dcsimg

Comments

provided by eFloras
Two varieties are recognized here. Plants of this species from Taiwan are usually called var. formosana Cardot (Notul. Syst. (Paris) 3: 263. 1916), which is characterized by small leaflets, 1–3 cm × 0.8–1.5 cm, but this taxon seems to fall within the overall range of variation for var. multiflora. Two other varieties are cultivated in China, but do not occur spontaneously: var. alboplena T. T. Yü & T. C. Ku (Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 1(4): 12. 1981), which has white, double flowers, and var. carnea Thory (in Redouté, Roses 2: 67. 1821), which has pink, double flowers.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 9: 370 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Description

provided by eFloras
Shrubs climbing. Branchlets terete, usually glabrous; prickles paired below leaves, sometimes sparsely scattered, curved, to 6 mm, stout, flat, gradually tapering to broad base. Leaves including petiole 5–10 cm; stipules pectinate, mostly adnate to petiole, margin glandular-pubescent or not; rachis and petiole pubescent or glabrous, glandular-pubescent, shortly prickly; leaflets (3–)5–9, obovate, oblong, or ovate, 1–5 × 0.8–2.8 cm, abaxially pubescent, adaxially glabrous, base rounded or cuneate, margin simply serrate, apex acute or rounded-obtuse. Flowers numerous in corymb, 1.5–4 cm in diam.; pedicel 1.5–2.5 cm, puberulous, glabrous, or glandular-pubescent, margin sometimes pectinate; bracts at base of pedicel, small. Hypanthium subglobose, glabrous. Sepals 5, deciduous, lanceolate, abaxially glabrous, adaxially pubescent, margin entire or with 2 linear lobes at middle. Petals 5, semi-double or double, white, pinkish, or pink (in some cultivated plants), fragrant, obovate, base cuneate, apex emarginate. Styles connate in column, exserted, slightly longer than stamens, glabrous. Hip red-brown or purple-brown, subglobose, 6–8 mm in diam., glabrous, shiny. 2n = 14*, 21.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 9: 370 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Distribution

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Anhui, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, S Hebei, Henan, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Shandong, Taiwan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea].
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 9: 370 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Habitat

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Thickets, scrub, slopes, river sides; 300--2000 m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 9: 370 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
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partner site
eFloras

New York State Invasive Species Information

provided by EOL authors

Multiflora rose, also known as rambler rose and baby rose, is native to eastern China, Japan and Korea. It was introduced to the U.S. from Japan in 1866, as rootstock for grafted ornamental rose cultivars. The spread of multi flora rose increased in the 1930s, when it was introduced by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service for use in erosion control and as living fences, or natural hedges, to confine livestock. It was also discovered to provide effective habitat and cover protection for pheasant, northern bobwhite, and cottontail rabbit and food for animals such as songbirds and deer. These uses encouraged its distribution, usually via root cuttings, to landowners, through State Conservation departments. Mulitflora rose has recently been planted in highway median strips to provide crash barriers and reduce headlight glare from oncoming traffic. Its extensive, pervasive growth was soon discovered as a problem on pasture lands and fallow fields. Currently, mulitflora rose is found in 41 states and is classified as either a noxious weed, prohibited invasive species or banned, in 13 states, including Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. It is also among the top forest invasive plant species for the northeastern area by the US Forest Service.

Description

Multiflora rose, in the rose family (Rosaceae), is a vigorous perennial shrub. Canes (stems) root at the tips and may reach heights of up to 10 feet. The red to green twigs may have numerous recurved thorns and other thornless specimens occur infrequently in the eastern United States. Its pinnately compound leaves grow alternately with 5, 7, 9 or 11 oval, saw toothed leaflets. The leaflets are nearly smooth on the upper surface and paler with short hairs on the underside. The base of each leaf stalk bears a pair of fringed bracts or stipules. The fringed stipules are the best characteristic to use to distinguish multiflora rose from other species. Multifora rose shrubs can grow to a height of 10–15 feet and a width of 9-13 feet.

Clusters of showy fragrant white to white pink, half inch to one inch diameter flowers, bloom in panicles, inflorescences with side stems, in late May or June. The flowers produce copious quantities of sweet pollen. Six to 100 hips develop in the inflorescence in summer and turn red by middle September, containing one to 21 seeds. The hypanthium, the large fleshy cup like structure on the underside of the flower, softens after the early frosts becoming tough, remaining on the plant in winter. Seed color is variable yellow to tan measuring about 0.16 inches contained in sharp, thin pointed structures called spicules. Seed germination is high; seeds can also remain viable in the soil for as long as 20 years. Roots are wide-ranging and capable of resprouting. In addition, stem tips that contact the soil surface are capable of rooting, through a process known as layering, to form new plants. Extensive thickets are formed this way.

Impact

Multiflora rose is extremely prolific and can form dense thickets, excluding native plants species. This non-native invasive rose invades open woodlands, forest edges, early succession pastures and fields. It also invades fence rows, right-of ways, roadsides, and margins of swamps and marshes.

Biology

Each cane on a large plant may contain 40 to 50 panicles. Each panicle can contain as many as 100 hypanthia or hips (average of about 50) and each hip, an average of seven seeds (range of one to 22). Thus each large cane can potentially produce up to 17,500 seeds. Seeds remain viable for a number of years. It has been found that as many as 90% of the seeds are viable, in the absence of drought and stress. Multiflora rose is moderately winter-hardy, and is tolerant to many North American insects and diseases.

Habitat

Multiflora rose thrives in full and partial sun with well-drained soils. It cannot tolerate winter temperatures below -28 F. While it grows most vigorously in full sun, it can also grow in the shade, and will persist for many years under a tree canopy although it may not flower or fruit very heavily.

Management Options Note:

Mechanical and chemical methods are currently the most widely used methods for managing infestation of multiflora rose.

Mechanical Control:

Seedlings can be pulled by hand. Small plants can be dug out or larger ones can be pulled using a chain or cable and a tractor, but care needs to be taken to remove all roots. Frequent, repeated cutting or mowing at the rate of three to six times per growing season, for two to four years, has been shown to be effective in achieving high mortality of mulitflora rose. In valuable, natural communities, cutting of individual plants is preferred to site mowing to minimize habitat disturbance. Some success has resulted from the use of goats in controlling multiflora rose.

Chemical Control:

Herbicides have been used successfully in controlling mulitflora rose but, because of long lived stores of seed in the soil, follow up treatments are likely to be necessary. Applications of systemic herbicides, such as glyphosate or triclopyr, to freshly cut stomp or to re growth, may be the most effective method, especially if conducted late in the growing season. The same chemicals can be employed as a foliar spray. It is important to note that multiflora rose has the typical regenerative power of members of the rose family, and control programs must be monitored and followed up if necessary by repeated herbicide application or used in conjunction with other control methods such as mowing or burning. Plant growth regulators have been used to control the spread of mulitflora rose by preventing fruit set.

Biological:

Rose rosette disease is a sometimes fatal viral disease that attacks multifora rose and other roses. The virus is spread naturally by a tiny mite. Plants affected by rose rosette disease develop witches’ brooms and small reddish leaves and shoots. The disease can kill plants in two years. This disease is not considered a useful biological control at this time because it may infect native roses and plums, as well as commercially important plants in the rose family such as apples, some types of berries, and ornamental roses.

Another biological control method involves the use of European Rose Chalcid (Megastigmus aculeatus), a wasp. During May and June the female deposits her eggs in the seed and the larvae overwinter. Pupa formation occurs in April to June and the adult wasps appear from the rose hip in early summer, thus completing the cycle. More research needs to be completed before considering this method of control.

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The New York Invasive Species Clearinghouse, Cornell University Cooperative Extension
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Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
multiflora rose
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bibliographic citation
Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Conservation Status

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Multiflora rose is designated as a "noxious weed" in Wisconsin, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, a "secondary noxious weed" in Iowa, and as a "county-level noxious weed" in Kansas. It is a "regulated plant" in Ohio, a "regulated non-native plant species" in South Dakota. Maryland and Wisconsin list it as a "nuisance weed" [80,84]. Multiflora rose is listed by the state of Vermont as a Category II plant: "exotic plant species considered to have the potential to displace native plants either on a localized or widespread scale" [85]. For more information see Invaders Database or Plants Database.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Description

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: shrub

Multiflora rose is a perennial shrub that forms dense, impenetrable "clumps" of vegetation. Isolated plants can produce clumps up to 33 feet (10 m) in diameter [26,63]. Bushes grow to a height of 6 to 10 feet (1.8-3 m) and occasionally 15 feet (4.6 m) [26]. Stems (canes) are few to many, originating from the base, much branched, and erect and arching to more or less trailing or sprawling. Canes grow to 13 feet (4 m) long and are armed with stout recurved prickles [34,70]. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound, and 3 to 4 inches (8-11 cm) long with 5 to 11 (usually 7 or 9), 1 to 1.6 inch (2.5-4 cm) long leaflets [26,33,70]. Flowers are 0.5 to 0.75 inches (1.3-1.9 cm) across and number 25 to 100 or more in long or pointed panicles. Fruits (hips) are globular to ovoid, 0.25 inches (0.64 cm) or less in diameter [26]. Seeds are angular achenes [40].

The preceding description provides characteristics of multiflora rose that may be relevant to fire ecology and is not meant to be used for identification. Keys for identifying multiflora rose are available in various floras (e.g. [33,70]). Photos and descriptions of multiflora rose are also available online from Missouri Department of Conservation and the Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council. Check with the native plant society or cooperative extension service in your state for more information.

The biology and ecology of multiflora rose are not well-studied. More research is needed to better understand its life-history and other biological traits, habitat requirements and limitations, and interactions with native North American flora and fauna.

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bibliographic citation
Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: nonnative species

Native to Japan [26], Multiflora rose occurs throughout eastern North America from Newfoundland and Nova Scotia south to northern Florida, and west to Minnesota, Nebraska, and Texas [34,44,45,89]. It is also distributed along the West Coast from British Columbia to California [45].

The following biogeographic classification systems demonstrate where multiflora rose could potentially be found based on reported occurrence. Precise distribution information is lacking because of gaps in understanding of biological and ecological characteristics of nonnative species and because introduced species may still be expanding their range. These lists are speculative and may not be accurately restrictive or complete.

license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Fire Ecology

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fire regime, forest, moderate-severity fire, restoration, seed, woodland

Information about multiflora rose and fire is lacking. Research is needed that examines the interactions of fire and multiflora rose, and the effects these interactions may have on native communities and ecosystems and their respective FIRE REGIMES. For instance, multiflora rose may be present in remnant or restored native Midwestern prairie communities [19]. Historically, fire has been an important ecological influence in prairie ecosystems [48]. Understanding the response of multiflora rose (and other nonnative species) to periodic fire could be critical for management and restoration efforts in these and other areas.

Many native Rosa spp. survive low- to moderate-severity fire by sprouting from rhizomes or root crowns, and may germinate from on-site or off-site seed sources (see FEIS fire ecology summaries for prickly rose (R. acicularis), baldhip rose (R. gymnocarpa), Nootka rose (R. nutkana), and Wood's rose (R. woodsii) on this website).

Fire adaptations: No information

FIRE REGIMES: The following table lists fire return intervals for communities or ecosystems throughout North America where multiflora rose may occur. This list is meant as a guideline to illustrate historic FIRE REGIMES and is not to be interpreted as a strict description of FIRE REGIMES for multiflora rose. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find FIRE REGIMES".

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years) silver fir-Douglas-fir Abies amabilis-Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii > 200 grand fir Abies grandis 35-200 [3] maple-beech-birch Acer-Fagus-Betula > 1000 sugar maple Acer saccharum > 1000 sugar maple-basswood Acer saccharum-Tilia americana > 1000 [86] California chaparral Adenostoma and/or Arctostaphylos spp. 64] bluestem prairie Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 48,64] Nebraska sandhills prairie Andropogon gerardii var. paucipilus-Schizachyrium scoparium bluestem-Sacahuista prairie Andropogon littoralis-Spartina spartinae California montane chaparral Ceanothus and/or Arctostaphylos spp. 50-100 [64] sugarberry-America elm-green ash Celtis laevigata-Ulmus americana-Fraxinus pennsylvanica Atlantic white-cedar Chamaecyparis thyoides 35 to > 200 beech-sugar maple Fagus spp.-Acer saccharum > 1000 [86] California steppe Festuca-Danthonia spp. juniper-oak savanna Juniperus ashei-Quercus virginiana Ashe juniper Juniperus ashei western juniper Juniperus occidentalis 20-70 cedar glades Juniperus virginiana 3-7 [64] yellow-poplar Liriodendron tulipifera southeastern spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35 to > 200 [86] red spruce* P. rubens 35-200 [18] pine-cypress forest Pinus-Cupressus spp. 3] pinyon-juniper Pinus-Juniperus spp. 64] jack pine Pinus banksiana 18] shortleaf pine Pinus echinata 2-15 shortleaf pine-oak Pinus echinata-Quercus spp. slash pine Pinus elliottii 3-8 slash pine-hardwood Pinus elliottii-variable sand pine Pinus elliottii var. elliottii 25-45 [86] Jeffrey pine Pinus jeffreyi 5-30 western white pine* Pinus monticola 50-200 [3] longleaf-slash pine Pinus palustris-P. elliottii 1-4 [59,86] longleaf pine-scrub oak Pinus palustris-Quercus spp. 6-10 [86] Pacific ponderosa pine* Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa 1-47 [3] interior ponderosa pine* Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum 2-30 [3,6,50] red pine (Great Lakes region) Pinus resinosa 10-200 (10**) [18,30] red-white-jack pine* Pinus resinosa-P. strobus-P. banksiana 10-300 [18,38] pitch pine Pinus rigida 6-25 [13,39] eastern white pine Pinus strobus 35-200 eastern white pine-eastern hemlock Pinus strobus-Tsuga canadensis 35-200 eastern white pine-northern red oak-red maple Pinus strobus-Quercus rubra-Acer rubrum 35-200 loblolly pine Pinus taeda 3-8 loblolly-shortleaf pine Pinus taeda-P. echinata 10 to Virginia pine Pinus virginiana 10 to Virginia pine-oak Pinus virginiana-Quercus spp. 10 to 86] eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides 64] aspen-birch Populus tremuloides-Betula papyrifera 35-200 [18,86] quaking aspen (west of the Great Plains) Populus tremuloides 7-120 [3,35,56] mesquite Prosopis glandulosa 55,64] mesquite-buffalo grass Prosopis glandulosa-Buchloe dactyloides 64] black cherry-sugar maple Prunus serotina-Acer saccharum > 1000 [86] Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir* Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca 25-100 [3,4,5] coastal Douglas-fir* Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii 40-240 [3,58,67] California mixed evergreen Pseudotsuga menziesii var. m.-Lithocarpus densiflorus-Arbutus menziesii California oakwoods Quercus spp. 3] oak-hickory Quercus-Carya spp. 86] oak-juniper woodland (Southwest) Quercus-Juniperus spp. 64] northeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. 10 to 86] oak-gum-cypress Quercus-Nyssa-spp.-Taxodium distichum 35 to > 200 [59] southeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. 86] coast live oak Quercus agrifolia 3] white oak-black oak-northern red oak Quercus alba-Q. velutina-Q. rubra 86] canyon live oak Quercus chrysolepis blue oak-foothills pine Quercus douglasii-Pinus sabiniana 3] northern pin oak Quercus ellipsoidalis 86] Oregon white oak Quercus garryana 3] bear oak Quercus ilicifolia 86] California black oak Quercus kelloggii 5-30 [64]  bur oak Quercus macrocarpa 86] oak savanna Quercus macrocarpa/Andropogon gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 2-14 [64,86] chestnut oak Q. prinus 3-8 northern red oak Quercus rubra 10 to post oak-blackjack oak Quercus stellata-Q. marilandica black oak Quercus velutina live oak Quercus virginiana 10 to86] interior live oak Quercus wislizenii 3] cabbage palmetto-slash pine Sabal palmetto-Pinus elliottii 59,86] blackland prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Nassella leucotricha Fayette prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Buchloe dactyloides little bluestem-grama prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp. 64] redwood Sequoia sempervirens 5-200 [3,28,76] western redcedar-western hemlock Thuja plicata-Tsuga heterophylla > 200 [3] eastern hemlock-yellow birch Tsuga canadensis-Betula alleghaniensis > 200 [86] western hemlock-Sitka spruce Tsuga heterophylla-Picea sitchensis > 200 [3] elm-ash-cottonwood Ulmus-Fraxinus-Populus spp. 18,86] *fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species summary
**mean
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bibliographic citation
Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Fire Management Considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: prescribed fire, presence, seed

In fire-adapted communities, periodic prescribed burns will presumably retard multiflora rose invasion and establishment [40,78], although descriptions of the use of prescribed fire for control of multiflora rose are lacking. In a review of management practices for multiflora rose, Evans [24] describes the use of prescribed fire to control Macartney rose (Rosa bracteata), another nonnative pasture species, indicating that multiflora rose may respond similarly. Macartney rose is top-killed by fire but quickly initiates regrowth, presumably by sprouting from rhizomes and/or root crowns.

While a single prescribed fire is unlikely to eradicate multiflora rose, periodic burning may control its spread and eventually reduce its presence. Any management activity that removes aboveground tissue, prevents seed production, and depletes energy reserves is likely to impact multiflora rose invasiveness, especially when conducted persistently. Periodic fire may also promote desirable native plants. Prescribed burning in Texas for controlling Macartney rose improved native grass yields, especially following winter burns [24].

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bibliographic citation
Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: geophyte, phanerophyte

RAUNKIAER [65] LIFE FORM:
Phanerophyte
Geophyte
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bibliographic citation
Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Habitat characteristics

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: forest

Multiflora rose frequently colonizes roadsides, old fields, pastures, prairies, savannas, open woodlands, and forest edges, and may also invade dense forests where disturbance provides canopy gaps [19,40,78]. It is most productive in sunny areas with well-drained soils. 

Multiflora rose is tolerant of a wide range of soil and environmental conditions, but is not found in standing water or in extremely dry areas. Its northern distribution is thought to be limited by intolerance to extreme cold temperatures, but specific information is lacking [40].

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bibliographic citation
Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Habitat: Cover Types

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: cover

SAF COVER TYPES [25]:




1 Jack pine

14 Northern pin oak

15 Red pine

16 Aspen

17 Pin cherry

18 Paper birch

19 Gray birch-red maple

20 White pine-northern red oak-red maple

21 Eastern white pine

22 White pine-hemlock

25 Sugar maple-beech-yellow birch

26 Sugar maple-basswood

27 Sugar maple

28 Black cherry-maple

30 Red spruce-yellow birch

31 Red spruce-sugar maple-beech

32 Red spruce

35 Paper birch-red spruce-balsam fir

40 Post oak-blackjack oak

42 Bur oak

43 Bear oak

44 Chestnut oak

45 Pitch pine

46 Eastern redcedar

50 Black locust

51 White pine-chestnut oak

52 White oak-black oak-northern red oak

53 White oak

55 Northern red oak

57 Yellow-poplar

58 Yellow-poplar-eastern hemlock

59 Yellow-poplar-white oak-northern red oak

60 Beech-sugar maple

63 Cottonwood

64 Sassafras-persimmon

65 Pin oak-sweetgum

66 Ashe juniper-redberry (Pinchot) juniper

69 Sand pine

70 Longleaf pine

71 Longleaf pine-scrub oak

72 Southern scrub oak

73 Southern redcedar

74 Cabbage palmetto

75 Shortleaf pine

76 Shortleaf pine-oak

78 Virginia pine-oak

79 Virginia pine

80 Loblolly pine-shortleaf pine

81 Loblolly pine

82 Loblolly pine-hardwood

87 Sweetgum-yellow-poplar

107 White spruce

108 Red maple

109 Hawthorn

110 Black oak

213 Grand fir

217 Aspen

221 Red alder

222 Black cottonwood-willow

223 Sitka spruce

229 Pacific Douglas-fir

231 Port-Orford-cedar

232 Redwood

233 Oregon white oak

234 Douglas-fir-tanoak-Pacific madrone

235 Cottonwood-willow

236 Bur oak

237 Interior ponderosa pine

238 Western juniper

239 Pinyon-juniper

240 Arizona cypress

241 Western live oak

242 Mesquite

243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer

244 Pacific ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir

245 Pacific ponderosa pine

246 California black oak

247 Jeffrey pine

248 Knobcone pine

249 Canyon live oak

250 Blue oak-foothills pine

251 White spruce-aspen

255 California coast live oak
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bibliographic citation
Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Habitat: Ecosystem

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

More info for the term: shrub

ECOSYSTEMS [31]:




FRES10 White-red-jack pine

FRES12 Longleaf-slash pine

FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine

FRES14 Oak-pine

FRES15 Oak-hickory

FRES16 Oak-gum-cypress

FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood

FRES18 Maple-beech-birch

FRES19 Aspen-birch

FRES20 Douglas-fir

FRES21 Ponderosa pine

FRES22 Western white pine

FRES24 Hemlock-Sitka spruce

FRES27 Redwood

FRES28 Western hardwoods

FRES32 Texas savanna

FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub

FRES39 Prairie
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bibliographic citation
Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Habitat: Plant Associations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the terms: forest, shrub

KUCHLER [49] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:




K001 Spruce-cedar-hemlock forest

K002 Cedar-hemlock-Douglas-fir forest

K003 Silver fir-Douglas-fir forest

K005 Mixed conifer forest

K006 Redwood forest

K009 Pine-cypress forest

K010 Ponderosa shrub forest

K011 Western ponderosa forest

K012 Douglas-fir forest

K025 Alder-ash forest

K026 Oregon oakwoods

K028 Mosaic of K002 and K026

K029 California mixed evergreen forest

K030 California oakwoods

K033 Chaparral

K034 Montane chaparral

K047 Fescue-oatgrass

K048 California steppe

K074 Bluestem prairie

K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie

K076 Blackland prairie

K079 Palmetto Prairie

K081 Oak savanna

K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100

K083 Cedar glades

K084 Cross Timbers

K085 Mesquite-buffalo grass

K086 Juniper-oak savanna

K087 Mesquite-oak savanna

K088 Fayette prairie

K089 Black Belt

K095 Great Lakes pine forest

K097 Southeastern spruce-fir forest

K098 Northern floodplain forest

K099 Maple-basswood forest

K100 Oak-hickory forest

K101 Elm-ash forest

K102 Beech-maple forest

K103 Mixed mesophytic forest

K104 Appalachian oak forest

K110 Northeastern oak-pine forest

K111 Oak-hickory-pine

K112 Southern mixed forest

K115 Sand pine scrub
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Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the terms: cover, grassland, hardwood, shrub, shrubland, woodland

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [69]:




103 Green fescue

109 Ponderosa pine shrubland

201 Blue oak woodland

202 Coast live oak woodland

203 Riparian woodland

204 North coastal shrub

207 Scrub oak mixed chaparral

208 Ceanothus mixed chaparral

209 Montane shrubland

214 Coastal prairie

215 Valley grassland

601 Bluestem prairie

602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed

710 Bluestem prairie

711 Bluestem-sacahuista prairie

717 Little bluestem-Indiangrass-Texas wintergrass

718 Mesquite-grama

719 Mesquite-liveoak-seacoast bluestem

727 Mesquite-buffalo grass

728 Mesquite-granjeno-acacia

729 Mesquite

731 Cross timbers-Oklahoma

732 Cross timbers-Texas (little bluestem-post oak)

733 Juniper-oak

734 Mesquite-oak

735 Sideoats grama-sumac-juniper

801 Savanna

802 Missouri prairie

803 Missouri glades

804 Tall fescue

805 Riparian

808 Sand pine scrub

809 Mixed hardwood and pine

810 Longleaf pine-turkey oak hills

811 South Florida flatwoods

812 North Florida flatwoods

813 Cutthroat seeps

814 Cabbage palm flatwoods

815 Upland hardwood hammocks

817 Oak hammocks
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Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Immediate Effect of Fire

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More info for the terms: fire severity, rhizome, root crown, severity

There is no information available as of this writing (2002) describing the immediate effects of fire on multiflora rose. Native Rosa spp. are typically top-killed by fire, and with increasing fire severity, may be subject to root crown and rhizome damage sufficient to inhibit sprouting (see FEIS fire effects summaries for prickly rose, baldhip rose, Nootka rose, and Wood's rose).
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Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Impacts and Control

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More info for the terms: fire management, natural, root crown, seed

Impacts: Multiflora rose is clearly a serious pest plant in many areas of North America. It invades pasture areas, degrades forage quality, reduces grazing area and agricultural productivity and can cause severe eye and skin irritation in cattle [46,51]. Multiflora rose can spread rapidly, severely restricting access to pasture and recreational areas with "impenetrable thickets" [42,46,51,78]. Its characteristic dense growth of foliage and stems inhibits growth of competing native plants [42,78]. In a survey of federal wilderness managers, multiflora rose was mentioned as a "widely reported problem species" in Alabama, Arkansas, and Kentucky [53].

Detailed quantitative studies are needed to assess the impacts of multiflora rose on native ecosystems. Research that documents parameters such as rate of spread or species and numbers of native plants displaced would help in understanding how to manage areas where multiflora rose might be a problem.

Control: Controlling multiflora rose requires determined, persistent effort. Well-established populations are unlikely to be eradicated with a single treatment, regardless of method. Because seeds remain viable in soil for many years, and because new seeds may be continually imported by birds and other animals, effective management requires post-treatment monitoring and spot treatment as needed for an indeterminate time to prevent reinvasion [46].

For more information on multiflora rose control methods see Ohio State University Extension, Missouri Department of Conservation, Illinois Department of Natural Resources or West Virginia University Extension websites.

Prevention: Cultural practices that enhance vigor of desired plant species can create an environment less favorable for establishment of multiflora rose [37]. Mowing pastures several times per year will prevent seedling establishment. Avoiding overgrazing may also help prevent multiflora rose establishment (see grazing/browsing section below) [26].

Integrated management: No information

Physical/mechanical: Multiflora rose can be controlled by periodic mowing or cutting of individual plants. For pre-existing infestations, 3 to 6 mowings or cuttings per year, repeated for 2 to 4 years, is recommended. Painting or spraying cut stems with herbicides expedites control by killing root systems and preventing resprouting [78]. Another approach is to follow an initial mowing with foliar applied herbicide once plants have resprouted [46] (see chemical control section below). In high quality natural areas, cutting individual stems may be preferable to mowing, since repeated mowing might damage sensitive native plants. For large infestations, mowing may be preferable due to efficiency. Mowing equipment may be susceptible to frequent flat tires from multiflora rose thorns [78]. Periodic annual mowing can also prevent multiflora rose seedlings from becoming established [37]. Removal of entire plants may be feasible in high quality natural areas when populations are sparse enough. Removal of the entire root system is required to ensure no regrowth from suckering [40].

Fire: See Fire Management Considerations.

Biological: Multiflora rose is highly susceptible to rose rosette disease (RRD), which is transmitted by the eriophyid mite Phyllocoptes fructiphilus [1,2]. The virus-like agent that causes RRD remains of uncertain etiology as of this writing (2002). Symptoms include reddened, damaged foliage, shortened petioles (producing the telltale "rosette" appearance), severely reduced flowering and fruiting, and eventually, severely retarded apical growth. In general, smaller plants are killed by the disease within 2-3 years of initial symptoms, while larger, multi-crowned plants may survive for as long as 4-5 years. Plants growing in full sun appear to succumb more rapidly than shaded plants [21].

Multiflora rose is often severely impacted by RRD where their ranges overlap. The disease agent and the mite vector are native to North America [11]. RRD was first found on ornamental roses and Wood's rose, a common wild rose also native to western North America. RRD is currently expanding its range in the eastern United States, where multiflora rose is more common [2]. Based on field experiments, Amrine and Stasny [2] project that RRD "has the potential to eliminate over 90 % of the multiflora roses in areas of dense stands."

RRD can also be transmitted to healthy multiflora rose plants by grafting buds from symptomatic plants. This technique may be useful in augmenting natural dispersal of RRD to improve its effectiveness as a biological control agent against multiflora rose. Introducing a few infected grafts into relatively dense stands can potentially lead to widespread infection within a multiflora rose population. Graft-infected plants subsequently become colonized by mites, which in turn become vectors transmitting RRD to other plants within the augmented stand, as well as spreading the disease to other nearby populations [22,23].

The host range of RRD appears to be limited to multiflora rose and ornamental hybrid rose varieties [2]. RRD does not seem to adversely affect native North American roses, and tests of many important wild and cultivated fruit-producing species showed no apparent risk [2,23]. While RRD can infect ornamental roses, infected source plants (multiflora rose) located > 330 feet (100 m) away are unlikely to spread infectious agents to susceptible hybrid varieties [23].

Epstein and Hill [22] provide a more detailed review of the status of RRD as a biological control agent for multiflora rose.

Another potential biocontrol agent is the rose seed chalcid (Megastigmus aculeatus), a Japanese wasp that has become established in the eastern United States. The adult wasps oviposit into developing multiflora rose ovules, where larvae later consume seeds [2]. Surveys in North Carolina revealed an average of 62% of viable seed infested with larvae [61]. Colonization of new multiflora rose populations by the rose seed chalcid is apparently slow. Wasps are dispersed with the seed as eggs. Since many multiflora rose populations originated from cuttings, with no accompanying seed chalcid eggs, many recently established populations have not yet been infested. However, as the rose seed chalcid gradually spreads, it should begin to greatly impact multiflora rose populations in the eastern United States, especially when combined with the parallel effects of rose rosette disease [2]. The rose seed chalcid is probably not a factor in areas that experience severe cold, since the larvae overwinter in multiflora rose hips and are adversely affected [54].

Grazing/Browsing: Defoliation experiments indicate periodic browsing of foliage by livestock may effectively control multiflora rose [12]. Domestic sheep and goats will feed on leaves, new buds, and new shoots [46]. Foraging goats in pastures with severe multiflora rose infestations resulted in the virtual elimination of multiflora rose within 4 seasons. New shoots were observed during 2 subsequent seasons of no goat foraging, and these shoots were thought to be of both sprout and seed origin [52]. Cattle are much less effective in controlling multiflora rose [51]. While periodically foraging livestock in infested areas may be an effective control method, overgrazed pastures are presumably more susceptible to colonization from off-site seed sources [26].

Chemical: Where appropriate, herbicides may be an effective means of controlling multiflora rose, especially when used in combination with other methods. Below is a list of herbicides that have been tested and judged effective for controlling multiflora rose in North America, as well as a brief discussion of important considerations regarding their use. This is not intended as an exhaustive review of chemical control methods. For more information regarding appropriate use of herbicides against invasive plant species in natural areas, see The Nature Conservancy's Weed control methods handbook. For more information specific to herbicide use against multiflora rose, see Ohio State University Extension, Missouri Department of Conservation, or Pennsylvania State University Extension websites.

Chemical Considerations glyphosate [7,75,78] Glyphosate is recommended for "cut-stem" method [78]. It is a non-selective herbicide that kills most other plants that it contacts. It has low toxicity to animals and it rapidly binds to soil particles making it relatively immobile [79]. triclopyr [7,78,82] Triclopyr is recommended for "cut-stem" method [78]. It is also recommended for dormant-season basal bark treatment. It may volatilize when exposed to high temperatures (80 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit (27- 29° C)) [46]. It is selective against dicots. The ester formulation of triclopyr can be persistent in aquatic environments and should not be applied in wetland habitats [79]. picloram [7,75,82]  Picloram may be mobile in soil solution and can leach into nearby surface water [57,79]. It exhibits long residence time in the environment [79]. fosamine Fosamine only kills woody spp. [78]. It may be mobile in soil solution [79]. dicamba [78] Dicamba is selective against broadleaf vegetation. It is best applied during flowering and rapid growth (May-June) [78]. It is also recommended for dormant-season basal bark treatment [46]. Dicamba may volatilize when exposed to high temperatures (80 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit (27- 29° C)) [46]. It is highly mobile in soil and may contaminate ground water [83]. dicamba + 2,4-D [82] See considerations for dicamba, above. metsulfuron [17,81] Persistence in soil varies widely, but degradation is most rapid under acidic, moist, and warm conditions [83].
Applying herbicides to cut stems can hasten mechanical control by translocating chemicals to root systems and preventing resprouting. In addition, applying chemicals directly to the target plant in this manner reduces damage to surrounding native plants [78,87], and presumably reduces off-target effects. Cut-stem treatment is effective late in the growing season (July-Sept.) [46].

Foliar spraying is effective throughout the growing season as long as leaves are fully formed. Some herbicides may volatilize when temperatures exceed 80 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit (27- 29° C) and are best applied in early spring [46]. Some variation in herbicide effectiveness during different stages of the growing season has been observed, but is probably not related to differences in carbohydrate reserves [27].

Dormant season application is also effective, and further reduces nontarget mortality [78]. Basal bark treatment, applied to the lower 18 to 24 inches (46-61 cm) of the stem and onto the root crown, is a recommended chemical control method for dormant season application. Plants should be dormant and several weeks from bud break (usually January- March), and treatments should only be conducted when soil is not frozen, snow-covered, or water-saturated to avoid runoff [46]. Follow-up monitoring and retreatment during the subsequent growing season may be required to ensure effectiveness [37].

Cultural: No information
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Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

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More info for the terms: cover, fruit

Hips are consumed by many species of birds including grouse, ring-necked pheasants and wild turkeys [42,88], and are particularly sought after by cedar waxwings and American robins [24]. Leaves and hips are consumed by chipmunks, white-tailed deer, opossums, coyotes, black bears, beavers, snowshoe hares, skunks, and mice [20,42,62,74]. Leaves, twigs, bark and fruit are eaten by cottontail rabbits, particularly during fall and winter [42,47]. The hips of Rosa spp. are especially important as winter wildlife food, when other high-nutrition foods are unavailable [42].

Palatability/nutritional value: Nutritional Information for fruits (hips) of multiflora rose [15]:

Dry Matter
(%) Crude Protein
(% dry matter) Crude Fat
(% dry matter) Crude Fiber
(% dry matter) Gross Energy
(kcal/g) Metabolizable Energy
(kcal/g) 72.6 9.2 4.2 24.2 4.41 3.31±1.00

Cover value: Multiflora rose is used for cover during all times of year by cottontail rabbits, white-tailed deer, pheasants, and mice [36,42]. It is a preferred nesting site species for gray catbirds [43]. Southwestern willow flycatchers, a federally-listed endangered species, were observed nesting in multiflora rose in New Mexico [72].

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Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Key Plant Community Associations

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More info for the term: shrubland

Multiflora rose is found across many upland habitats in North America. As a consequence,
it may be associated with a variety of plant taxa, functional guilds and communities.


Multiflora rose is listed as a "characteristic shrub" of the successional
shrubland community-type in New York [66].

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Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Life Form

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More info for the term: shrub

Shrub
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Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Occurrence in North America

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AL AR CA CT DE FL GA IL
IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA
MI MN MS MO NE NH NJ NY
NC OH OK OR PA RI SC TN
TX VT VA WA WV WI

BC NB NF NS ON PQ

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Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Other uses and values

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More info for the term: rootstock

The origins of multiflora rose in North America stem from its use as a rootstock species for ornamental roses and as a fencerow plant [24,26].
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Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Phenology

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Flowering occurs from late April through June, depending on location [19,24,46,70]. Fruits develop by late summer [24,70] and often persist until spring [26,78].
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Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Plant Response to Fire

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More info for the terms: forest, frequency, prescribed fire, restoration

Multiflora rose frequency was significantly (p < 0.01) reduced following two consecutive early-spring burns at a prairie restoration site in east-central Illinois. The reduction in frequency occurred between postfire years 1 and 2. There was no description of specific fire effects [41].

The Research Project Summary Effects of experimental burning on understory plants in a temperate deciduous forest in Ohio provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species, including multiflora rose, that was not available when this species review was written.

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Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Post-fire Regeneration

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More info for the terms: adventitious, ground residual colonizer, initial off-site colonizer, rhizome, secondary colonizer, seed, shrub

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [71]:
Because there is no information about multiflora rose and fire, and only sparse information about its general biological traits (as of this writing (2002)), the following postfire regeneration strategies are speculative. More research is needed to clarify how multiflora rose responds to disturbance in general, and fire in particular.

Tall shrub, adventitious bud/root crown
Small shrub, adventitious bud/root crown
Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Initial off-site colonizer (off-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)
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Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Regeneration Processes

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More info for the terms: capsule, layering, scarification, seed

Breeding system: No information

Pollination: No information

Seed production: Individual plants may produce up to 500,000 seeds per year [40].

Seed dispersal: Most plants develop from seeds that fall relatively close to the parent plant [78]. Some seeds are dispersed by birds and mammals [24,26,88]. Hips remain on the plant and dry to a dense, leathery capsule [24,26,78].

Seed banking: Seeds may remain viable in the soil for 10 to 20 years, but detailed information on seed longevity is lacking [78].

Germination: Germination success may be enhanced by scarification from passing through bird digestive tracts [24].

Seedling establishment/growth: No information

Asexual regeneration: Multiflora rose reproduces asexually by root suckering and layering [24,46,63,78].

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Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [8]:



1 Northern Pacific Border

2 Cascade Mountains

3 Southern Pacific Border

4 Sierra Mountains
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Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Successional Status

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More info for the terms: forest, frequency, herbaceous, natural, nonnative species, shrub, shrubs, succession, woodland

Multiflora rose is most commonly mentioned as a component of early-successional communities, such as in abandoned agricultural and pasture lands in the eastern U.S. For example, Foster and Gross [29] demonstrated how multiflora rose can gradually colonize abandoned agricultural fields in southwestern Michigan. Multiflora rose is an important component in early-successional communities of abandoned agricultural fields in New Jersey, particularly 14-22 years after abandonment [60].

Although descriptions of establishment ecology are absent from the literature, it seems apparent from sites where multiflora rose is present, that it is not limited to a specific successional stage. For example, the following table provides data on frequency of multiflora rose occurrence within sampled plots representing several different successional stages or habitats in a southeastern Pennsylvania natural area [68].

Habitat Description Frequency (% of plots containing multiflora rose) old field abandoned agricultural land, dominated by herbaceous and low shrub species 38% thicket old fields that have been densely colonized by small trees and shrubs 56% woodland even-age, 60-70 year-old early-seral forest 50% riparian forest   57% mature forest mixed mesophytic and mixed oak associations 17%

In part because its seeds are bird dispersed, multiflora rose can colonize gaps in late-successional forests, even though these forests are thought to be relatively resistant to invasion by nonnative species [16]. However, without extensive or recurrent disturbance, multiflora rose is probably not a serious long-term invasion threat in mature forests. It will likely be shaded out by surrounding trees and shade-tolerant shrubs [42,68].

In addition to more research on establishment of multiflora rose, studies examining longevity of established colonies and their effects on succession of native communities would be valuable.

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Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Taxonomy

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The currently accepted name for multiflora rose is Rosa multiflora Thunb.
ex Murr. (Rosaceae) [32,33,34,45,73].
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Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosmul/all.html

Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Rosa multiflora Thunb. Fl. Jap. 214. 1784
Rosa polyantha Sieb. & Zucc. Abh. Akad. Munch. 4 2 : 128. 1845.
Stem 1-2 m. high, climbing, reddish, armed with mostly paired infrastipular curved prickles, which are 4-5 mm. long, flattened below; stipules adnate, 15-20 mm. long, pectinately lobed and glandular-ciliate; leaflets 5-9, deciduous, petiolulate, obovate or elliptic, obtuse or acute, sharply serrate, dull above, grayish-green beneath, softly pubescent, 2-3.5 cm. long; inflorescence pyramidal, often many-flowered, softly pubescent; lower bracts pectinate, the upper lanceolate; hypanthium globose to ellipsoid, pubescent, 5-6 mm. broad; sepals ovatelanceolate, 12-15 mm. long, short-acuminate or with lanceolate appendages, densely pubescent, the outer often lobed, in fruit reflexed and deciduous; petals mostly white, 10-15 mm. long: styles exserted, united, glabrous.
Type locality: Near Nagasaki, Japan.
Distribution: Native of Japan and China; occasionally escaped from cultivation; naturalized in Maryland, Alabama, and Costa Rica; on ballast, Washington.
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Per Axel Rydberg. 1918. ROSACEAE (conclusio). North American flora. vol 22(6). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Rosa multiflora

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Rosa multiflora (syn. Rosa polyantha)[2] is a species of rose known commonly as multiflora rose,[3] baby rose,[3] Japanese rose,[3] many-flowered rose,[3] seven-sisters rose,[3] Eijitsu rose and rambler rose. It is native to eastern Asia, in China, Japan and Korea. It should not be confused with Rosa rugosa, which is also known as "Japanese rose", or with polyantha roses which are garden cultivars derived from hybrids of R. multiflora. It was introduced to North America, where it is regarded as an invasive species.

Description

It is a scrambling shrub climbing over other plants to a height of 3–5 m (9.8–16.4 ft), with stout stems with recurved prickles (sometimes absent). The leaves are 5–10 cm (2–4 in) long, compound, with 5–9 leaflets and feathered stipules. The flowers are produced in large corymbs, each flower small, 1.5–4 cm (581+58 in) diameter, white or pink, borne in early summer. The hips are reddish to purple, 6–8 mm (0.24–0.31 in) diameter.

Two varieties are accepted by the Flora of China:[4]

  • Rosa multiflora var. multiflora. Flowers white, 1.5–2 cm (5834 in) diameter.
  • Rosa multiflora var. cathayensis Rehder & E.H.Wilson. Flowers pink, to 4 cm (1+58 in) diameter.

Cultivation and uses

Rosa multiflora is grown as an ornamental plant and also used as a rootstock for grafted ornamental rose cultivars.

In eastern North America, Rosa multiflora is considered an invasive species. It was originally introduced from Asia as a soil conservation measure, as a natural hedge to border grazing land, and to attract wildlife. It is readily distinguished from American native roses by its large inflorescences, which bear multiple flowers and hips, often more than a dozen, while the American species bear only one or a few on a branch.

In some regions the plant is classified as a noxious weed.[5] In grazing areas, it is generally considered to be a serious pest, though it is considered excellent fodder for goats.

The hips of the plant are edible.[6]

Management

The targeted removal of multiflora rose often requires an aggressive technique, such as the full removal of the plant in addition to the root structure. Pruning and cutting back of the plant often leads to re-sprouting. Two natural biological controls include the rose rosette disease and the rose seed chalid (Megastigmus aculeastus var. nigroflavus).[7] Patches of introduced multiflora rose in Pennsylvania are displaying symptoms of rose rosette disease, which can lead to decline and death.[8]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "Rosa multiflora Thunb.". Richard Pankhurst et al. Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh. Retrieved April 27, 2014 – via The Plant List.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  2. ^ Roger Phillips; Martyn Rix (2004). The Ultimate Guide to Roses. Pan Macmillan Ltd. p. 262. ISBN 1-4050-4920-0.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Rosa multiflora". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved December 15, 2017.
  4. ^ Gu, Cuizhi; Robertson, Kenneth R. "Rosa multiflora". Flora of China. Vol. 9 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  5. ^ Carole Bergmann; Jil M. Swearingen. "Multiflora Rose". U.S. National Park Service. Archived from the original on April 4, 2006. Retrieved March 27, 2006.
  6. ^ "Multiflora Rose, An Invasive But Nutritious Wild Edible". Eat the Planet.
  7. ^ "Multiflora Rose Control". Missouri department of conservation. Retrieved September 14, 2014.
  8. ^ "Multiflora Rose: The Mixed Blessings of Rose Rosette Disease". Retrieved March 19, 2016.

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Rosa multiflora: Brief Summary

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Rosa multiflora (syn. Rosa polyantha) is a species of rose known commonly as multiflora rose, baby rose, Japanese rose, many-flowered rose, seven-sisters rose, Eijitsu rose and rambler rose. It is native to eastern Asia, in China, Japan and Korea. It should not be confused with Rosa rugosa, which is also known as "Japanese rose", or with polyantha roses which are garden cultivars derived from hybrids of R. multiflora. It was introduced to North America, where it is regarded as an invasive species.

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