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Distribution

provided by ReptileDB
Continent: Asia
Distribution: Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi ?), Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Burma, West Malaysia, Singapore, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Nepal, India (Assam ?, Sikkim; Arunachal Pradesh (Chimpu, Itanagar “ Papum Pare district) [A. Captain, pers. comm.]), China (Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Fujian, Hong Kong, Hainan) helleri: Bangladesh; Hong Kong; India; Laos; Myanmar; Nepal; People's Republic of China; Thailand; N Vietnam.
Type locality: œJava
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Description

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Mohammadi, Shabnam
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Rhabdophis subminiatus

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Rhabdophis subminiatus, commonly called the red-necked keelback or red-necked keelback snake, is a species of venomous snake in the family Colubridae. The species is endemic to Asia.

Description

Rhabdophis subminiatus has a greenish hue with red and yellow regions near the head. It grows to 70 to 90 cm (27.5 to 35.5 in) in total length (including tail).

Habitat and diet

The red-necked keelback generally lives near ponds, where it consumes frogs and fish.[3]

Snakebite and venom

Rhabdophis subminiatus is a rear-fanged species and was previously thought to be harmless. However, following one fatal and several near-fatal envenomations, the toxicity of its venom was investigated. As a result, it has recently been reclassified as a dangerous species. Rear-fanged snakes need to bite and hold on, or repeatedly bite, to have any effect on humans. A chewing action facilitates envenomation, as the venom ducts open to fangs that are externally grooved (not hollow) and are posterior in the oral cavity. R. subminiatus has enlarged and ungrooved teeth. The species has two enlarged teeth in the back of the jaw. Located in the upper jaw is a gland known as Duvernoy's gland, which produces an extremely venomous secretion.[3]

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Extraction of snake venom from the red-necked keelback snake

Symptoms caused by venom

When the snake bites, the salivary venom mixture is not injected, but it flows into the punctures produced by the upper jaw's rear teeth, which can penetrate the skin of humans. The venom from R. subminiatus has been responsible for internal hemorrhaging, including hemorrhaging of the brain, as well as nausea, coagulopathy, and even disseminated intravascular coagulation. Also, when the venom was tested on animals, kidney failure was reported. Caution should be taken when dealing with patients who have been bitten by the red-necked keelback snake. No further injury such as injections should be used because this may cause excessive bleeding in the bite victim. Although most bites of humans from R. subminiatus are involved with the front teeth and do not cause adverse effects, rare bites from the rear fangs can be lethal.[4] Studies in mice on the biological activity of the venom of the red-necked keel-back snake, Rhabdophis subminiatus, showed that the venom contained a potent Factor X activator and had intense defibrinogenating activity; the overall proteolytic activity of the venom was low, and this correlated well with its negligible fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities. Only one antivenom tested was shown to have weak neutralizing activity against the venom in mice. This species of snake has recently been added to the schedule of the Dangerous Wild Animals Act, 1976.

Etymology

Red-necked Keelback (Rhabdophis subminiatus) 紅脖游蛇9.jpg

The specific name subminiatus refers to the typical reddish coloration ("miniatus" = "scarlet, vermilion"[5]), which may be limited to the neck, or more extensive (e.g., photo at left). The subspecific name, helleri, is in honor of American zoologist Edmund Heller.[6]

Geographic range

The red-necked keelback can be found in:[2]

References

  1. ^ Wogan, G.; Chan-Ard, T. (2012). "Rhabdophis subminiatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012: e.T192116A2042128. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T192116A2042128.en. Retrieved 20 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Rhabdophis subminiatus ". The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
  3. ^ a b Ferlan I, Ferlan A, King T, Russell FE (1983). "Preliminary studies on the venom of the colubrid snake Rhabdophis subminatus (red-necked keelback)". Toxicon. 21 (4): 570–574. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(83)90137-x. PMID 6623495.
  4. ^ Zotz RB, Mebs D, Hirche H, Paar D (1991). "Hemostatic changes due to the venom gland extract of the red-necked keelback snake (Rhabdophis subminiatus)". Toxicon. 29 (12): 1501–1508. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(91)90006-d. PMID 1801326.
  5. ^ Wiktionary
  6. ^ Schmidt, Karl P. (1925). "New reptiles and a new salamander from China". American Museum Novitates (157): 1-5. http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace/handle/2246/9

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Rhabdophis subminiatus: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Rhabdophis subminiatus, commonly called the red-necked keelback or red-necked keelback snake, is a species of venomous snake in the family Colubridae. The species is endemic to Asia.

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Rhabdophis subminiatus

provided by wikipedia FR

Rhabdophis subminiatus ou serpent à col rouge est une espèce de serpents de la famille des Natricidae[1].

Répartition

Cette espèce se rencontre[1] :

Sa présence est incertaine au Sulawesi en Indonésie et dans l’État d'Assam en Inde.

Habitat

 src=
Rhabdophis subminiatus, île de Java, Indonésie
Rhabdop submin 080119-3740 ltn.jpg
Rhabdop submin 080119-3734 ltn.jpg

Ce serpent se rencontre près des zones humides, mares en particulier où il se nourrit principalement d'amphibiens.

Description

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Rhabdophis subminiatus, parc national de Doi Inthanon, Thaïlande
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Rhabdophis subminiatus, parc national de Kaeng Krachan, Thaïlande

Le serpent a une teinte verdâtre, avec deux zones rougeâtre et jaunâtre en arrière de la tête. Cette couleur lui permet de se confondre avec les tapis de feuilles mortes et plantes aquatiques, tout en se rendant visible pour certains de ses prédateurs.

Il peut atteindre un mètre de long.

Dangerosité

Rhabdophis subminiatus est une espèce autrefois jugée inoffensive car elle ne possède pas de crocs pour injecter son venin hémotoxique. Mais en mordant, sa salive mêlée de son venin peut pénétrer dans les plaies occasionnées et donc dans le corps. À la suite d'un cas mortel chez l'être humain et de plusieurs cas graves d'envenimation, la toxicité de son venin a fait l'objet d'études qui ont conduit à le reclasser en espèce dangereuse[réf. nécessaire][2].

Liste des sous-espèces

Selon Reptarium Reptile Database (10 septembre 2013)[3] :

  • Rhabdophis subminiatus helleri (Schmidt, 1925)
  • Rhabdophis subminiatus subminiatus (Schlegel, 1837)

Publications originales

  • Schlegel, 1837 : Essai sur la physionomie des serpens, La Haye, J. Kips, J. HZ. et W. P. van Stockum, vol. 1 (texte intégral) et vol. 2 (texte intégral).
  • Schmidt, 1925 : New reptiles and a new salamander from China. American Museum Novitates, no 157, p. 1-5 (texte intégral).

Notes et références

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wikipedia FR

Rhabdophis subminiatus: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Rhabdophis subminiatus ou serpent à col rouge est une espèce de serpents de la famille des Natricidae.

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fr
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http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
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wikipedia FR