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Night Octopus

Callistoctopus ornatus (Gould 1852)

Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Callistoctopus ornatus (Gould, 1852)

DIAGNOSIS.—Animal medium-sized to large (to 104 mm ML). Mantle round, bulbular to elongate-tubular (MWI 27–83); neck distinct to indistinct; head narrow (HWI 31–57); eyes moderate in size, slightly protruding. Funnel organ W-shaped, outer limbs slightly shorter than inner ones. Arms long, stout (ALI 80–87), tapering to slender tips, arm order I > II > III > IV. Sucker size moderate to large (Sin 5–14, females; 7.9–15, males); especially enlarged suckers absent in males. Right arm III of males hectocotylized, shorter than fellow (FAI 59–82); ligula small (LLI 2.3–6.9), elongate, with strongly inrolled margins completely covering longitudinal groove; calamus large in large specimens (CLI 13–39). Web shallow (WDI 8–14); web formula variable, sector B typically deepest, sector E shallowest. Gill lamellae 12–14. Penis long, with diverticulum as long or longer. Radula with exceptionally tall rachidian with A7 seriation. Upper mandible with long, well-marked notch along cutting edge; lower mandible with sharp, medial ridge on lateral lamellae, ridge bifurcates posteriorly. Surfaces of mantle, head, and arms with scattered, prominent, flat papillae; some papillae over eyes larger but do not form distinct supraocular cirri. Color in preservation (ethanol) reddish to reddish brown dorsally. Mantle and head with pale to bright buff stripes and spots, about 2 rows of spots extending along arms I and II, all often with raised ridge.

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION.—Gould, 1852:476, figs. 590, 590a, as Octopus ornatus.

TYPE LOCALITIES.—Holotype: Central North Pacific Ocean, Sandwich Islands (= Hawaiian Islands).

Neotype: Central North Pacific Ocean, Hawaiian Islands, Oahu, Black Point.

TYPE.—Neotype: USNM 730020, male, 88 mm ML, in alcohol, good condition.

DISTRIBUTION.—Hawaii; Marshall Islands; other localities could represent misidentifications.
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bibliographic citation
Voss, N. A. and Sweeney, M. J. 1998. "Systematics and Biogeography of cephalopods. Volume II." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 277-599. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.586.277

Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Callistoctopus arakawai Taki, 1964

DIAGNOSIS.—See “Discussion.”

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION.—Taki, 1964:292, figs. 34–41, pls. 2, 3.

TYPE LOCALITY.—Western North Pacific Ocean, Japan, Oita Prefecture, Minami-Amabe County, near Kamae Town.

TYPE.—Holotype: Not deposited, male, 105 mm ML, 762 mm TL (presumed to be in private collection, see “Introduction”).
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
bibliographic citation
Voss, N. A. and Sweeney, M. J. 1998. "Systematics and Biogeography of cephalopods. Volume II." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 277-599. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.586.277

Callistoctopus ornatus

provided by wikipedia EN

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Callistoctopus ornatus and diver, Northwest Hawaiian Islands
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Callistoctopus ornatus, dorsal view of a medium-sized male from Honolulu

Callistoctopus ornatus (ornate octopus) is a tropical species of octopus native to the Indo-Pacific region.[1][2] Other common names include white-striped octopus and night octopus, in reference to its nocturnal habits. It was previously known as Polypus ornatus. C. ornatus is edible and was recorded in a Hawaiian market in 1914 by S. S. Berry.

Description

The upper arms of Callistoctopus ornatus are much longer and thicker than the other arms. They are pink to red in colour with paired white spots down the arms and short longitudinal white stripes on their mantle. This species can weigh several kilograms, and can reach an armspan of up to 2m.[3] The body is oval-shaped to elongate and the eyes are large. The arms are about six times the length of the body with the front pair being the longest. Each arm has two rows of suckers. The webs are shallow. The skin is fairly smooth with long flaps able to be raised in the white stripes on the sides of the body.[4]

Distribution

This species has one of the widest distributions of all octopus, because of the planktonic life stage of the hatchlings. It is found throughout tropical waters in the Indo-Pacific, from Hawaii and Easter Island to South Africa. In Australian waters it is found from northern New South Wales around the northern coastline to Perth in Western Australia. The distribution of this octopus appears to be limited to tropical waters within the 20 °C isotherm. However specimens collected in the warm temperate waters of New South Wales are probably a result of the planktonic juveniles being carried south by the warm East Australian Current.[3]

Habitat

Adults are usually found on coral reefs. Lairs found on the southern Great Barrier Reef consist of deep vertical holes excavated in coral rubble. The entrances are sealed during the day with rubble.[3]

Diet

These octopus eat mainly fish and crustaceans. They hunt at night and can be observed foraging over reef flats or on sand and gravel substrate during nightly low tides.[3] Hunting consists of probing long arms down holes or enveloping small coral heads within the webs and using the arm tips to flush prey into the waiting suckers.[4] The stomach contents also regularly contain the beaks of other octopus species. Other night-active octopuses in the same habitat flee in an explosion of ink if a single arm of this octopus touches them.[4]

Reproduction

Nothing is known of mating behaviour.[4] Females lay up to 35,000 small eggs, each about 2mm long. The hatchlings swim up into the plankton and are carried away by surface currents. Eventually they settle in a new coral reef and develop into adults.[3]

Use by humans

This octopus is harvested by subsistence hunters throughout its range. Historically it was collected by Polynesian Hawaiians using torches to find foraging animals at night. The animals were then killed with hand spears.[4]

References

  1. ^ a b Allcock, L.; Taite, M.; Allen, G. (2018). "Callistoctopus ornatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T163200A982981. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T163200A982981.en. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  2. ^ Bouchet, P. (2014). Callistoctopus ornatus (Gould, 1852). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=534728 on 2015-02-01
  3. ^ a b c d e http://australianmuseum.net.au/White-striped-Octopus-Octopus-ornatus#sthash.wU6d8z4h.dpuf Retrieved on 28 Jan 2015
  4. ^ a b c d e http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/species-bank/sbank-treatment.pl?id=77081 Retrieved on 28 Jan 2015
  • Gould, A.A. 1852. United States exploring expedition during the years 1838–1842. Mollusca and Shells. U.S. Exploring Expedition, 12: i-xv, 1-510; 1852, with an Atlas of plates, 1856.
  • Norman M.D. & Hochberg F.G. (2005) The current state of Octopus taxonomy. Phuket Marine Biological Center Research Bulletin 66:127–154.
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Callistoctopus ornatus: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN
 src= Callistoctopus ornatus and diver, Northwest Hawaiian Islands  src= Callistoctopus ornatus, dorsal view of a medium-sized male from Honolulu

Callistoctopus ornatus (ornate octopus) is a tropical species of octopus native to the Indo-Pacific region. Other common names include white-striped octopus and night octopus, in reference to its nocturnal habits. It was previously known as Polypus ornatus. C. ornatus is edible and was recorded in a Hawaiian market in 1914 by S. S. Berry.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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wikipedia EN