dcsimg

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

provided by AnAge articles
Maximum longevity: 11.4 years (captivity) Observations: In the wild, these animals may live up to 10 years (Bernhard Grzimek 1990). In captivity they may live 11.4 years (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Joao Pedro de Magalhaes
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Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Mink communicate using a variety of cues, including chemical, visual, and auditory signals. They are fairly quiet, but rely heavily on chemical signaling for communicating territorial boundaries and reproductive status.

Mink have excellent senses of vision, smell, and hearing.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: scent marks

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Schlimme, K. 2003. "Neovison vison" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Neovison_vison.html
author
Kurt Schlimme, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Conservation Status

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The main threat towards mink survival is the continued existence of the fur market. Forty-seven states and all Canadian provinces currently conduct limited trapping seasons on mink, with the length of the season varying from area to area (Chapman and Feldhamer 1982). Quotas on catch size have also been set in many places. Both of these tactics allow the limited removal of mink in order that population densities will remain constant.

Another threat includes the destruction of mink habitat. Mink depend heavily on aquatic areas. Creating, enhancing, and maintaining such habitat allows for the continued existence of healthy populations throughout the range of the species (Chapman and Feldhamer 1982).

The presence of environmental contaminants such as mercury and hydrocarbon compounds (e.g., DDT and PCBs) pose an additional threat to mink (Kurta 1995). These chemicals accumulate within the mink's tissues and can cause problems in reproduction or even threaten the animal's life. Closer regulation over the use and disposal of these chemicals is necessary.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Schlimme, K. 2003. "Neovison vison" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Neovison_vison.html
author
Kurt Schlimme, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits

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The only negative affects that can be attributed to mink is the possible competition between mink and humans for water fowl or other game species.

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Schlimme, K. 2003. "Neovison vison" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Neovison_vison.html
author
Kurt Schlimme, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits

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Mink pelts have for years been considered one of the most luxurious furs on the market. Originally all fur came from natural populations, causing a severe strain on the species. However, starting in the mid 1900s, mink ranches were established to help bring a more consistent pelt supply to the market. Ranching was very successful, with the number of mink ranches in the United States reaching a high of 7200 during the mid-1960s (Chapman and Feldhamer 1982). While the number of ranches has declined nationally to 439 (1998), a total of 2.94 million pelts were still produced (both wild and domestic mink), that were valued at $72.9 million dollars (USDA 1999). The quality of a pelt, which significantly affects the price, is determined by its size, color, texture and density.

Positive Impacts: body parts are source of valuable material

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Schlimme, K. 2003. "Neovison vison" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Neovison_vison.html
author
Kurt Schlimme, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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Mink are important predators of small mammals throughout their range.

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Schlimme, K. 2003. "Neovison vison" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Neovison_vison.html
author
Kurt Schlimme, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Trophic Strategy

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The diet of mink varies with the season. During the summer it consists of crayfish and small frogs, along with small mammals such as shrews, rabbits, mice, and muskrats. Fish, ducks and other water fowl provide additional food choices. In the winter, they primarily prey on mammals.

Animal Foods: birds; mammals; amphibians; reptiles; fish; aquatic crustaceans

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats terrestrial vertebrates)

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Schlimme, K. 2003. "Neovison vison" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Neovison_vison.html
author
Kurt Schlimme, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Distribution

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Mink are found throughout the United States, appearing in parts of every state except Arizona. They are also present in most of Canada, including an introduced population on Newfoundland. Only along the Arctic coast and some offshore islands are they absent.

American mink have also been inadvertently introduced to the British Isles, where they escaped from fur farms in the 1960's. As a non-native predator their effects on native wildlife there are serious.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Introduced , Native ); palearctic (Introduced )

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Schlimme, K. 2003. "Neovison vison" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Neovison_vison.html
author
Kurt Schlimme, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Although mink are found throughout North America, they tend to frequent forested areas that are in close proximity to water. Streams, ponds, and lakes, with some sort of brushy or rocky cover nearby are considered optimal territory.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: taiga ; savanna or grassland ; forest

Aquatic Biomes: lakes and ponds; rivers and streams; coastal

Wetlands: marsh

Other Habitat Features: riparian

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Schlimme, K. 2003. "Neovison vison" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Neovison_vison.html
author
Kurt Schlimme, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The maximum lifespan for a mink is usually around 10 years.

Typical lifespan
Status: wild:
10 (high) years.

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Schlimme, K. 2003. "Neovison vison" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Neovison_vison.html
author
Kurt Schlimme, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Morphology

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Mink fur is usually dark brown with white patches on the chin, chest, and throat areas. The fur is soft and thick, with oily guard hairs that waterproof the animal's coat (Chapman and Feldhamer 1982). The body is long and slender with short legs and a pointy, flat face. The toes are partially webbed, showing the mink's semi-aquatic nature. Body length is usually around 2 feet or 610 mm (Van Gelder 1982) with up to half of this length being the tail. Females, on average, are substantially smaller than males. Adult females weigh between 0.7 to 1.1 kg, while males range from 0.9 to 1.6 kilograms (Chapman and Feldhamer 1982). Body length varies as well, with males measuring from 580 to 700 mm and females from 460 to 575 mm (Chapman and Feldhamer 1982).

Range mass: 700 to 1600 g.

Range length: 460 to 700 mm.

Average length: 610 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

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Schlimme, K. 2003. "Neovison vison" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Neovison_vison.html
author
Kurt Schlimme, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Mink have few natural enemies. They are occasionally killed by coyotes, bobcats and other carnivores, but their main threat remains humans. Mink, like most mustelids, are aggressive and fearless predators. They do not hesitate to defend themselves against animals larger than themselves. Mink may be occasionally taken by birds of prey, or young in a nest may be taken by snakes, but they are agile, cryptic in coloration, and secretive in nature, thereby avoiding most predation.

Known Predators:

  • coyotes
  • bobcats
  • snakes
  • birds of prey

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

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bibliographic citation
Schlimme, K. 2003. "Neovison vison" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Neovison_vison.html
author
Kurt Schlimme, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Reproduction

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During the winter, female mink become fertile and mate with one or more males (who are also promiscuous).

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Both males and females begin mating at ten months (Chapman and Feldhamer 1982). Once a female is impregnated, her gestation period varies from 40 to 75 days (Kurta 1995). The young are born in late spring (April or May), with litter sizes usually ranging between 1 to 8 individuals (Chapman and Feldhamer 1982). Each newborn weighs 8 to 10 grams and appears pink and wrinkled, with a thin coat of white fur covering the body.

Breeding interval: Breeding occurs once yearly.

Breeding season: Mating occurs during the winter months.

Range number of offspring: 1 to 8.

Range gestation period: 40 to 75 days.

Average weaning age: 6 weeks.

Range time to independence: 6 to 10 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 10 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 10 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

The young open their eyes at three and a half weeks and are weaned at a month and a half (Van Gelder 1982). They remain with the mother through the summer until fall, when they leave to establish their own territories.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

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Schlimme, K. 2003. "Neovison vison" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Neovison_vison.html
author
Kurt Schlimme, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Allison Poor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Biology

provided by Arkive
This semi-aquatic species is a versatile opportunistic predator (2) (4), preying on rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), water voles (Arvicola terrestris), and many other mammals, as well as a range of fish, birds, eggs, crayfish, and a variety of invertebrates (6). This species has had a devastating effect on native species; it has been implicated in the precipitous decline of the water vole, and poses a serious threat to game birds, fish and birds nesting on offshore islands (6). Although it can be active at any time during the 24-hour period, the activity of the American mink tends to peak at night and at dusk (6). They are solitary and territorial, with the male home range overlapping several female ranges (6). Mating occurs once a year, between February and April (6). During this time males leave their territories and increase their range in search of females (2). A single litter of four to seven young is produced between April and May (6). When they reach 13 to 14 weeks of age, the young disperse away from the place of birth (6).
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Conservation

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Eradication of mink throughout Britain is unlikely and would be extremely expensive; however, populations remain low where regular culling is carried out on a local basis. Sensitive areas could be fenced off (5), and on previously predator free islands, such as Harris, which supports internationally significant populations of nesting sea birds; eradication of mink is essential (5). It is now apparent that in areas where otters have made a recovery, mink have been declining (5), this is certainly encouraging news.
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Description

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The introduced American mink has a slender body, short legs and a tail that is about a third of the body length (4). The thick, glossy fur can vary in colour, but is generally dark brown or black, and becomes darker in winter (2).
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Habitat

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Lives in aquatic habitats, but can spend some time away from water and can even live near urban areas (6).
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Range

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American mink, native to North America, were first introduced to fur farms in Britain in 1929; the first official record of escapees breeding in the wild was in 1957 (5). Following many accidental and deliberate releases, the species is now widespread and common throughout Britain and much of Europe (6). In Britain they are spreading in terms of range and numbers, extending into East Anglia and Yorkshire (6). However, in some areas of England the population is declining, this may be due to the return of the native otter (Lutra lutra) (6).
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Status

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Introduced. Dispersal of American mink is controlled by the following legislation: Mink Keeping Order 2000 (separate Acts relevant for England, Wales and Scotland). Release of American mink is illegal under Schedule 9 (Part I) of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (3).
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Threats

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Other than preying on our native fauna, the American mink may also carry Aleutian disease, a virus of fur farms that can be transmitted to native carnivores (6).
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Associated Plant Communities

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info for the term: grassland

American mink occur in a wide variety of plant communities. They are associated
with water rather than with particular habitat types. American mink are more
often associated with coniferous and mixed forests than deciduous
forests. They are also found in grassland environments if open water or
marshland is present [1].
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bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. Neovison vison. 1996. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
American mink
mink
North American mink
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Sullivan, Janet. Neovison vison. 1996. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Conservation Status

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
Information on state- and province-level protection status of animals in the
United States and Canada is available at NatureServe, although recent
changes in status may not be included.
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Sullivan, Janet. Neovison vison. 1996. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Cover Requirements

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info for the terms: cover, density, marsh, natural, shrub, shrubs, tree

Den sites are usually in thick cover and include hollow logs, natural
cavities under tree roots, or burrows along stream, marsh, and lake
edges [10]. Old beaver (Castor canadensis) lodges are occasionally used
as den sites [23]. In Idaho 53 percent of dens were in logjams [27].
In North Dakota marshlands, all dens were situated on shorelines and
appeared to be in abandoned muskrat burrows. Active dens were not
located where shorelines were heavily grazed. The absence of dry den
sites limits the use of some wetland habitats that are otherwise
suitable [1]. In Ontario dens were frequently found in areas with good
horizontal cover (31.4% obscurity at 3.5 m), and proportionally more
coniferous than deciduous shrubs. Dens were also in areas with
higher-than-average shrub density, deadfalls, stumps, and individual
trees [30].

In Michigan American mink were most commonly associated with brushy or wooded
cover adjacent to aquatic habitats [25]. In Quebec mink were normally
most active in wooded areas immediately adjacent to a stream channel
[6].
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Sullivan, Janet. Neovison vison. 1996. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Food Habits

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
American mink are almost exclusively carnivorous. They are excellent swimmers
and pursue both aquatic and terrestrial prey. American mink diets vary with
season, habitat, and availability of prey [1]. No single food item is
consistently more important than others [23]. Commonly important items
include common muskrats (Ondatra zibethecus), voles (Microtus spp.),
cottontails (Sylvilagus spp.), fish (mostly Salmonidae), birds, frogs,
salamanders, crayfish, clams, and insects [1,10,23]. Carey [9] listed
American mink as a common predator of Townsend's chipmunks (Tamias townsendii) in
the Pacific Northwest. Allen [1] listed American mink prey preference in the
following order: 1) aquatic prey, including fish and crayfish, 2)
semi-aquatic prey including waterfowl and water-associated mammals such
as common muskrat, and 3) terrestrial prey including rabbits and
rodents.

In Idaho fish comprised 59 percent of American mink diets [27]. Birds are
important prey where fish and crayfish are scarce. In Louisiana
crayfish are so prominent in American mink diets that their abundance largely
determines American mink population size [1]. In Alaska coastal populations of
American mink tend to be higher than inland populations due to the ready
availability of prey in tide pools [1]. Eberhardt and Sargeant [12]
reported that American mink diets in North Dakota prairie marshes were dominated
by birds (78%); other prey included mammals (19%), amphibians (2%), and
reptiles (1%). Of the avian prey, the majority were waterfowl including
American coot (Fulica americana), ducks (Anatidae), and grebes
(Podicipedidae) [12]. In southern Manitoba mink are important nest
predators of waterfowl [11]. In North Dakota American mink predation on
ducklings typically occurs in semipermanent wetlands [1].

Seasonal Variation in Diet: Shallow water and low flow rates contribute
to effective aquatic foraging by American mink. American mink tend to eat more fish in
winter when fish are more accessible. In autumn terrestrial mammals
tend to increase in importance as prey. Terrestrial mammals comprised
43 percent of American mink diets in riparian areas in Idaho and comprised over
20 percent of American mink fall/winter diets in North Carolina [1]. In Quebec
crayfish were the most important dietary item in summer [6]. In winter
American mink hunting over ice can easily penetrate active common muskrat lodges,
but cannot get into common muskrat burrows so easily [28].
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bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. Neovison vison. 1996. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat-related Fire Effects

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info for the terms: cover, density, herbaceous, shrub, snag

There are no reports in the literature linking fire-caused habitat
changes to American mink. Fire along streambanks that reduces cover and downed
logs would have a negative impact on American mink activity. Reduction of fish
and crayfish due to changes in stream conditions would adversely affect
American mink. Conversely, fire that resulted in increased snag numbers and
stream channel downfalls, shrub density, and herbaceous vegetation cover
would probably encourage American mink activity.
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Sullivan, Janet. Neovison vison. 1996. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Cover Types

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: cover

American mink occur in most SAF cover types, except those in the
southwestern deserts.
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bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. Neovison vison. 1996. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Ecosystem

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES10 White-red-jack pine
FRES11 Spruce-fir
FRES12 Longleaf-slash pine
FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine
FRES14 Oak-pine
FRES15 Oak-hickory
FRES16 Oak-gum-cypress
FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood
FRES18 Maple-beech-birch
FRES19 Aspen-birch
FRES20 Douglas-fir
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES22 Western white pine
FRES23 Fir-spruce
FRES24 Hemlock-Sitka spruce
FRES25 Larch
FRES26 Lodgepole pine
FRES27 Redwood
FRES28 Western hardwoods
FRES37 Mountain meadows
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES39 Prairie
FRES41 Wet grasslands
FRES44 Alpine
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Sullivan, Janet. Neovison vison. 1996. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Plant Associations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

American mink occur in most Kuchler plant associations, except those in the
southwestern deserts.
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Sullivan, Janet. Neovison vison. 1996. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the terms: forb, fresh, hardwood, marsh, woodland

203 Riparian woodland
217 Wetlands
409 Tall forb
411 Aspen woodland
421 Chokecherry-serviceberry-rose
422 Riparian
805 Riparian
806 Gulf Coast salt marsh
807 Gulf Coast fresh marsh
809 Mixed hardwood and pine
811 South Florida flatwoods
812 North Florida flatwoods
813 Cutthroat seeps
814 Cabbage palm flatwoods
815 Upland hardwood hammocks
816 Cabbage palm hammocks
817 Oak hammocks
818 Florida salt marsh
820 Everglades flatwoods
821 Pitcher plant bogs
822 Slough
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Sullivan, Janet. Neovison vison. 1996. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Management Considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info for the terms: cover, density, herbaceous, shrubs

In Quebec Burgess [6] noted an increase in American mink activity with habitat
improvement consisting of the creation of pools at least 1 meter deep by
placing logs and/or rocks into the stream channel which formed small
dams. It was reported that 1) temperatures were similar in control and
improved sections of stream, 2) aquatic insect production was somewhat
higher in the improved section, and 3) trout and crayfish biomasses were
higher in the improved section [7].

Development of shorelines that reduces structural diversity and removes
snags and debris reduces American mink activity. Removal of downfall and other
debris from the water near shore, and reduction or elimination of
aquatic vegetation reduces crayfish production and contributes to
reduced American mink activity [1]. In Ontario residential development around
lakes resulted in decreased American mink activity due to loss of trees, decreased
density of shrubs, reduction of aquatic snags, and removal of submergent
and floating vegetation. In areas undergoing development, 52 of 59 dens
were on undeveloped sections of shoreline [30].

Stream channelization has a negative impact on American mink activity since
suitable prey abundance is reduced when shallow, detritus-rich sloughs
associated with meandering streams are replaced with abrupt, monotypic
interfaces between aquatic and terrestrial cover types. In Mississippi
and Alabama comparison of American mink activity was made among a newly
channelized segment, an old (55 years) channelized segment, and an
unchannelized segment of a river. American mink track counts were highest in the
unchannelized segment, lower in the old channelized segment, and very
sparse in the newly channelized areas. Abundance and density of
herbaceous vegetation were highest on the unchannelized segment [16].

There are controlled American mink trapping seasons in 47 states and all
provinces. Hunting is also allowed in five states as well as in Nova
Scotia [23]. Trapping rates fluctuate widely from year to year; price
and harvest are not significantly correlated. The extent to which
trapping affects populations is not known [23]. Fur harvest records,
though not necessarily direct indications of population levels, show
that Louisiana, Minnesota, and Wisconsin produce the most wild pelts in
the United States. Saskatchewan and Manitoba lead the numbers in
Canada. These harvest records reflect the relative amount of wetlands
in the leading American mink producing areas [1]. In southeastern Alaska mink is
the most abundantly harvested furbearer [26].

Linscombe and others [23] discuss parasites and diseases of American mink.
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Occurrence in North America

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AL
AK
AR
CA
CO
CT
DE
FL
GA
ID

IL
IN
IA
KS
KY
LA
ME
MD
MA
MI

MN
MS
MO
MT
NE
NV
NH
NJ
NM
NY

NC
ND
OH
OK
OR
PA
RI
SC
SD
TN

TX
UT
VT
VA
WA
WV
WI
WY

AB
BC
MB
NB
NF
NT
NS
ON
PE
PQ

SK
YT
 
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION:
American mink range across Canada, excepting the high Arctic, west through Alaska
and south throughout the United States except for the southwestern
deserts [10].
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Predators

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
American mink mortality due to predators other than humans is not substantial.
Occasional predators include fisher (Martes pennanti), red fox (Vulpes
vulpes), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), lynx
(L. lynx), gray wolf (Canis lupus), American alligator (Alligator
mississippiensis), and great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) [23].
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Preferred Habitat

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More info for the terms: cover, density, hydroperiod, shrub, succession

The critical habitat feature for American mink is water. American mink prefer
streambanks, lakeshores, and marshes [10]. Habitats associated with
small streams are preferred to habitats near large, broad rivers [1].
American mink favor forested wetlands with abundant cover such as shrub thickets,
fallen trees, and rocks [10]. In aspen (Populus spp.) parklands, male
American mink selected large, semipermanent and permanent wetlands with open
areas near shores, high water levels and irregular shorelines; these
characteristics are also associated with abundant avian prey [3]. American mink
are common where abundant downfall and debris creates cover for
foraging. Logjams in streams create crayfish and fish habitat and
shelter for American mink [1]. Peak American mink production in baldcypress (Taxodium
distichum) swamps occurred following extensive logging in the early part
of the twentieth century. Numbers have declined since then, probably
due to changed hydroperiod and decreased logging debris [23]. In Quebec
the majority of American mink activity takes place less than 3 miles (4.8 km)
from water [6]. In Michigan all American mink were observed within 100 feet
(30.4 m) of the water's edge [25]. In Minnesota all den sites were
within 231 feet (69.9 m) of open water [31]. In Idaho den sites were
16.5 to 330 feet (5-100 m) from water, and American mink were never observed more
than 660 feet (200 m) from water [27]. In southeastern Alaska mink
spend the summers along streams and in upland muskegs; they spend the
winter in a narrow ocean beach zone [26].

Wetlands with irregular, diverse shorelines are better American mink habitat than
those with straight, open, or exposed shorelines [1]. Marshall [25]
reported that 50 percent of American mink tracks in Michigan occurred in various
stages of hydrophytic succession, 37 percent in bushy and timbered
areas, and 13 percent in sedge (Carex spp.) and common cattail (Typhus
latifolia) type. In Alaska the highest American mink densities occurred in low
swampy terrain and in extensively interconnected waterways with abundant
fish [8].

More American mink are trapped in wooded swamps than in marshes. The reported
abundance of American mink in baldcypress-tupelo (Nyssa spp.) swamps is at least
partially attributable to the abundance of food [1].

In upland habitats, ecotones are most used; American mink avoid open areas and
prefer shrubby, dense thickets. Tall grass does not usually provide
adequate cover for American mink; however, sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) marshes
in Louisiana support high American mink densities [1].

American mink are adaptable in their use of habitat, particularly where prey are
readily available. They are tolerant of human activity. American mink inhabit
suboptimal habitats if prey is available, but are more mobile and change
home ranges more frequently in suboptimal than in optimal habitats [1].

Home Range: American mink home ranges tend to approximate the shape of the body
of water the American mink uses most [1]. However, in the prairie pothole
region, American mink tend to use an area rather than a linear shoreline [2].
The use of the home range varies in intensity with respect to varying
prey availability. American mink tend to use a core area near a den site,
usually within 990 feet (300 m) of the shoreline. They move to another
den and core area several times a season; core areas tend to be places
of relatively high prey abundance. Usually only a small percentage of
the average or overall home range is used as the core area. In winter
fewer den sites are used, occupancy is of longer duration, and daily
travel distances are shorter than in summer [1].

Male American mink have larger average home ranges than females [1,23]. Females
tend to use a greater proportion of their home range as a core area then
males do [23]. Mitchell [29] reported the average home range for male
American mink in Montana was 2 to 3 miles (3.2-4.8 km) in diameter. Vegetative
cover has a substantial impact on home range size in Montana: female
home ranges in heavily vegetated areas averaged 19 acres (7.7 ha),
whereas in sparse, heavily grazed areas they averaged 50 acres (20.1 ha)
[29]. In Michigan male American mink average home range was less than 20 acres
(8 ha) [25]. In Idaho males used 0.6 to 1.25 miles (1-2 km) of
shoreline [27]. In British Columbia mink density on Vancouver Island
ranged from 1.5 to more than 3 American mink per kilometer of shoreline [18].
Gerell [15] reported that adult male American mink used an average of 8,679 feet
(2630 m) of shoreline, ranging from 5,940 to 16,500 feet (1800-5000 m).
Female adults used 3,300 to 9,240 feet (1000-2800 m), and juvenile males
used 3,465 to 4,620 feet (1050-1400 m).

In North Dakota prairie pothole regions, American mink home ranges were not
linear. Average home ranges were 1 to 1.5 square miles (2.59-3.8 sq km)
and typically included many individual wetlands [1]. In Manitoba
prairie pothole areas, male home ranges had maximum lengths of 3.1 miles
(5.1 km) and maximum widths of 1.9 miles (3.1 km); prairie American mink tended
to have larger home ranges than other American mink populations [2].

Home ranges of individuals rarely overlap, with the exception of the
breeding season when male home ranges overlap those of females [1].
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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

1 Northern Pacific Border
2 Cascade Mountains
3 Southern Pacific Border
4 Sierra Mountains
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
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Synonyms

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
Mustela vison Schreber [17,23]
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Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
The currently accepted scientific name of American mink is Neovison vison
Schreber (Mustelidae) [35,36]. There are 15 accepted subspecies of American
mink [36].
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Timing of Major Life History Events

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info for the terms: altricial, crepuscular, hydroperiod, litter

Diurnal Activity: American mink are chiefly nocturnal but also somewhat
crepuscular [1]. In Manitoba radio-collared American mink were most active at
night, with intermediate levels of activity at dawn and dusk. They were
more active, with more extensive movements, in April than in May, June,
or July [2].

Breeding season: In most areas the mating period occurs from late
February to early April, peaking in March [1,23]. In southern Florida,
however, American mink mate in the late wet season (autumn). Hydroperiod
determines prey abundance and availability in southern Florida, which
appear to determine breeding season. Female American mink were found to be
lactating in March and April, slightly earlier than populations farther
north [19].

Gestation and Development of Young: Gestation ranges from 40 to 75
days, depending on pre-implantation period. Young are born 28 to 30
days after implantation, in April or May [1,10,23]. Neonates are
altricial and have sparse, light-colored hairs. The first teeth emerge
at 2 to 3 weeks, eyes open at about 3 weeks, and solid food is first
taken at about the same time. By 35 days the young are fully
homeothermic. By 7 weeks they have achieved 40 percent of their adult
body weight and 60 percent of adult body length. Litters disperse in
early fall [23]. Females attain adult weight at 4 months; males do not
attained adult weight until 9 to 11 months [4].

Productivity: A typical litter consists of 3 or 4 kits and ranges from
2 to 10. The average age at sexual maturity is 12 months for females,
18 months for males [4]. Neonates have higher survival rates in warm
than in cold weather. American mink have been reported to remain fecund for 7 or
more years [23].
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U.S. Federal Legal Status

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
None [34]
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Use of Fire in Population Management

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info for the term: fire regime

NO-ENTRY

FIRE REGIMES :
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find FIRE REGIMES".
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American mink

provided by wikipedia EN

The American mink (Neogale vison) is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to North America, though human intervention has expanded its range to many parts of Europe and South America. Because of range expansion, the American mink is classed as a least-concern species by the IUCN.[1] The American mink was formerly thought to be the only extant member of the genus Neovison following the extinction of the sea mink (N. macrodon), but recent studies, followed by taxonomic authorities, have reclassified it and the sea mink within the genus Neogale, which also contains a few New World weasel species.[3] The American mink is a carnivore that feeds on rodents, fish, crustaceans, frogs, and birds. In its introduced range in Europe it has been classified as an invasive species linked to declines in European mink, Pyrenean desman, and water vole populations. It is the animal most frequently farmed for its fur, exceeding the silver fox, sable, marten, and skunk in economic importance.[4]

Indigenous names

Evolution

As a species, the American mink represents a more specialized form than the European mink in the direction of carnivory, as indicated by the more developed structure of the skull.[16] Fossil records of the American mink go back as far as the Irvingtonian, though the species is uncommon among Pleistocene animals. Its fossil range corresponds with the species' current natural range. The American minks of the Pleistocene did not differ much in size or morphology from modern populations, though a slight trend toward increased size is apparent from the Irvingtonian through to the Illinoian and Wisconsinan periods.[17]

Although superficially similar to the European mink, studies indicate the American mink's closest relative is the Siberian weasel (kolonok) of Asia. The American mink has been recorded to hybridize with European minks and polecats in captivity, though the hybrid embryos of the American and European minks are usually reabsorbed.[18]

Subspecies

As of 2005,[19] 15 subspecies are recognised.

Description

Build

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Skeleton of an American mink from the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle
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Skull, as illustrated by N. N. Kondakov
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American mink with porcupine quills in its face. Yarmouth, NS

The American mink differs from members of the genus Mustela (stoats and weasels), as well as the other members of Neogale, by its larger size and stouter form, which closely approach those of martens. It shares with martens a uniformly enlarged, bushy and somewhat tapering tail, rather than a slender, cylindrical tail with an enlarged bushy tip, as is the case in stoats.[21] The American mink is similar in build to the European mink, but the tail is longer (constituting 38–51% of its body length).[22]

The American mink has a long body, which allows the species to enter the burrows of prey. Its streamlined shape helps it to reduce water resistance whilst swimming.[23] The skull is similar to that of the European mink, but is more massive, narrower, and less elongated, with more strongly developed projections and a wider, shorter cranium. The upper molars are larger and more massive than those of the European mink.[24] The dental formula is 3.1.3.13.1.3.2.

Domestic mink, which are bred in fur farms and are substandard genetically, have 19.6% smaller brains, 8.1% smaller hearts, and 28.2% smaller spleens than wild mink.[25][26] The feet are broad, with webbed digits.[21] It generally has eight nipples, with one pair of inguinal teats and three pairs of abdominal teats.[22] The adult male's penis is 2.2 in (5.6 cm) long, and is covered by a sheath. The baculum is well-developed, being triangular in cross section and curved at the tip.[23]

Males measure 13–18 in (34–45 cm) in body length, while females measure 12–15 in (31–37.5 cm). The tail measures 6–10 inches (15.6–24.7 cm) in males and 6–8 in (14.8–21.5 cm) in females. Weights vary with sex and season, with males being heavier than females. In winter, males weigh 1–3 lb (500–1,580 g) and females 1–2 lb (400–780 g). Maximum heaviness occurs in autumn.[16]

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American mink paws, as illustrated by Ernest Thompson Seton

Fur

The American mink's winter fur is denser, longer, softer, and more close-fitting than that of the European mink. The winter fur's tone is generally very dark blackish-tawny to light-tawny. Colour is evenly distributed over all the body, with the under side being only slightly lighter than the back. The guard hairs are bright and dark-tawny, often approaching black on the spine. The underfur on the back is very wavy and greyish-tawny with a bluish tint. The tail is darker than the trunk and sometimes becomes pure black on the tip. The chin and lower lip are white. Captive individuals tend to develop irregular white patches on the lower surface of their bodies, though escaped individuals from Tartaria gradually lost these patches. The summer fur is generally shorter, sparser and duller than the winter fur.[22] The thick underfur and oily guard hairs render the pelage water-resistant, with the length of the guard hairs being intermediate between those of otters and polecats, thus indicating the American mink is incompletely adapted to an aquatic life. It moults twice a year, during spring and autumn.[23] It does not turn white in winter.[27] A variety of different colour mutations have arisen from experimental breeding on fur farms.[18]

Locomotion

On land, the American mink moves by a bounding gait, with speeds of up to 6.5 km/h (4.0 mph). It also climbs trees and swims well.[28] During swimming, the mink propels itself primarily through undulating movements of the trunk. When diving, it undergoes bradycardia, which is likely an adaptation to conserve oxygen.[23] In warm water (24 °C (75 °F)), the American mink can swim for three hours without stopping, but in cold water it can die within 27 minutes.[29] It generally dives to depths of 12 in (30 cm) for 10 seconds, though depths of 3 m lasting 60 seconds have been recorded. It typically catches fish after five- to 20-second chases.[28]

Senses and scent glands

The American mink relies heavily on sight when foraging. Its eyesight is clearer on land than underwater. Its auditory perception is high enough to detect the ultrasonic vocalisations (1–16 kHz) of rodent prey. Its sense of smell is comparatively weak. Its two anal glands are used for scent marking, either through defecation or by rubbing the anal region on the ground. The secretions of the anal glands are composed of 2,2-dimethylthietane, 2-ethylthietane, cyclic disulfide, 3,3-dimethyl-1,2-dithiacyclopentane, and indole. When stressed, the American mink can expel the contents of its anal glands at a distance of 12 in (30 cm).[23] Scent glands may also be located on the throat and chest.[30] The smell produced by these scent glands was described by Clinton Hart Merriam as more unbearable than that produced by skunks, and added it was "one of the few substances, of animal, vegetable, or mineral origin, that has, on land or sea, rendered me aware of the existence of the abominable sensation called nausea".[31]

Behaviour

Social and territorial behaviours

 src=
Southern mink (N. v. vulgivagus) in a threatening posture
 src=
American mink emerges from a pond

American mink territories are held by individual animals with minimal intrasex overlap, but with extensive overlap between animals of the opposite sex. Most territories are in undisturbed, rocky coastal habitats with broad littoral zones and dense cover. Some are on estuaries, rivers and canals near urban areas. Home ranges are typically 1–6 kilometres (0.62–3.73 miles) long, with male territories larger than females'.[28] As long as it is close to water, the American mink is not fussy about its choice of den. Mink dens typically consist of long burrows in river banks, holes under logs, tree stumps, or roots and hollow trees, though dens located in rock crevices, drains, and nooks under stone piles and bridges are occasionally selected. The burrows they dig themselves are typically about four inches in diameter and may continue along for 10–12 feet (300–370 cm) at a depth of 2–3 feet (61–91 cm). The American mink may nest in burrows dug previously by muskrats, badgers and skunks, and may also dig dens in old ant hills. The nesting chamber is at the end of a four-inch tunnel, and is about a foot in diameter. It is warm, dry, and lined with straw and feathers.[32] The American mink's dens are characterized by a large number of entrances and twisting passages. The number of exits varies from one to eight.[29]

The American mink normally only vocalises during close encounters with other minks or predators. The sounds it emits include piercing shrieks and hisses when threatened and muffled chuckling sounds when mating. Kits squeak repeatedly when separated from their mothers.[30] Ernest Thompson Seton reported hearing minks growl and snarl when confronting a threat.[33] During aggressive interactions, this mink asserts its dominance by arching its back, puffing up, and lashing its tail, stomping and scraping the ground with its feet, and opening its mouth in a threat-gape. Should this be unsuccessful, fights may result, with injuries to the head and neck.[30]

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American mink in a burrow

Reproduction and development

 src=
American mink kits

The American mink is a promiscuous animal that does not form pair bonds.[28] The start of mating season ranges from February in its southern range to April in the north.[23] In its introduced range, the American mink breeds one month earlier than the European mink.[34] Males commonly fight during the mating season, which may result in the formation of loose, temporary dominance hierarchies governing access to receptive females.[28] The mating season lasts for three weeks, with ovulation being induced by the presence of males. The mating process is violent, with the male typically biting the female on the nape of the neck and pinning her with his forefeet. Mating lasts from 10 minutes to four hours. Females are receptive for seven- to 10-day intervals during the three-week breeding season, and can mate with multiple males. Along with the striped skunk, the American mink is among the only mammals to mate in spring that have a short delay before implantation. This delayed implantation allows pregnant minks to keep track of environmental conditions and select an ideal time and place for parturition.[23]

The gestation period lasts from 40 to 75 days, with actual embryonic development taking place after 30–32 days, indicating implantation delay can last from eight to 45 days. The young are born from April to June, in litters consisting of four kits on average.[23] The litters are often multiply sired.[35] Exceptionally large litters of 11 kits have been recorded in Tartaria and 16 in the United States.[34] The kits are blind at birth, weighing six grams and possessing a short coat of fine, silver-white hairs.[23] The kits are dependent on their mother's milk, which contains 3.8% lipids, 6.2% protein, 4.6% lactose and 10.66% mineral salts.[34] Their eyes open after 25 days, with weaning occurring after five weeks. The kits begin hunting after eight weeks of age, but stay close to their mother until autumn, when they become independent. Sexual maturity is attained during the kit's first spring, when they are about 10 months old.[23]

Diet

 src=
American mink with fish, in Norway

The American mink is a carnivorous animal that feeds on rodents, fish, crustaceans, amphibians, and birds. It kills vertebrate prey by biting the back of the head or neck, leaving canine puncture marks 9–11 mm (0.35–0.43 in) apart.[36] The American mink often kills birds, including larger species like seagulls and cormorants, by drowning. In its natural range, fish are its primary prey. Although inferior to the North American river otter in hunting fish, Audubon and Bachman once reported seeing a mink carrying a foot-long trout. A similar sighting was also confirmed in 2019 within the Cattaraugus Creek, New York watershed. Mink inhabiting the prairie sloughs primarily target frogs, tadpoles, and mice.[37] It is a formidable predator of muskrats, which are chased underwater and killed in their own burrows. Among the rodents killed by the American mink in its native range are rats and mice of the genera Hesperomys, Microtus, Sigmodon, and Neotoma. Marsh rabbits are frequently taken in marshy or swampy tracts.[38]

In Tartaria, the American mink's most important food items are voles, fish, crustaceans, frogs, and aquatic insects. In winter, aquatic foods predominate, while land-based prey increases in importance during the spring. Within the Altai Mountains, the American mink feeds predominantly on mammals such as rodents, shrews, and moles, as well as birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. Among the 11 different bird species preyed upon by minks in Altai are dippers and pine grosbeaks. Among fish, small species predominate in the diet of minks in Altai, and include; minnows, gudgeons, and wide-headed sculpins. In the Sverdlovsk and Irkutsk Oblasts, mouse-like rodents are their most important foods, followed by birds, fish and insects. In the Russian Far East, where crustaceans are scarce, the American mink feeds extensively on amphipods.[39] In the British Isles, dietary composition varies seasonally and regionally. European rabbits are the most commonly taken prey in areas where they are common, especially in summer. A range of small rodents and insectivores are preyed upon, but to a lesser degree. European hares are occasionally attacked. Minks in Britain prey on several bird species, with ducks, moorhens, and coots being most frequently targeted on lakes and rivers, while gulls are taken in coastal habitats. Marine species preyed upon in Britain include European eels, rock-pool fish such as blenny, shore crabs and crayfish.[40] American minks have been implicated in the decline of the water vole in the United Kingdom and linked to the decline of waterfowl across their range in Europe. They are now considered vermin in much of Europe and are hunted for the purpose of wildlife management.[41] In South America's Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, mammals, including both native and exotic rodents, are the American mink's main prey throughout the year, though birds are of equal importance during their summer nesting periods.[42]

The American mink may pose a threat to poultry. According to Clinton Hart Merriam[43] and Ernest Thompson Seton,[44] although the American mink is a potential poultry thief, it is overall less damaging than the stoat. Unlike the stoat, which often engages in surplus killing, the mink usually limits itself to killing and eating one fowl during each attack. Studies in Britain indicate poultry and game birds only constitute 1% of the animals' overall diets;[40] small mammals, especially rabbits, tend to dominate, followed by fish and birds, especially moorhens and coots.[45]

Relationships with other predators

The American mink replaces and sometimes kills the European mink wherever their ranges overlap.[46] The decline of European mink populations seems to coincide with the spread of the American mink.[47] The diets of the American mink and European otter overlap to a great extent. In areas where these two species are sympatric, competition with the otter for fish causes the American mink to hunt land-based prey more frequently.[48]

Intelligence

An early behavioral study was performed in the 1960s to assess visual learning ability in minks, ferrets, skunks, and house cats. Animals were tested on their ability to recognize objects, learn their valences and make object selections from memory. Minks were found to outperform ferrets, skunks, and cats in this task, but this letter (short paper) fails to account for a possible conflation of a cognitive ability (decision making, associative learning) with a largely perceptual ability (invariant object recognition).[49]

Range

Natural

The species' natural range encompasses most of North America, from Alaska, through Canada and further into the United States except Arizona and the more arid areas of California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, and West Texas.[1]

Introduced

Argentina

The American mink was deliberately introduced for commercial fur production in several provinces of Patagonia in 1930. The animals escaped or were released from farms in Chubut Province and now occur in the Chubut and Río Negro Provinces and Tierra del Fuego.[50] In Argentina the mink is one of the major menaces of the Hooded Grebe, which risks becoming extinct.[51]

South Chile

In Chile, American minks were introduced to Magallanes Region in the 1930s. Ever since minks were freed into nature during the crisis of the fur industry the mink has expanded its range across Chile. Actually it ranges from Araucanía Region in the north to Magallanes Region in the south. However, there are isolated territories in between where the mink is not found, probably due to biogeographic barriers. One of the latest areas where the mink has been found is Chiloé Archipelago,- minks were reported there for the first time 2013, making scientists suspect they may have arrived on a ship.[52]

Western Europe

Feral American minks in Europe are thought to be of domesticated stock derived from the N. v. vison, N. v. melampeplus and N. v. ingens subspecies. The first specimens were imported to Europe in 1920 for fur-farming purposes. The American mink was introduced in Italy in the 1950s, and currently resides mostly in the northeastern part of the Italian Peninsula. The majority of these populations do not appear to be self-sufficient, though minks in the Monti Prenestini and Simbruini in Lazio have reproduced successfully.[53]

Escapees of fur farms established a self-sustaining and expanding population on the Iberian peninsula by the second half of the 20th century. In 2013, the Spanish government announced a plan to eradicate the species,[54] as a means to protect the falling populations of European mink and other endangered species affected such as the Pyrenean desman.

The first mink farm in Norway was built in 1927, with escapees establishing wild populations within 30 years of its establishment. The first feral mink populations arose in 1930, establishing territories in southwestern Norway. These feral minks, augmented by further escapees, formed the basis of a strong population in Hordaland by the end of World War II. Feral mink colonised eastern Norway in 1930 and had become established in most southeastern counties in the early 1940s. By 1950, feral mink reached central Norway, with further populations occurring in the northern counties of Nordland and Troms. During the post-World War II period until 1965, mink had colonised most of the country. In modern times, the American mink occupies all of the Norwegian mainland, but is absent on some islands.[55]

The American mink was first imported to Great Britain in 1929, though a series of escapes and releases led to the establishment of a self-sufficient feral population in Devon by the late 1950s, and others by the early 1960s. In Ireland, the American mink was not farmed until the early 1950s, thus feral populations established themselves there much later. The species is now widespread in mainland Great Britain and Ireland, though some places remain uncolonised. It has established itself on a few islands, including Arran and Lewis and Harris.[28] Until 2005, mink hunting with packs of hounds occurred in the UK. The total mink population in Great Britain is estimated at 110,000 (England; 46,750, Scotland; 52,250, Wales; 9,750). This population may be declining as European otter numbers increase. There are no estimates for the mink population in Ireland, but it is thought to be low, because of Ireland's strong otter population.[56]

Former USSR

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An American mink in Lithuania's Kėdainiai district

In 1933, American minks were released into the Voronezh Oblast in European Russia. Until 1963, more minks were introduced in various quantities in the Voronezh and Arkhangelsk Oblasts, Karelia, in Kalininsk, Gorkovsk, Volgograd and Chelyabinsk Oblasts, and into Tatarstan and Bashkir, as well as the Lithuanian and Byelorussian SSRs. Beyond the Urals, American minks were introduced in the Sverdlovsk, Tyumen, Omsk, Kemerovo, Novosibirsk, Chita and Irkutsk Oblasts, in the Altai and Krasnoyarsk Krai, in the Tuvan, Buryat and Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics, into the Magadan, Kamchatka and Amur Oblasts, into the Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krai, into the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and several other locations, including Sakhalin and Urup Island. In the Caucasus region, American minks were released into North Ossetia. In Central Asia they were released in the Tien Shan region. Originally, captive-bred minks were used, but wild specimens were later released to facilitate the species' acclimatisation within Soviet territories. Several years after the first release, introductions into the ranges already held by native European minks were discontinued, with most releases from then on taking place in Siberia and the Far East. Although considerable areas were occupied by the American mink by the early 1960s, the species' Soviet range was never continuous, as most released populations were isolated from one another.[57]

Iceland

The species has been present in Iceland since the 1930s, and has become well established, despite it being heavily hunted since 1939. However, its population underwent a 42% decline during the years 2002–2006, which coincided with a decline in sand eel populations resulting in a drop in the seabird populations on which the minks feed.[58]

Diseases and parasites

The American mink often carries light tick and flea infestations. Tick species known to infest minks include Ixodes hexagonus, Ixodes canisuga, Ixodes ricinus, and Ixodes acuminatus. Flea species known to infest minks include Palaeopsylla minor, Malaraeus penicilliger, Ctenopthalmus noblis, Megabothris walkeri, Typhloceras poppei, and Nosopsyllus fasciatus. Endoparasites include Skrjabingylus nasicola and Troglotrema acutum.[56] Trematode Metorchis conjunctus can also infect American minks.[59]

Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is a prion disease of mink, similar to BSE in cattle and scrapie in sheep. A 1985 outbreak of TME in Stetsonville, Wisconsin resulted in a 60% mortality rate for the minks.[60] Further testing revealed this agent is transmissible between mink, cattle, and sheep. The Stetsonville outbreak may have been due to the mink being fed carcasses or otherwise consuming other infected animals.[61]

Decline of wild mink

Because of numerous incidents of domestic mink escaping from fur farms and establishing themselves in the wild, concern has arisen among conservationists of the possible repercussions such escapes may have on natural wild mink populations. Domestic mink are larger than wild mink, which may cause problems with the ecosystem when they escape. Minks are solitary, territorial animals and are intolerant of other minks. In times of overpopulation, they control their own numbers by either killing each other through direct conflict or by causing weaker minks to be driven from territory until starvation sets in.[62] When hundreds or thousands of released domestic minks flood an ecosystem, it causes a great disturbance for the wild minks, resulting in the deaths of the majority of the released mink and many of the wild ones from starvation or injuries incurred while fighting over territory.[62] When a domestic mink survives long enough to reproduce, it may cause problems for the wild mink populations.[63] The adding of weaker domestic mink genes into wild mink populations is believed by some to have contributed to the decline of mink populations in Canada.[63]

A 2006 study in Denmark concluded, due to frequent escapes from existing mink farms, "Closing mink farms may result in a crash of the free-ranging population, or alternatively it may result in the establishment of a better-adapted, truly feral population that may ultimately outnumber the population that was present before farm closures." The study reported more information would be necessary to determine the outcome.[64] Another Danish study reported a significant majority of the "wild" mink were mink which had escaped from fur farms. About 47% had escaped within two months, 31% had escaped prior to two months, and 21% "may or may not have been born in nature." The survival rate for recently released minks is reportedly lower than for wild minks, but if feral minks survive at least two months, their survival rate is the same as for wild minks. The authors suggest this is due to the rapid behavioural adaptation of the animals.[65]

Relationships with humans

Disease

The American mink and European mink[66] have both been found to transmit SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

Fur use

American minks are primarily used in manufacturing fur coats, jackets, and capes. Pelts that are not able to be converted into these items are made into trimming for cloth and fur coats. Mink scarves and stoles are also manufactured. Jackets and capes are mostly made from small to medium-sized specimens, usually females and young males, while trimming, scarves and stoles are made from adult males.[67] The most valuable peltries come from eastern Canada which, although the smallest, are the silkiest and darkest.[68]

Trapping

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Illustration of an American mink approaching a board or log trap

Although difficult to catch, the American mink, prior to being commercially farmed, was among the most frequently trapped furbearers as, unlike other furbearing mammals, it did not hibernate in winter, and could thus be caught on a nightly basis even in the far north.[69] Minks were legally trapped from early November to early April, when their pelts were prime.[70] Minks caught in traps cling to life with great tenacity, having been known to break their teeth in trying to extricate themselves from steel traps.[71] Elliott Coues described a trapped mink thusly:

One who has not taken a Mink in a steel trap can scarcely form an idea of the terrible expression the animal's face assumes as the captor approaches. It has always struck me as the most nearly diabolical of anything in animal physiognomy. A sullen stare from the crouched, motionless form gives way to a new look of surprise and fear, accompanied with the most violent contortions of the body, with renewed champing of the iron till breathless, with heaving flanks, and open mouth dribbling saliva, the animal settles again, and watches with a look of concentrated hatred, mingled with impotent rage and frightful despair. The countenance of the Mink, its broad, low head, short ears, small eyes, piggish snout, and formidable teeth, is always expressive of the lower and more brutal passions, all of which are intensified at such times. As may well be supposed, the creature must not be incautiously dealt with when in such a frame of mind.[71]

One Native American method involved using a bait (usually a slit open chicken carcass filled with fish oil and oysters) tied to a rope and dragged around an area laden with traps. A mink would thus follow the trail into one of the traps. Another indigenous method involved placing traps scented with muskrat and female mink musk on top of disused muskrat dens by water bodies. Attracted by the scent of food and a female, the mink would get caught in the trap and drown.[72] On the American prairies, only the steel trap was used, due to the lack of timber.[73]

Farming

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Various American mink colour mutations

Breeding American minks for their fur began in the late 19th century, as increasing enthusiasm for mink pelts made the harvesting of wild minks insufficient to meet the new demands. American minks are easily kept in captivity, and breed readily.[74] In 2005, the U.S. ranked fourth in production behind Denmark, China and the Netherlands. Minks typically breed in March, and give birth to their litters in May. Farmers vaccinate the young kits for botulism, distemper, enteritis, and, if needed, pneumonia. They are harvested in late November and December. Methods for killing animals on fur farms, as on all farms, are detailed in the American Veterinary Medical Association's Report on Euthanasia which is used as a voluntary guideline for state departments of agriculture which have jurisdiction over all farms raising domesticated livestock, including minks.[75] In the past, some mink farms successfully provided pools of water for the mink to swim;[76] however, this practice is unheard-of in modern mink production. Minks are motivated to access swimming water, and the absence of water is a source of frustration on modern farms.[77] The ideal diet for farm-bred minks consists of four to five ounces of horse meat and a quarter-pint of milk once daily.[76]

Colour mutations

Selective breeding has produced a number of different colour shades in mink peltries, ranging from pure white, through beiges, browns, and greys, to a brown that is almost black. The two standard strains are brown and "black cross" which, when paired, produce numerous colour variations. When an albino mink is born, it is standard procedure in fur farms to breed it to other colour mutations to produce grey and light-brown pastel shades. The following graph is a simplification of the main colour strains:[78]

As pets

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Mink as pet

Wild minks can be tamed if caught young, but can be difficult to handle and are usually not handled bare-handed.[79] In the late 19th century, tame American minks were often reared for ratting, much as ferrets were used in Europe. They are sometimes more effective ratters than terriers, as they can enter rat holes and drive rats from their hiding places. Because of their fondness for bathing, captive American minks may enter kettles or other open water-containing vessels. When minks of wild stock are confined with tame ones, the latter invariably dominate the former. They have also been known to dominate cats in confrontations.[80] Although intelligent, minks are not quick to learn tricks taught to them by their owners.[81] Although domestic minks have been bred in captivity for almost a century, they have not been bred to be tame. Domestic minks have been bred for size, fur quality, and color. However, the U.S. Fur Commission claims "mink are truly domesticated animals", based on the number of years they have been kept on fur farms.[82]

Literature

As an invasive species in the United Kingdom, minks have been the subject of at least two novels. Ewan Clarkson's 1968 Break for Freedom (published as Syla, the Mink in the US) tells the story of a female mink escaped from a fur farm in a realistic style. On the other hand, A.R. Lloyd's 1982 Kine is a heroic fantasy with the minks as villains and the weasels and other indigenous animals as heroes.

See also

References

Notes

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Bibliography

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American mink: Brief Summary

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The American mink (Neogale vison) is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to North America, though human intervention has expanded its range to many parts of Europe and South America. Because of range expansion, the American mink is classed as a least-concern species by the IUCN. The American mink was formerly thought to be the only extant member of the genus Neovison following the extinction of the sea mink (N. macrodon), but recent studies, followed by taxonomic authorities, have reclassified it and the sea mink within the genus Neogale, which also contains a few New World weasel species. The American mink is a carnivore that feeds on rodents, fish, crustaceans, frogs, and birds. In its introduced range in Europe it has been classified as an invasive species linked to declines in European mink, Pyrenean desman, and water vole populations. It is the animal most frequently farmed for its fur, exceeding the silver fox, sable, marten, and skunk in economic importance.

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