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Physical Description

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Perennial, Trees, Woody throughout, Nodules present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems or branches arching, spreading or decumbent, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules inconspicuous, absent, or caducous, Leaves compound, Leaves even pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Leaflets 2, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Leaves coriaceous, Flowers in axillary clusters or few-floweredracemes, 2-6 flowers, Inflorescences racemes, Inflorescence axillary, Inflorescence or flowers lax, declined or pendulous, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Flowers actinomorphic or somewhat irregular, Calyx 5-lobed , Calyx 4-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Calyx lobes exceeding or about equal to corolla, Petals separate, Petals white, Stamens 9-10, Stamens completely free, separate, Stamens long exserted, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit stipitate, Fruit unilocular, Fruit freely dehiscent, Fruit indehiscent, Fruit orbicular to subglobose, Fruits reniform, Fruit coriaceous or becoming woody, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit 1-seeded, Fruit 2-seeded, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black.
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Cynometra ramiflora

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A tree in the family Fabaceae, Cynometra ramiflora is found in mangroves and flooded forests from New Caledonia in the western Pacific west to Queensland in Australia, New Guinea, Island Southeast Asia, and Tropical Asia as far west as India. Its wood is used for construction and fuel, and parts of plant are ascribed medicinal use.

Etymology

The epithet of the species, ramiflora refers to the ramiflorous inflorescences, deriving from the Latin rami- (pertaining to branches) and -florus (flowered).[6]

Description

The tree grows up to 10-20 m tall.[7] The trunks dbh is up to 60 cm, it can be buttressed or multistemmed, and has a red blaze (longitudinal cut exposure of bark).[6][8] Leaves are compound with one, rarely two, pairs of leaflets. New leaves are pink. Lateral veins form loops well inside blade margin. Inflorescence axis is up to 20 mm long, up to 20-flowered, petal are white. Fruit is an asymmetrical, roughly globose nut, roughly 45 × 39 × 34 mm, rust brown and woody, solitary seed. Flowering while in cultivation has been recorded in August and October, fruiting has been recorded in Queensland in October and in cultivation in May.

In Australia, C. ramiflora can be distinguished from other Cynometra species by the glabrous rachis and petiolules of the leaves (though these are minutely hairy or glabrescent on Christmas Island), the globose fruit with a small beak near the apex of the dorsal side, and by the pink new leaves.[6]

Habitat

Cynometra ramiflora grows on both rocky and sandy seashores, besides tidal rivers, on the landward side of mangrove forests, and in inland forests up to 400 m elevation.[1] It is particularly found in environments that experience flooding or high soil moisture. It is found in primary, secondary and disturbed forests. In the native limestone forest of the island of Saipan (largest of the Northern Mariana Islands), it is co-dominant in the canopy with Pisonia grandis and, along with Guamia mariannae, it is most common in the understorey.[9] At Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, and Christmas Island it grows in mangrove forest and adjacent rainforest, particularly seasonally flooded areas, at elevation from sea level to 20 m.[8] In Cambodia it grows in back-mangrove forests and freshwater flooded forests.[7]

Distribution

The species is found in New Caledonia, Caroline Islands, Solomon Islands, Guam, Federated States of Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, Queensland (Australia), Bismarck Archipelago, New Guinea, Maluku, Palau, Lesser Sunda Islands, East Timor, Sulawesi, Philippines, Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Christmas Island, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka.[3][1] It has been naturalized in the Society Islands (Tahiti and others)[3] In Queensland, it is known only from the tip of Cape York.[8] In Myanmar it is found in the Tanintharyi and Ayeyarwady Regions and Rakhine State.[5]

Ecology

In Manusela National Park, Seram, eastern Indonesia, the fruit are eaten by Geoffroyus geoffroyi, the red-cheeked parrot, while the flowers or nectar are fed on by Philemon subcorniculatus, the Seram friarbird.[10] The plant is a food source for the Nolidae moth Carea costiplaga Swinhoe, 1893.[11]

Conservation status

The tree has been rated as having least concern conservation status by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).[1] This is because even though it may be locally impacted by deforestation, it has a large and widespread population with no major threats. The species is assessed as threatened in Singapore.

Vernacular names

  • cynometra, wrinkle pod mangrove (Australia)[8]
  • kateng, kepel, wunut (Indonesia)[12]
  • katong,[1] katong laut[5] (laut="ocean", Malay)
  • châmpré:nh (Khmer)[7]
  • myinga, ye-minga (Myanmar)][5]

Uses

Cynometra ramiflora has hard and heavy timber, which is used in small volumes in construction, including for door posts.[1] The wood is also used for tool handles, wood craft and ornamental work.[12] The species is cultivated for ornamental purposes, and the leaves, roots and seeds are harvested for use in traditional medicine. The wood is used for temporary constructions in Cambodia. It makes excellent firewood.[7] In India, in order to treat skin diseases, the leaf is boiled in cow's milk, mixed with honey and then applied externally.[5] Oil from the seed is also used for skin diseases, applied externally, while the root is given as a purgative and cathartic.

Amongst the Rejang people of southwestern Sumatera, C. ramiflora is one of the trees that are most frequently regarded as a sialang tree. These are trees, tall and outstanding in the forest, with a nest of the honeybee Apis dorsata. Each sialang tree is held to have a sacred occupant, usually a female deity (though sometimes called Sernad Belelkat) who is the owner of the bees, nest and honey. To gather the wild honey from this tree is regarded as going into the perilous realm of the spirit world, and appropriate precautions need to be taken.[13]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Barstow, M. (2019). "Cynometra ramiflora". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T62021950A62022263. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T62021950A62022263.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ "Cynometra ramiflora L., Sp. Pl. 1: 382 (1753)". International Plant Name Index (IPNI). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Cynometra ramiflora L." Plants of the World Online (POWO). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Science. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  4. ^ a b c "Cynometra ramiflora L." The Plant List. plantlist.org. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Cynometra ramiflora L." Global Biodiversity Information Facility. gbif.org. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  6. ^ a b c Cooper, W.E. (2015). "A taxonomic revision of Cynometra L. (Fabaceae) in Australia with a new species from the Wet Tropics of Queensland and a range extension to the mainland" (PDF). Austrobaileya. 9 (3): 393–403. JSTOR 44648635. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d Pauline Dy Phon (2000). Plants Utilised In Cambodia/Plantes utilisées au Cambodge. Phnom Penh: Imprimerie Olympic. pp. 14, 15.
  8. ^ a b c d F.A.Zich; B.P.M.Hyland; T.Whiffen; R.A.Kerrigan (2020). "Cynometra ramiflora". Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants Edition 8 (RFK8). Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research (CANBR), Australian Government. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  9. ^ Sachtleben, Thalia; Reidy, Jennifer L.; Savidge, Julie A. (2006). "A description of the first Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela Rubatra Saffordi) nests found on Saipan, Mariana Islands". The Wilson Journal of Ornithology. 118 (3): 309–315. doi:10.1676/05-049.1. S2CID 84007453. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  10. ^ Wahyu Widodo (2006). "Kemelimpahan dan Sumber Pakan Burung-burung di Taman Nasional Manusela, Seram, Maluku Tengah/Abundance and natural food resources of birds in Manusela National Park, Seram, Central Mollucas". Biodiversitas (in Indonesian). 7 (1 Januari): 54–58. doi:10.13057/biodiv/d070114. ISSN 1412-033X. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  11. ^ "Cynometra Cynometra ramiflora L." Encyclopedia of Life. eol.org. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  12. ^ a b Siti Nurfadilah; Lia Hapsari; Ilham Kurnia Abywijaya (2017). "Species richness, conservation status, and potential uses of plants in Segara Anakan Area of Sempu Island, East Java, Indonesia". Biodiversitas. 18 (4, October): 1568–1588. doi:10.13057/biodiv/d180436. ISSN 1412-033X. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  13. ^ Jaspan, M. (1967). "Symbols at work - Aspects of kinetic and mnemonic representation in Redjang ritual" (PDF). Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Leiden. 123 (4): 476–516. doi:10.1163/22134379-90002892. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
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Cynometra ramiflora: Brief Summary

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A tree in the family Fabaceae, Cynometra ramiflora is found in mangroves and flooded forests from New Caledonia in the western Pacific west to Queensland in Australia, New Guinea, Island Southeast Asia, and Tropical Asia as far west as India. Its wood is used for construction and fuel, and parts of plant are ascribed medicinal use.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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