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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 7.8 years (captivity)
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Behavior

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Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Ciszek, D. 1999. "Sylvilagus audubonii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sylvilagus_audubonii.html
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Deborah Ciszek, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Conservation Status

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This species is not threatened, although cattle grazing can affect its abundance.

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Ciszek, D. 1999. "Sylvilagus audubonii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sylvilagus_audubonii.html
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Benefits

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An area with a dense population of desert cottontails could be negatively impacted by their consumption of vegetation.

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Ciszek, D. 1999. "Sylvilagus audubonii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sylvilagus_audubonii.html
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Deborah Ciszek, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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These animals are used for food and for their fur.

Positive Impacts: food ; body parts are source of valuable material

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Ciszek, D. 1999. "Sylvilagus audubonii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sylvilagus_audubonii.html
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Deborah Ciszek, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Trophic Strategy

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These rabbits eat almost exclusively grass (of various species). They will also eat some fruits, nuts, and vegetables when available.

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore )

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Ciszek, D. 1999. "Sylvilagus audubonii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sylvilagus_audubonii.html
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Deborah Ciszek, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Distribution

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This species can be found throughout much of southwestern North America, from northern Montana down to central Mexico, and as far west as the Pacific coast.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

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Ciszek, D. 1999. "Sylvilagus audubonii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sylvilagus_audubonii.html
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Deborah Ciszek, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Habitat

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This species is found mainly in arid regions, giving it the common name desert cottontail. It can also inhabit woodlands and grasslands, and it ranges in elevation from sea level up to about 6,000 feet. When not feeding, individuals live in heavy brush, brambles, or holes in order to hide from their many predators (coyotes, foxes, badgers, bobcats, hawks, etc.).

Terrestrial Biomes: desert or dune ; savanna or grassland ; chaparral

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Ciszek, D. 1999. "Sylvilagus audubonii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sylvilagus_audubonii.html
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Deborah Ciszek, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Life Expectancy

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Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
7.8 years.

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Ciszek, D. 1999. "Sylvilagus audubonii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sylvilagus_audubonii.html
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Deborah Ciszek, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Morphology

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Female desert cottontails are slightly larger than males, weighing an average of 988 g while the average male weight is 841 g. For females, total length is about 385 mm, length of hind foot is 90 mm, and ear length is 73 mm. Males' measurements are similar. Both sexes have the bushy white "cotton" tail.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Average mass: 900 g.

Average basal metabolic rate: 2.506 W.

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Ciszek, D. 1999. "Sylvilagus audubonii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sylvilagus_audubonii.html
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Deborah Ciszek, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Reproduction

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The breeding season is from December or January until the late summer. Gestation lasts only 28 days, and litters are made up of about three young. Pregnant females often resorb some of their embryos before gestation is complete, probably in response to environmental conditions. This species is somewhat less fecund than are others in the genus; desert cottontails produce only about 5 litters per year. A female builds a nest by digging a hole in the ground about 20 cm deep, then lining it with grass and fur. She feeds her young only once per day, by crouching over the nest to let them nurse. Their eyes open by day 10, and they leave the nest at the age of just under two weeks. They remain near the nest for another three weeks. Sexual maturity is achieved by the age of three months.

Range number of offspring: 1 to 5.

Range gestation period: 26 to 30 days.

Range weaning age: 21 to 28 days.

Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

Average birth mass: 34.5 g.

Average number of offspring: 3.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male:
107 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female:
164 days.

Parental Investment: altricial

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Ciszek, D. 1999. "Sylvilagus audubonii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sylvilagus_audubonii.html
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Deborah Ciszek, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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ADW: Sylvilagus audubonii: INFORMATION

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Summary of the Desert cottontail

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Desert cottontail

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The desert cottontail (Sylvilagus audubonii), also known as Audubon's cottontail, is a New World cottontail rabbit, and a member of the family Leporidae. Unlike the European rabbit, they do not form social burrow systems, but compared with some other leporids, they are extremely tolerant of other individuals in their vicinity.

Cottontails give birth to their kits in burrows vacated by other mammals. They sometimes cool off, or take refuge in scratched out shallow created depressions of their own making, using their front paws like a back hoe.[3] They are not usually active in the middle of the day, but can be observed foraging in the early morning, and early evening. Cottontails are rarely found out of their burrows looking for food on windy days, because the wind interferes with their ability to hear approaching predators, their primary defense mechanism.[4]

Lifespan

 src=
Male desert cottontail at 8 weeks, and the same specimen at 16 months of age
 src=
Submissive posture anticipating food

The lifespan of a cottontail that reaches adulthood averages less than two years, depending on the location.[5] Unfortunately for the cottontail, almost every local carnivore larger or faster than the lagomorph is its predator. Some predators, like snakes for example, are familiar with the area inhabited by the cottontails, and can catch and eat the young at will; the mother is unable to defend the litter. Although cottontails are highly active sexually, and mated pairs have multiple litters throughout the year, few young survive to adulthood. Those that survive grow quickly and are full grown at three months.[6]

Description

The desert cottontail is quite similar in appearance to the European rabbit, though its ears are larger and are more often carried erect. It is social among its peers, often gathering in small groups to feed. Like all cottontail rabbits, the desert cottontail has a greyish-brown, rounded tail with a broad white edge and white underside, which is visible as it runs away.[7] It also has white fur on the belly.[8]

Adults are 36 to 42 cm (14 to 17 in) long and weigh anywhere from 700 to 1,200 g (1.5 to 2.6 lb).[9] The tail is 30 to 60 mm (1.2 to 2.4 in), ears are 6 to 9 cm (2.4 to 3.5 in) long and the hindfeet are large, about 7 to 9 cm (2.8 to 3.5 in) in length.[9] There is little sexual dimorphism, but females tend to be larger than the males, but have much smaller home ranges, about 1 acre (4,000 m2) compared with about 15 acres (61,000 m2) for a male.[10] The dental formula for Sylvilagus audubonii is 2.0.3.31.0.3.3= 28.[11] All species under the family Leporidae have the same dental formula.

Distribution and habitat

The desert cottontail is found throughout the Western United States from eastern Montana to western Texas, and in Northern and Central Mexico.[12] Its eastern range extends barely into the Great Plains.[12] Westwards its range extends to central Nevada and southern California and Baja California, touching the Pacific Ocean.[2] It is found at heights of up to 1,830 m (6,000 ft).[11] It is particularly associated with the dry near-desert grasslands of the American southwest, though it is also found in less arid habitats such as pinyon-juniper forest.[9] It is also frequently found in the riparian zones in arid regions.[13]

Behavior

Diet and feeding

Cottontails are herbivores, with 90% of their diet consisting of grass. [14] They also feed on the leaves and peas of mesquite, barks, fallen fruit, the juicy pads of prickly pear and twigs of shrubs.[15][16] It rarely needs to drink, getting its water mostly from the plants it eats or from dew.[17] Due to seasonality and changes in moisture conditions of their habitat, cottontails adjust their diets based on many influential factors that impact the seasonal changes of vegetation (i.e. moisture content, abundance, nutrition value, etc.).[18] Like most lagomorphs, it is coprophagic, re-ingesting and chewing its own feces to extract the nutrients as effectively as possible.[10]

The desert cottontail, like all cottontails, eats on all fours. It can only use its nose to move and adjust the position of the food that it places directly in front of its front paws on the ground. The cottontail turns the food with its nose to find the cleanest part of the vegetation (free of sand and inedible parts) to begin its meal. The only time a cottontail uses its front paws to enable eating is when vegetation is above its head on a living plant. The cottontail then lifts a paw to bend the branch and bring the food within reach.[19]

Thermoregulation

Due to the variable temperature of living conditions, desert cottontails must be adequate thermoregulators to minimize water loss during the hotter seasons and require shaded areas of their environment to conduct evaporative water loss through thermal heat transfer. In open-desert areas, they can withstand for a short period with extremely high temperatures of around 45 °C and have a large evaporative water loss capacity of around 1.5% body mass/hour, though cottontails can withstand longer in an ideal environment with shaded areas. To cope with evaporative heat loss, they do panting and undergo changes in production of their basal metabolic rate in relation to the ambient temperature of the environment. Ears of desert cottontails make up 14% of their body size and may help with thermoregulation.[20]

Predators and threats

 src=
California High Desert cottontail on alert for predators

Many desert animals prey on cottontails, including birds of prey, mustelids, the coyote, the bobcat, wolves, mountain lions, snakes, weasels, humans, and even squirrels, should a cottontail be injured or docile from illness.[21] Alien species, such as cats and dogs, are also known predators, and also pose a threat.[12] Southwestern Native Americans hunted them for meat but also used their fur and hides. It is also considered a game species, due to which it is hunted for sport.[12] The desert cottontail's normal behavior upon spotting a potential predator is to freeze in place in an attempt to avoid being detected. If it determines that it is in danger, it will flee the area by hopping away in a zigzag pattern.[22] Cottontails can reach speeds of over 30 km/h (19 mph). When defending itself against small predators or other desert cottontails, it will nudge with its nose, or slap with its front paws, usually preceded by a hop straight upwards as high as two feet when threatened or taken by surprise.[10]

 src=
Mother and juvenile

Habitat loss due to land clearing and cattle grazing may severely affect the population of the desert cottontail.[12] Human-induced fires are also a potential threat for desert cottontail populations.[12] Another factor is its competition with the black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus), because both have the same diet, and share the same habitat.[23] When a season has been particularly dry, there is less plant life to go around. The cottontail does not fear the jackrabbit, in fact the jackrabbit is very skittish and will retreat from a confrontation in most instances. However, the black-tailed jackrabbit is much bigger, and consumes much more food at eating times.[12]

Weather and food supply

An extremely wet winter season means increased plant life in the spring, and thus increases in cottontail populations. However, if the wet winter is followed by a particularly dry summer, the plant life dries up quickly due to the extreme desert summer temperatures, and can have the opposite effect, and can lead to hunger for the now over-populated cottontails.[24]

Status and conservation

Since 1996, the desert cottontail has been rated of least concern on the IUCN Red List; it does not appear on the state or federal list of endangered species.[15] The desert cottontail is considered a game species in the United States by individual state wildlife agencies.[12] It is also not considered to be threatened by the state game agencies in the United States, as it is common throughout most of its range in Mexico.[12] None of the twelve subspecies are thought to be under threat and no new conservation measures are needed.[13]

References

  1. ^ Hoffman, R.S.; Smith, A.T. (2005). "Order Lagomorpha". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b Smith, A.T.; Brown, D.E. (2019). "Sylvilagus audubonii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T41297A45190821. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T41297A45190821.en.
  3. ^ "Desert Cottontail (Sylvilagus audubonii)". tpwd.texas.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-06-11. Retrieved 2017-06-24.
  4. ^ "Rabbits and Hares". Archived from the original on 2015-07-31. Retrieved 2015-06-29.
  5. ^ "Desert cottontail". Natural Science Research Laboratory, Museum of Texas Tech University. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  6. ^ "Sylvilagus floridanus". 2002.
  7. ^ Reid, Fiona (2006). A Field Guide to Mammals of North America, North of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0395935962.
  8. ^ Larsen, C.J. (December 1993). Report to the Fish and Game Commission: Status review of the riparian brush rabbit Sylvilagus bachmani riparius in California (PDF) (Report). California Department of Fish and Game, Wildlife Management Division, Nongame Bird and Mammal Section. p. 6.
  9. ^ a b c Armstrong, David M.; Fitzgerald, James P.; Meaney, Carron A. (2010). "Desert Cottontail". Mammals of Colorado (Second ed.). University Press of Colorado. pp. 264–266. ISBN 978-1-607-32048-7.
  10. ^ a b c "Desert cottontail rabbit". Nevada Department of Wildlife. Archived from the original on 7 January 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  11. ^ a b Chapman, Joseph A.; Willner, Gale R. (September 1978). "Mammalian Species: Sylvilagus Audubonii". American Society of Mammalogists. 45 (106): 1–4. JSTOR 3503835.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Romero Malpica, F.J.; Rangel Cordero, H. (2008). "Sylvilagus audubonii (Audubon's Cottontail, Desert Cottontail)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Archived from the original on 2016-11-14. Retrieved 2017-06-23.old-form url
  13. ^ a b Chapman, Joseph A.; Flux, John E. C. (1990). Rabbits, Hares and Pikas: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN. ISBN 9782831700199.
  14. ^ "Nevada Department of Wildlife". www.ndow.org. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  15. ^ a b Schmidly, David J.; Bradley, Robert D. (2016). The Mammals of Texas. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-1-477-31003-8.
  16. ^ Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station Units 1-3, Construction: Environmental Impact Statement. 1975.
  17. ^ Lumpkin, Susan; Seidensticker, John (2011). Rabbits: The Animal Answer Guide. JHU Press. ISBN 978-1-421-40126-3.
  18. ^ Turkowski, Frank J. (October 1975). "Dietary Adaptability of the Desert Cottontail". The Journal of Wildlife Management. 39 (4): 748–756. doi:10.2307/3800237. JSTOR 3800237.
  19. ^ "Small mammals" (PDF).
  20. ^ Hinds, David S. (August 1973). "Acclimatization of Thermoregulation in the Desert Cottontail, Sylvilagus audubonii". American Society of Mammalogists. 54 (3): 708–728. JSTOR 1378969.
  21. ^ "Eastern Cottontail". Archived from the original on 2013-01-29. Retrieved 2013-02-22.
  22. ^ Pryor, Kimberley Jane (2010). Tricky Behavior. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-761-4442-51.
  23. ^ Lauenroth, W. K.; Burke, Ingrid C. (2008). Ecology of the Shortgrass Steppe: A Long-Term Perspective. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-195-13582-4.
  24. ^ "10,000 years of rabbit bones".

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Desert cottontail: Brief Summary

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The desert cottontail (Sylvilagus audubonii), also known as Audubon's cottontail, is a New World cottontail rabbit, and a member of the family Leporidae. Unlike the European rabbit, they do not form social burrow systems, but compared with some other leporids, they are extremely tolerant of other individuals in their vicinity.

Cottontails give birth to their kits in burrows vacated by other mammals. They sometimes cool off, or take refuge in scratched out shallow created depressions of their own making, using their front paws like a back hoe. They are not usually active in the middle of the day, but can be observed foraging in the early morning, and early evening. Cottontails are rarely found out of their burrows looking for food on windy days, because the wind interferes with their ability to hear approaching predators, their primary defense mechanism.

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