate-cuneate or spatulate, 0.6-3 cm. long, 0.2-13 mm. broad, occasionally larger, rounded or nearly truncate at the apex; buds flattened, acute; flowers clustered or solitary, sessile, the hairs surrounding them inconspicuous or wanting; sepals broadly ovate to orbicular, 2.S-4.5 mm. long, 2.8-3.8 mm. broad, keeled, acutish; corolla yellowish; petals 3-4.6 mm. long, 1.8-3 mm. broad; stamens 6-10; style-lobes 4-6; capsule 5-9 mm. high, circumscissile at or about the middle; seeds black, 0.7-0.8 mm. (rarely 1 mm.) wide, granulate.
Type locality: Southern Europe.
Distribution: Temperate and tropical regions of the world.
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Percy Wilson, Per Axel Rydberg. 1932. CHENOPODIALES. North American flora. vol 21(4). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Portulaca oleracea

provided by wikipedia EN

Portulaca oleracea (common purslane, also known as little hogweed, or pursley)[1] is an annual (actually tropical perennial in USDA growing zones 10–11) succulent in the family Portulacaceae, which may reach 40 cm (16 in) in height. Approximately forty cultivars are currently grown.[2]

Its specific epithet oleracea means "vegetable/herbal" in Latin and is a form of holeraceus (oleraceus).[3][4]

There are likely thousands of names for the purslane plant in various languages from the many human cultures that have eaten the plant as a nutritious herb throughout history.

Distribution

Purslane has an extensive distribution, assumed to be mostly anthropogenic (or hemerochoric),[5] extending from North Africa and Southern Europe through the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent to Malesia and Australasia. The species status in the Americas is uncertain. In general, it is often considered an exotic weed, but there is evidence that the species was in Crawford Lake deposits (Ontario) in 1350–1539, suggesting that it reached North America in the pre-Columbian era. Scientists suggested that the plant was already eaten by Native Americans, who spread its seeds. How it reached the Americas is currently unknown.[6]

Description

 src=
Portulaca oleracea flower.

Purslane has smooth, reddish, mostly prostrate stems and the leaves, which may be alternate or opposite, are clustered at stem joints and ends.[7] The yellow flowers have five regular parts and are up to 6 mm (0.24 in) wide. Depending upon rainfall, the flowers appear at any time during the year. The flowers open singly at the center of the leaf cluster for only a few hours on sunny mornings. The tiny seeds[8] are formed in a pod, which opens when the seeds are mature. Purslane has a taproot with fibrous secondary roots and is able to tolerate poor soil and drought.[9]

The fruits are many-seeded capsules. Seed set is considerable; one plant can develop up to 193,000 seeds. The seeds germinate optimally at a temperature above 25 °C; they are light germinators, with even a soil cover of 5 mm having a negative effect on germination.

Classification

The first publication of Portulaca oleracea was in 1753 by Carl von Linné in Species Plantarum[1]. Due to the great variability, a large number of subspecies and varieties have been described as species of their own, but according to other publications, they all fall within the range of variation of Portulaca oleracea. The synonyms Portulaca oleracea subsp. sativa, Portulaca sativa, and Portulaca oleracea var. sativa, which are more common in the literature, refer to a somewhat more robust form in cultivation with larger seeds that cannot be separated from the species.

The flowering plant more commonly known as winter purslane (Claytonia perfoliata) is a member of the Montiaceae family and is not closely related.

Metabolism

P. oleracea is one of very few plants able to utilize both CAM and C4 photosynthesis pathways, for a long time believed to be incompatible with each other despite biochemical similarities. P. oleracea will switch from C4 to CAM pathways during times of drought and there is transcription regulation and physiological evidence for C4-CAM hybrid photosynthesis during mild drought.[10]

Pests and diseases

Compared to other common crops, P. oleracea is more tolerant of pests due to its waxy cover which protects the plant from insects and diseases. In some instances P. oleracea is even known to have antifungal properties.[11] However some phytotoxic metabolites of Drechslera indica can cause necrosis on purslane.[12] Dichotomophthora portulacae can cause stem rot.[13]

Schizocerella pilicornis and Hypurus bertrandi are known to feed on Portulaca oleracea. In some instances they may help control the competitiveness of Portulaca oleracea to prevent weed infestation in fields where Portulaca oleracea is not wanted, however they do not stop it from growing completely.[14]

History

Purslane is widely used in East Mediterranean countries. Archaeobotanical finds are common at many prehistoric sites. In historic contexts, seeds have been retrieved from a protogeometric layer in Kastanas, as well as from the Samian Heraion dating to seventh century BC. In the fourth century BC, Theophrastus names purslane, andrákhne (ἀνδράχνη), as one of the several summer pot herbs that must be sown in April (Enquiry into Plants 7.1.2).[15] As Portulaca it figures in the long list of comestibles enjoyed by the Milanese given by Bonvesin de la Riva in his "Marvels of Milan" (1288).[16]

In antiquity, its healing properties were thought so reliable that Pliny the Elder advised wearing the plant as an amulet to expel all evil (Natural History 20.210).[15]

Uses

Culinary

 src=
Greek salad with purslane

Purslane may be eaten as a leaf vegetable.[17] William Cobbett noted that it was "eaten by Frenchmen and pigs when they can get nothing else. Both use it in salad, that is to say, raw".[18] It has a slightly sour and salty taste and is eaten throughout much of Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and Mexico.[2][19] The stems, leaves and flower buds are all edible raw or cooked.[20] Purslane may be used fresh as a salad,[21] stir-fried, or cooked as spinach is, and because of its mucilaginous quality it also is suitable for soups and stews. The sour taste is due to oxalic and malic acid, the latter of which is produced through the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) pathway that is seen in many xerophytes (plants living in dry conditions), and is at its highest when the plant is harvested in the early morning.[22]

Aboriginal Australians use the seeds of purslane to make seedcakes. Greeks, who call it andrákla (αντράκλα) or glistrída (γλιστρίδα), use the leaves and the stems with feta cheese, tomato, onion, garlic, oregano, and olive oil. They add it in salads, boil it, or add it to casseroled chicken. In Turkey, besides being used in salads and in baked pastries, it is cooked as a vegetable similar to spinach, or is mixed with yogurt to form a tzatziki variant.[23] In Egypt, it is also cooked like spinach as a vegetable dish, but not in salads. In Kurdistan, people commonly make a kind of soup from it called palpina soup (شۆربای پەڵپینە). In the Alentejo region of Portugal, purslane is used to cook a traditional soup (sopa de beldroegas) which is topped with soaked bread, poached eggs and/or goats' cheese.[24]

Soil salinity

Soil salination on agricultural soils can cause a decrease in crop yields, and it is no longer possible to grow salt-sensitive species on that soil. Purslane has a high tolerance for salt toxicity, which makes it suitable for cropping in areas where irrigation is necessarily carried out with water having a high chloride-based salinity.[25]

Purslane can remove salt from the cultivation medium under saline conditions. As an intercrop or during one growing season, it can remove 210 kg/ha of chloride and 65 kg/ha of sodium when cultivated at 6.5 dS *m−1, allowing growth of salt-sensitive plants on saline soils.[26] Purslane has a positive effect of companion plants in salty conditions, such as tomatoes.[27]

Nutrition

Raw purslane is 93% water, 3% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and contains negligible fat (table). In a 100 gram reference amount, purslane supplies 20 calories, and rich amounts (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of vitamin E (81% DV) and vitamin C (25% DV), with moderate content (11-19% DV) of several dietary minerals (table). Purslane is a rich source of alpha-linolenic acid, an essential omega-3 fatty acid.[28]

In popular culture

Verdolaga, the Spanish word for purslane, is a nickname for South American football clubs with green-white schemes in their uniforms, including Colombia's Atletico Nacional and Argentina's Ferrocarril Oeste.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Portulaca oleracea". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  2. ^ a b Marlena Spieler (July 5, 2006). "Something Tasty? Just Look Down". The New York Times.
  3. ^ Parker, Peter (2018). A Little Book of Latin for Gardeners. Little Brown Book Group. p. 328. ISBN 978-1-4087-0615-2. oleraceus, holeraceus = relating to vegetables or kitchen garden
  4. ^ Whitney, William Dwight (1899). The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia. Century Co. p. 2856. L. holeraceus, prop. oleraceus, herb-like, holus, prop. olus (oler-), herbs, vegetables
  5. ^ "Portulaca oleracea (common purslane)". Go Botany. New England Wildflower Society.
  6. ^ Byrne, R. & McAndrews, J.H. (1975). "Pre-Columbian puslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) in the New World" (PDF). Nature. 253 (5494): 726–727. Bibcode:1975Natur.253..726B. doi:10.1038/253726a0. S2CID 4171339. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  7. ^ Hilty, John (2016). "Common Purslane (Portulaca oleracea". Illinois Wildflowers. Retrieved 2018-02-05.
  8. ^ Kilpatrick, Judy. "Germinating Portulaca Seeds." Home Guides | SF Gate, http://homeguides.sfgate.com/germinating-portulaca-seeds-39371.html. Accessed 13 November 2019.
  9. ^ Lyle, Katie Letcher (2010) [2004]. The Complete Guide to Edible Wild Plants, Mushrooms, Fruits, and Nuts: How to Find, Identify, and Cook Them (2nd ed.). Guilford, CN: FalconGuides. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-59921-887-8. OCLC 560560606.
  10. ^ Ferrari, Renata C.; Bittencourt, Priscila P.; Rodrigues, Maria A.; Moreno‐Villena, Jose J.; Alves, Frederico R. R.; Gastaldi, Vinícius D.; Boxall, Susanna F.; Dever, Louisa V.; Demarco, Diego; Andrade, Sónia C.S.; Edwards, Erika J.; Hartwell, James; Freschi, Luciano (2019). "C 4 and crassulacean acid metabolism within a single leaf: Deciphering key components behind a rare photosynthetic adaptation". New Phytologist. 225 (4): 1699–1714. doi:10.1111/nph.16265. PMID 31610019.
  11. ^ Banerjee, G.; Mukherjee, A. (November 2002). "Biological activity of a common weed - Portulaca oleracea L. II. Antifungal activity". Acta Botanica Hungarica. 44 (3–4): 205–208. doi:10.1556/abot.44.2002.3-4.1. ISSN 0236-6495.
  12. ^ Kenfield, Doug; Hallock, Yali; Clardy, Jon; Strobel, Gary (January 1989). "Curvulin and O-Methylcurvulinic acid: Phytotoxic metabolites of Drechslera indica which cause necroses on purslane and spiny amaranth". Plant Science. 60 (1): 123–127. doi:10.1016/0168-9452(89)90052-6. ISSN 0168-9452.
  13. ^ Mitchell, J. K. (1986). "Dichotomophthora portulacaeCausing Black Stem Rot on Common Purslane in Texas". Plant Disease. 70 (6): 603b. doi:10.1094/pd-70-603b. ISSN 0191-2917.
  14. ^ González, D.; Summers, Charles; Qualset, Calvin (January 1992). "Russian wheat aphid: natural enemies, resistant wheat offer potential control". California Agriculture. 46 (1): 32–34. doi:10.3733/ca.v046n01p32. ISSN 0008-0845.
  15. ^ a b Megaloudi Fragiska (2005). "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables, Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". Environmental Archaeology. 10 (1): 73–82. doi:10.1179/146141005790083858.
  16. ^ Noted by John Dickie, Delizia! The Epic History of Italians and Their Food (New York, 2008), p. 37.
  17. ^ Wright, Clifford A. (2012). "Purslane". Mediterranean Vegetables: A Cook's Compendium of All the Vegetables from the World's Healthiest Cuisine, with More Than 200 Recipes. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Common Press. pp. 276–277. ISBN 978-1-55832-775-7.
  18. ^ Cobbett, William (1980). The English Gardener. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 126. ISBN 0192812920.
  19. ^ Pests in Landscapes and Gardens: Common Purslane. Pest Notes University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 7461. October 2003
  20. ^ Nyerges, Christopher (2017). Foraging Washington: Finding, Identifying, and Preparing Edible Wild Foods. Guilford, CT: Falcon Guides. ISBN 978-1-4930-2534-3. OCLC 965922681.
  21. ^ Meus, Jeroen (2021). "Salade met gelakte hondshaai en gebrande asperges" (in Dutch). Dagelijkse Kost. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  22. ^ Harold McGee. On Food and Cooking. Scribner. 2004 edition. ISBN 978-0684800011
  23. ^ "Semizotlu Cacık – Hilal'in Mutfağı". Nefis Yemek Tarifleri (in Turkish). 2016-05-28. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
  24. ^ "Sopa de Beldroegas". Produtos Tradicionais Portugueses. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  25. ^ Teixeira, M.; Carvalho, I.S. (2008-09-12). "Effects of salt stress on purslane (Portulaca oleracea) nutrition". Annals of Applied Biology. 154 (1): 77–86. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2008.00272.x. ISSN 0003-4746.
  26. ^ Kiliç, Cenk Ceyhun; Kukul, Yasemin S.; Anaç, Dilek (2008). "Performance of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) as a salt-removing crop". Agricultural Water Management. 95 (7): 854–858. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2008.01.019. ISSN 0378-3774.
  27. ^ Graifenberg, A.; Botrini, L.; Giustiniani, L.; Filippi, F.; Curadi, M. (2003). "Tomato growing in saline conditions with biodesalinating plants: Salsola soda L. and Portulaca oleracea L." Acta Horticulturae (609): 301–305. doi:10.17660/actahortic.2003.609.45. ISSN 0567-7572.
  28. ^ A P Simopoulos (2013). "Common purslane: a source of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants". Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 11 (4): 374–382. doi:10.1080/07315724.1992.10718240. PMID 1354675.

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Portulaca oleracea: Brief Summary

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Portulaca oleracea (common purslane, also known as little hogweed, or pursley) is an annual (actually tropical perennial in USDA growing zones 10–11) succulent in the family Portulacaceae, which may reach 40 cm (16 in) in height. Approximately forty cultivars are currently grown.

Its specific epithet oleracea means "vegetable/herbal" in Latin and is a form of holeraceus (oleraceus).

There are likely thousands of names for the purslane plant in various languages from the many human cultures that have eaten the plant as a nutritious herb throughout history.

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