dcsimg

Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Octopus tetricus Gould, 1852

DIAGNOSIS.—Animal medium-sized (˜p470 mm TL; 55 mm ML). Mantle elongate ovoid (MWI 56); head wide but narrower than mantle (HWI 35), demarked from mantle by moderate constriction; eyes small. Funnel short, bluntly tapered. Arms long (ALI 550–740), stout at base, tapering to narrow tips. Arm order II = III > IV > 1. Suckers large (SI 22). Web moderately deep (WDI 25), web formula probably C = D > B > A > E.

Integumental sculpture consists of pattern of closely set, coarse tubercles. Largest tubercles on dorsum of head and brachial crown; smaller and less prominent tubercles on ventral surface. Tubercles on mantle flattened and sometimes pitted at center, forming reticulate pattern. Longitudinal series of 3 papillae on dorsum between head and base of dorsal arms. Papillae present in ocular region, with 3 supraocular and 1 subocular papillae.

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION.—Gould, 1852:474, pl. 47: fig. 588.

TYPE LOCALITY.—Australia, New South Wales, near Sydney (33°53′S, 151°13′E), no depth data.

TYPE.—Holotype: Not traced, ?female, ˜55 mm ML.

DISTRIBUTION AND BIOLOGY.—Known with certainty from type locality only. Other published records require verification.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
bibliographic citation
Voss, N. A. and Sweeney, M. J. 1998. "Systematics and Biogeography of cephalopods. Volume II." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 277-599. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.586.277

Octopus tetricus

provided by wikipedia EN

Octopus tetricus, the gloomy octopus or the common Sydney octopus,[3] is a species of octopus from the subtropical waters of eastern Australia and New Zealand.[2] O. tetricus belongs to the Octopus vulgaris species group and is a commercially prized species. All species within the O. vulgaris group are similar in morphology.[4] The English translation of O. tetricus (Latin) is 'the gloomy octopus'.[5]

Distribution

Octopus tetricus was originally discovered in New South Wales and was also found along the eastern Australian coastline. It occurs from Lakes Entrance in Victoria [5] to Moreton Bay in southern Queensland.[6] Octopus tetricus is distributed in the subtropical seas of eastern Australia and northern New Zealand, including Lord Howe Island. A close relative, Octopus djinda, occurs at similar latitudes in Western Australia, from Shark Bay to Cape Le Grand,[5] and was considered to be conspecific with O. tetricus until 2021.

Anatomy and morphology

Octopus tetricus is normally coloured grey to mottled brown with rufous arm faces that taper towards the tip. Their eyes are typically white in colour, and the skin has many small regular shaped patches and large warty structures which are used by the octopus to make it look spiky, which are used by the octopus when it is camouflaging itself as seaweed.[3] The adults typically have an arm span of 2 metres (6.6 ft).[7]

Life cycle

Reproduction and growth

The reproductive cycle of females is tied to seasonal changes, similar to many other species. Females reach maturity around Australia's spring and summer seasons in order to mate and lay eggs.[8] During the mating process the male O. tetricus passes spermatophores to the female in two different ways. The male either wraps his arms and web around the female's mantle or reaches his mating arm from a distance and inserts it into the female's mantle. Spermatophores are released from the male's "terminal organ", moved by the male's oral suckers, and then the spermatophores are inserted into the female's oviduct.[9]

Octopus tetricus start out as eggs that are laid in large numbers in the octopuses nest. The eggs are normally glued to the rock or substrate at the top of the den created by the female octopus. The female usually lays her eggs over several nights in a string formation. The size and number of strings of eggs usually depends on how large the female is and can have between 60 and 200 egg strings. The female then guards the eggs until they hatch.[10] Female O. tetricus have also been known to store viable spermatozoa for up to 114 days. The amount of time embryonic development takes varies with water temperature, and newly hatched O. tetricus larvae are about 2.5 mm long and 1.1mm wide.[11] These larvae go through a stage called the paralarval stage where they are considered planktonic, or free floating, organisms before they settle to the bottom and grow large enough to hunt for their food. This stage may last around 35–60 days.[12] The females of O. tetricus have been known to cannibalise the males following mating.[3]

Temperature plays a key role in growth of this octopus species. With a good food supply, octopuses that reside in areas with a cooler water temperature tend to grow slower during the key growth phase and when they reach maturity they are generally larger than octopuses that are found in warmer water temperatures.[12]

Lifespan

Adult O. tetricus is observed to have a relatively small body size and a lifespan of approximately 11 months.[8] Female O. tetricus rarely eat or sleep during the protection of the nest and die shortly after the eggs hatch.[10] Females are found to mature at a slower rate and become larger than male O. tetricus.[8]

Habitat and behavioural ecology

Habitat

Octopus tetricus occurs in the intertidal zone along rocky shores and in the ocean and it has been suggested that this species is associated more commonly with rocky reefs during the breeding season, although they frequent areas of the sea bed with soft-sediments for much of their life.[3] O. tetricus alter their habitats by digging out dens and using remains from prey, including but not limited to shells. It is very common for scallop beds to be found in close proximity to the excavated dens. The scallops serve as a food source and their shells are part of the shell beds built. This species of octopus is considered to be an ecosystem engineer. This means that the way they create their habitats influences and builds an ecosystem around their dwellings. The shell beds that are created around the excavated dens attract hermit crabs and fish due to the various hiding places created. Small fish and other small prey species attract larger species and the cycle builds, creating an ecosystem.[13] A solid object can serve as a good den that can also be the start of a new settlement for O. tetricus.[14] Studies show that O. tetricus has higher populations in patch reef habitats than broken reef habitats, and were scarcely found on flat reefs. Adult O. tetricus were also found to occupy coastal reefs in the summer and then disappear around the second week of April, which is the second week of autumn in Australia.[15] Shelters serve a vital role in octopus ecology. The species is generally known to be solitary, but complex social behaviours have been observed by scientists.[16]

Social behaviour and mating

Scientists have observed many different behaviours exhibited by O. tetricus including, signalling, mating, mate defence, and aggression. Some have even observed an octopus evicting another from its den. Occasionally this aggressive behaviour led to physical altercations between octopuses.[16] It is a territorial species which sits out the day in a lair among rocks and rubble, the rubble being collected to create a defensible lair. The lairs of this species can be identified by the shells of the octopus's prey which it scatters around its home. They move about the rocks by crawling using their arms but they can use their siphon to propel themselves through the water by generating a jet of water or to move (throw) shells, silt, and algae.[3][17]

Observation of mating behaviours has revealed that O. tetricus females have a stronger precopulatory preference for males that have longer mating appendages, or ligulae. Both female and male octopuses mate multiple times throughout a mating season. Female octopuses are able to accept multiple spermatophores from males but they only produce one brood of eggs at the end of a mating season.[18]

Feeding and hunting

Octopus tetricus is primarily a nocturnal feeder which uses its sharp beak to feed on crustaceans and molluscs, for example sea snails and bivalves. It has also been recorded as being cannibalistic.[3]

Two areas in Jervis Bay where they congregate have been dubbed Octopolis[14] and Octlantis,[16] containing a large area of discarded shells where ten or more octopuses den and mate.[19][20]

Fisheries

Octopus tetricus may be caught as bycatch in trawl and lobster-pot fisheries and is then sold for both human consumption and for use as bait.[3]

References

  1. ^ "ITIS standard report - Octopus tetricus (Gould, 1852)". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Octopus tetricus Gould, 1852". World Register of Marine Species. Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Common Sydney Octopus – Octopus tetricus". Australian Museum. 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  4. ^ Amor, Michael D.; Norman, Mark D.; Roura, Alvaro; Leite, Tatiana S.; Gleadall, Ian G.; Reid, Amanda; Perales-Raya, Catalina; Lu, Chung-Cheng; Silvey, Colin J.; Vidal, Erica A. G.; Hochberg, Frederick G. (2017). "Morphological assessment of the Octopus vulgaris species complex evaluated in light of molecular-based phylogenetic inferences". Zoologica Scripta. 46 (3): 275–288. doi:10.1111/zsc.12207. ISSN 1463-6409.
  5. ^ a b c Amor, Michael D.; Hart, Anthony M. (2021-11-03). "Octopus djinda (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae): a new member of the Octopus vulgaris group from southwest Australia". Zootaxa. 5061 (1): 145–156. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.5061.1.7. ISSN 1175-5334.
  6. ^ Amor MD; Norman MD; Cameron HE; Strugnell JM (2014-06-25). "Allopatric speciation within a cryptic species complex of Australasian octopuses". PLOS ONE. 9 (6): e98982. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...998982A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098982. PMC 4070898. PMID 24964133.
  7. ^ "Atlas of Living Australia - Octopus tetricus (Gould, 1852)". Atlas of Living Australia. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  8. ^ a b c Ramos Castillejos JE (2015). Life-history and population dynamics of the range extending Octopus tetricus (Gould, 1852) in south-eastern Australia (Ph.D. thesis). University of Tasmania.
  9. ^ Huffard CL; Godfrey-Smith P (2010). "Field observations of mating in Octopus tetricus Gould, 1852 and Amphioctopus marginatus (Taki, 1964) (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae)". Molluscan Research. 30: 81–86 – via ResearchGate.
  10. ^ a b Spreitzenbarth, Stefan; Jeffs, Andrew (2020-09-15). "Egg survival and morphometric development of a merobenthic octopus, Octopus tetricus, embryos in an artificial octopus egg rearing system". Aquaculture. 526: 735389. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735389. ISSN 0044-8486. S2CID 219088008.
  11. ^ Joll LM (1976). "Mating, egg-laying and hatching of Octopus tetricus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in the laboratory". Marine Biology. 36 (4): 327–333. doi:10.1007/bf00389194. ISSN 0025-3162. S2CID 83838409.
  12. ^ a b Ramos JE; Pecl GT; Moltschaniwskyj NA; et al. (2014). "Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia". PLOS ONE. 9 (8): e103480. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9j3480R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103480. PMC 4121162. PMID 25090250.
  13. ^ Scheel D; Godfrey-Smith P; Lawrence M (2014-12-30). "Octopus tetricus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) as an ecosystem engineer". Scientia Marina. 78 (4): 521–528. doi:10.3989/scimar.04073.15A. ISSN 1886-8134.
  14. ^ a b Godfrey-Smith P; Lawrence M (2012-07-01). "Long-term high-density occupation of a site by Octopus tetricus and possible site modification due to foraging behavior". Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology. 45 (4): 1–8. doi:10.1080/10236244.2012.727617. ISSN 1023-6244. S2CID 83893501.
  15. ^ Anderson TJ (April 30, 1997). "Habitat selection and shelter use by Octopus tetricus". Marine Ecology Progress Series. 150: 137–48. Bibcode:1997MEPS..150..137A. doi:10.3354/meps150137.
  16. ^ a b c Scheel D; Chancellor S; Hing M; et al. (2017-07-04). "A second site occupied by Octopus tetricus at high densities, with notes on their ecology and behavior". Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology. 50 (4): 285–291. doi:10.1080/10236244.2017.1369851. ISSN 1023-6244. S2CID 89738642.
  17. ^ Godfrey-Smith P; Scheel D; Chancellor S; et al. (2021). "In the Line of Fire: Debris Throwing by Wild Octopuses". bioRxiv. doi:10.1101/2021.08.18.456805. S2CID 237261895.
  18. ^ Morse P (2008). "Female Mating Preference, Polyandry, and Paternity Bias in Octopus tetricus". University of Western Australia, Perth (Honors Thesis): 1–97.
  19. ^ Main D (28 January 2016). "Octopuses More Social Than Thought, Denizens of 'Octopolis' Prove". Newsweek. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  20. ^ Stokstad E (13 September 2017). "Scientists discover an underwater city full of gloomy octopuses". Sciencemag. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Octopus tetricus: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Octopus tetricus, the gloomy octopus or the common Sydney octopus, is a species of octopus from the subtropical waters of eastern Australia and New Zealand. O. tetricus belongs to the Octopus vulgaris species group and is a commercially prized species. All species within the O. vulgaris group are similar in morphology. The English translation of O. tetricus (Latin) is 'the gloomy octopus'.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
coastal to shelf
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).
contributor
Jacob van der Land [email]
contributor
Jacob van der Land [email]