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Three Rowed Sea Cucumber

Isostichopus badionotus (Selenka 1867)

Associations

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Members of the class Holothuria will defend themselves by casting out most or part of their viscera through the cloacal opening, and in two to three weeks, regenerate the lost organs.

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Rangel, C. 2001. "Isostichopus badionotus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Isostichopus_badionotus.html
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Celia Rangel, Southwestern University
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Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
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Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Behavior

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Echinoderms in general have a decentralized nervous system. Holothurians can right themselves when turned over, suggesting they have tactile and light receptors. In addition, some evidence suggest the buccal tentacles may be chemically sensitive.

Communication Channels: chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; chemical

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Rangel, C. 2001. "Isostichopus badionotus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Isostichopus_badionotus.html
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Celia Rangel, Southwestern University
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Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
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Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Conservation Status

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This species and the ecosystems in which it thrives are threatened both by contaminated substrates, where boats leave behind high concentration of metals, and by illegal fishing and export of the animals for eating purposes. Conservation strategies and limits on fishing are being considered.

US Migratory Bird Act: no special status

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

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Rangel, C. 2001. "Isostichopus badionotus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Isostichopus_badionotus.html
author
Celia Rangel, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Life Cycle

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The three-rowed sea cucumber is a tubular organism, formed in specialized pelagic larval stages. In reproduction, sperm and eggs are released into the water & developing young undergo a complex metamorphisis. Organs and tissues are almost completely regenerative.

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

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Rangel, C. 2001. "Isostichopus badionotus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Isostichopus_badionotus.html
author
Celia Rangel, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Benefits

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Harvested sea cucumbers are regarded as both a tonic and celebratory food in many East Asian cultures.

Positive Impacts: food

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Rangel, C. 2001. "Isostichopus badionotus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Isostichopus_badionotus.html
author
Celia Rangel, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Associations

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Three-rowed sea cucumbers ingesting and process food particles and discharge newly fixed and enriched matter that has a nutrient content greater than its surrounding environment. Once ingested, sediment particles stay inside the animal about 3 hours to ensure complete nitrogen-fixation.

This highly active process of filtering and enriching sediments is extremely important to marine conditions. Reworking modifies the physical and chemical stability of the marine environment by continually producing "new" ground and causing pulses in biodiversity. Through destroying both stratification of sediment layers and ridding its community of infestations, the Isostichopus badionotus plays a key role in structuring the micocommunities that exist.

Ecosystem Impact: creates habitat; biodegradation

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bibliographic citation
Rangel, C. 2001. "Isostichopus badionotus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Isostichopus_badionotus.html
author
Celia Rangel, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Trophic Strategy

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Three-rowed sea cucumbers are deposit-feeders, literally eating deposited material or sediments off of the ocean floor. Using its tentacles, the animal pushes large scoops of sediments into its mouth (Bullough, 1950).

Because sediments are typically low in concentration of nutrients, the sea cucumbers ingest enormous amounts of sediment per day to ensure proper nourishment. It is estimated that each Isostichopus badionotus ingests between 1 and 2.3 tons of sediment per year. Isostichopus badionotus is a selective feeder, especially in the presence of a competing species such as fish, or when a particular blend of sediment is high in organic material. Isostichopus badionotus prefers and is better adapted to the finest grain of sediment; however, the size and amount of sediments processed depends on the size of the individual (Conde, 1996).

Other Foods: detritus ; microbes

Foraging Behavior: filter-feeding

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bibliographic citation
Rangel, C. 2001. "Isostichopus badionotus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Isostichopus_badionotus.html
author
Celia Rangel, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Distribution

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Populations of Isostichopus badionotus are primarily seen along the northern Pacific coast of South America and around the Galapagos Islands. Another region highly populated with this species is along the northeastern shores of Venezuela.

Biogeographic Regions: pacific ocean (Native )

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bibliographic citation
Rangel, C. 2001. "Isostichopus badionotus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Isostichopus_badionotus.html
author
Celia Rangel, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Habitat

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Isostichopus badionotus, like most echinoderms, prefer shallow water. The most suitable environments for these "bottom-feeding" animals are substrates set in the calm waters of channels and coves, shielded by high cover.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: coastal

Other Habitat Features: intertidal or littoral

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bibliographic citation
Rangel, C. 2001. "Isostichopus badionotus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Isostichopus_badionotus.html
author
Celia Rangel, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Morphology

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Isostichopus badionotus is shaped like a cucumber. It is radially symmetrical and lacks spines (typical of Echinodermata). The three-rowed sea cucumber also lacks any true appendages other than its tube feet. The animal is mostly solid in color, however, the side of its body that it uses to move along the sea floor is slightly lighter in pigment. Calcareous deposits are embedded in the epidermal layer of this animal. Having definite anterior and posterior ends, the sea cucumber has a large mouth surrounded by bushy tentacles with thick bases that divide into numerous tiny branches. A dark pigmented peristomial membrane surrounds a circular lip.

Range length: .02 to 2 m.

Average length: .10 - .30 m.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry ; radial symmetry

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The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Rangel, C. 2001. "Isostichopus badionotus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Isostichopus_badionotus.html
author
Celia Rangel, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Renee Sherman Mulcrone
original
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Reproduction

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Isostichopus badionotus have separate sexes and possess a reproductive system consisting of a single gonad and either an oviduct or a vas deferens. In temperate climates, eggs are laid in late winter and early spring. Sperm reach the eggs by way of the water. The fertilized eggs develop into free-swimming pelagic larvae.

A unique reproductive mechanism of Isostichopus badionotus is the ability to divide itself into two.

Breeding season: Late Winter/Early Spring

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (External ); broadcast (group) spawning

There is no parental investment beyond spawning.

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning)

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The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Rangel, C. 2001. "Isostichopus badionotus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Isostichopus_badionotus.html
author
Celia Rangel, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
editor
Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Associations

provided by Echinoderms of Panama

Caribulus sculptus (Humes, 1969) (parasitic: ectoparasitic)
Caribulus sculptus (Humes, 1969) (parasitic: endoparasitic)
Diogenidium spinulosum Stock, 1968 (parasitic: ectoparasitic)
Diogenidium spinulosum Stock, 1968 (parasitic: endoparasitic)
Nanaspis exigua Stock, Humes & Gooding, 1962 (parasitic: ectoparasitic)
Nanaspis exigua Stock, Humes & Gooding, 1962 (parasitic: endoparasitic)
Nanaspis media Stock, Humes & Gooding, 1962 (parasitic: ectoparasitic)
Nanaspis media Stock, Humes & Gooding, 1962 (parasitic: endoparasitic)
Nanaspis pollens Stock, Humes & Gooding, 1962 (parasitic: ectoparasitic)
Nanaspis pollens Stock, Humes & Gooding, 1962 (parasitic: endoparasitic)
Scambicornus sculptus Humes, 1969 (parasitic: endoparasitic)

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Distribution

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In Panama this species has been collected from Pico Feo Island (USNM E 22460), San Blas Islands, in Thalassia sp. sea grass beds; from Chingarosa, Bocas Del Toro (USNM E 22662), with one specimen (USNM E 2363) listed as collected by the R. V. Albatross from the Caribbean Sea off Panama.

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References and links

provided by Echinoderms of Panama

Selenka, E. (1867). Beitrage zur Anatomie und Systematik der Holothurien. Der Philosophischen Facultat zu Gottingen in December 1866, als Dissertation vorgelegt.: pp. 291-374.

Bell, F. J. (1883). Studies on the Holothuroidea. II. Descriptions of New Species. P. Z. S.: pp. 58-62.

Heilprin, A. (1888). Contributions to the Natural History of the Bermuda Islands. P. Ac. Philad. pt. iii: pp. 309-318.

Semper, C. (1868). Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen. Zweiter Theil. Wissenschaftliche Resultate. Erster Band. Holothurien. Hefte iv. and v: Unpaginated.

GenBank

World Register of Marine Species

LSID urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:367868


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Synonymised taxa

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Isostichopus badionotus

provided by wikipedia EN

Isostichopus badionotus, also known as the chocolate chip cucumber or the cookie dough sea cucumber, is a species of sea cucumber in the family Stichopodidae. This common species is found in warm parts of the Atlantic Ocean.[1]

Description

This is a large species that can grow to a length of 45 cm (1 ft 6 in), but the average adult size is about 21 cm (8 in).[2] It has distinctive dark coloured "warts" in three coarse rows on its dorsal surface, the rest of the body may vary from white through to shades of orange to brown, with sometimes large brownish stains. The mouth is located ventrally and surrounded by about 20 large tentacles.

Habitat and range

This species is widespread in the warm Atlantic, where found from North Carolina (USA), through the Caribbean, to north Brazil, at Ascension Island and in the Gulf of Guinea.[1][2] It is found at depths between 0 and 55 m (0–180 ft).[1]

It inhabits shallow waters, in a wide variety of bottoms (sand, mud, rock, seaweeds...).[1]

Reproduction

Similar to other tropical Holothuroidea, the Isostichopus badiontus is dioecious. Males and females release their gametes into water where fertilization happens externally. A study in the Caribbean Sea observed that the species has an increase in reproductive activity when temperatures increase.[3]

Conservation status

As bottom feeders, Isostichopus badionotus individuals are threatened by contaminated substrates due to metals left behind by boats.[4] Additionally, they are popular in Asian cuisine, and are also threatened by illegal fishing and trafficking.[5] [6]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Toral-Granda, M.V.; Alvarado, J.J.; Hamel, J.-F.; Mercier, A.; Benavides, M. & Paola Ortiz, E. (2016) [errata version of 2013 assessment]. "Isostichopus badionotus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T180519A102420305. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  2. ^ a b Steven W. Purcell, Yves Samyn and Chantal Conand, Commercially important sea cucumbers of the world, Roma, FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes Nb. 6, 2012, 233 p. (ISBN 978-92-5-106719-2).
  3. ^ Guzmán, H.; Guevara, C. & Hernández, I. (February 2003). "Reproductive cycle of two commercial species of sea cucumber (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from Caribbean Panama". Marine Biology. 142 (2): 271–279. doi:10.1007/s00227-002-0939-x. S2CID 86373107.
  4. ^ Rangel, Celia. "Isostichopus badionotus". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2021-03-23.
  5. ^ Gore, Meredith L.; Bennett, Abigail (2021-02-18). "Importance of deepening integration of crime and conservation sciences". Conservation Biology. 36 (1): cobi.13710. doi:10.1111/cobi.13710. ISSN 0888-8892. PMC 9291754. PMID 33600003.
  6. ^ Gamboa-Álvarez, Miguel Ángel; López-Rocha, Jorge Alberto; Poot-López, Gaspar Román; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Villegas-Hernández, Harold (2020-02-01). "Rise and decline of the sea cucumber fishery in Campeche Bank, Mexico". Ocean & Coastal Management. 184: 105011. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.105011. ISSN 0964-5691. S2CID 211343531.

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Isostichopus badionotus: Brief Summary

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Isostichopus badionotus, also known as the chocolate chip cucumber or the cookie dough sea cucumber, is a species of sea cucumber in the family Stichopodidae. This common species is found in warm parts of the Atlantic Ocean.

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