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Opisthokonts

Opisthokonta

Description of Opisthokonts

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Circumscription: This group contains the true fungi and their protist relatives (the chytrids) and the animals and their protist relatives (the choanoflagellates). The close relationship of the multicellular taxa was initially indicated by molecular means. The group contains uniflagellated solitary and colonial protists with one flagellum at some stage in their life history, phagotrophs, saprophytes, mycelial organisms with spore-forming bodies but no flagella, multicellular heterotrophs formed from layers of cells (epithelia), and the sponges with a less structured arrangement of cells. Collagen, one of the components of the extracellular matrix of the animals has also been reported from some fungi. All of the flagellated taxa and flagellated cells swim with a single flagellum beating behind the cell. The term opisthokonta has been applied to this grouping (Cavalier-Smith and Chao 1995; Cavalier-Smith 1996). However, Cavalier-Smith and Chao do not use the term as a formal taxon because it would require that more important taxa are subordinated to less important taxa. Here, the opisthokonts is a taxon with the composition as indicated. The name may need to be revisited as the term Opisthokonta has previously been used by Copeland (1956) for the chytrids. Some other permanently or temporarily opisthokont protists-such as several nominal pelobionts or the unassigned Phalansterium or Pseudaphelidium-are not included, and it is not yet known if they form part of this group. Ultrastructural identity: The diversity of organization within this group is great, extending from uniflagellated protists with or without the ability to make siliceous products to multicellular myeelial or epitheliate organisms. Apart from having platycristate mitochondria and being dictyosomate, this group has few discriminating characters that extend throughout this group. Nuclear division is variable within the fungi but in the animals, the envelope breaks down during mitosis. Synapomorphy: Unspecified but probably may relate to the radiating and arcing anchorage structures associated with the single flagellum. Very few studies of the protistan (ancestral) members have been conducted, and until more detailed ultrastructural studies are carried Out, such a determination would probably be premature. Most included taxa have secondarily lost this character. Composition: The largest of the major eukaryote lineages with probably in excess of 1,000,000 species, in two major clusters: (chytrids + true fungi) + (choanoflagellates + Metazoa). These two clusters themselves require appropriately defined names. This taxon includes the Myxospora (previously thought of as a group of protozoa) as a subset of the Cnidaria; and the Microspora are placed with the fungi in line with recent molecular evidence.
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Opisthokonta

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Les Opisthocontes (Opisthokonta) sont un groupe d'eucaryotes unicontes regroupant des organismes très divers en apparence, résultant du rapprochement récent de plusieurs taxons, dont les champignons et les métazoaires. Il est fondé sur l'étude de plusieurs gènes analysés séparément, ce qui confère à l'existence des opisthocontes une certaine fiabilité. À partir de cette mise en évidence moléculaire, d'autres synapomorphies sont apparues comme évidentes, confirmant qu'il s'agit bien d'un groupe monophylétique. Les Opisthocontes se seraient séparés des autres Unicontes pendant le Proterozoique, il y a environ un milliard d'années.

Caractéristiques

Phylogénie

Cladogramme selon une étude réalisée par Torruella en 2015[5],[6]:

Opisthokonta Holomycota

Cristidiscoidea



Fungi



Holozoa

Mesomycetozoa




Pluriformea


Filozoa

Filasterea


Apoikozoa

Choanomonada



Animalia







Systématique

 src=
Arbre à « bulles » montrant que les champignons sont plus proches des animaux que des plantes.

Les Opisthokonta regroupent deux grandes lignées d'organismes multicellulaires, les champignons (Fungi) et les animaux (Metazoa), mais aussi toute une série de lignées unicellulaires beaucoup moins connues, comme les choanoflagellés (Choanomonada), les Filasterea et les Mesomycetozoa[7].

Parfois inclus dans le règne des plantes, les champignons sont plus proches des animaux dans la classification phylogénétique actuelle. Ils forment avec eux l'essentiel du super-règne des opisthochontes. Plantes et champignons n'ont en commun, sur le plan phylogénétique, que le fait d'être des eucaryotes, et sur le plan physiologique, que leur immobilité. Les plantes sont des bicontes, êtres vivants dont les organismes unicellulaires ou les cellules ciliées des organismes pluricellulaires possèdent deux flagelles, tandis que les Mycètes sont unicontes, avec un flagelle unique. Les champignons ont des génomes plus proches des animaux, caractéristique qui se retrouve au niveau moléculaire (ils ont par exemple des parois cellulaires à base de chitine, molécule que l'on retrouve dans la cuticule des Arthropodes) et physiologique (animaux et champignons sont hétérotrophes, devant se nourrir de substances organiques qu'ils trouvent dans le milieu environnant et qui sont fabriquées directement ou indirectement par les végétaux autotrophes ; ils stockent leurs réserves carbonées sous forme de glycogène)[8].

Notes et références

  1. (en) S.M. Adl et al, « The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists », Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, vol. 52, no 5,‎ 19 octobre 2005, p. 399–451 (DOI ).
  2. a b et c Guillaume Lecointre et Hervé Le Guyader, Classification phylogénétique du vivant, t. 1, 4e édition, Paris, Belin, 2016, 583 p. (ISBN 978-2-7011-8294-0), p. 176
  3. (en) Matthew S Gentry, M Kathryn Brewer, Craig WVander Kooi, « Structural biology of glucan phosphatases from humans to plants », Curr Opin Struct Biol, vol. 40,‎ octobre 2016, p. 62-69 (DOI ).
  4. Y. Inagaki, M. Ehara, K. I. Watanabe et Y. Hayashi-Ishimaru, « Directionally evolving genetic code: the UGA codon from stop to tryptophan in mitochondria », Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol. 47, no 4,‎ octobre 1998, p. 378–384 (ISSN , PMID , lire en ligne, consulté le 19 janvier 2019)
  5. Guifré Torruella et al. 2015, Phylogenomics Reveals Convergent Evolution of Lifestyles in Close Relatives of Animals and Fungi. Current Biology (ISSN ) Volume 25, Issue 18, p. 2404–2410, 21 September 2015
  6. Elisabeth Hehenberger et al. Novel Predators Reshape Holozoan Phylogeny and Reveal the Presence of a Two-Component Signaling System in the Ancestor of Animals. Science Direct.
  7. Thierry Lefevre, Michel Raymond et Frédéric Thomas, Biologie évolutive, De Boeck Supérieur, 2016 (lire en ligne), p. 42
  8. Daniel Richard, Biologie, Dunod, 2018 (lire en ligne), p. 92

Voir aussi

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Opisthokonta: Brief Summary

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Les Opisthocontes (Opisthokonta) sont un groupe d'eucaryotes unicontes regroupant des organismes très divers en apparence, résultant du rapprochement récent de plusieurs taxons, dont les champignons et les métazoaires. Il est fondé sur l'étude de plusieurs gènes analysés séparément, ce qui confère à l'existence des opisthocontes une certaine fiabilité. À partir de cette mise en évidence moléculaire, d'autres synapomorphies sont apparues comme évidentes, confirmant qu'il s'agit bien d'un groupe monophylétique. Les Opisthocontes se seraient séparés des autres Unicontes pendant le Proterozoique, il y a environ un milliard d'années.

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후편모생물

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

후편모생물(Opisthokonta, 그리스어 opistho(뒤) + kontos(편모))은 진핵생물의 주요한 계통의 하나로, 동물(후생동물)과 진균류를 포함하여 여러 원생생물군을 포함하고 있다. 이러한 생물이 단계통군인 것은 유전학 및 미세 구조의 양쪽의 연구로부터 강하게 지지를 받고 있다. 공유 형질은 동물의 정자나 단지 곰팡이의 포자와 같은 편모를 가진 세포가 뒤측에 있는 1개의 편모로 앞으로 나아가는 것이다. 이 때문에 후편모생물이라는 이름이 붙여졌다. 이와는 대조적으로 다른 진핵생물에서는 편모를 가진 세포가 1개 또는 여러 개의 앞쪽 편모로 전진한다.

코아노조아원생생물이다.

하위 분류

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진핵생물 계보

계통 분류

다음은 아들(Adl et al. 2012)과 부르키(Burki, 2014/2016) 등의 진핵생물 계통 분류이다.[4][5][6]

진핵생물 AH/SAR 원시색소체생물    

홍조식물

   

피코조아

     

회청조식물

   

녹색식물 (좁은 의미의 식물)



크립티스타


     

합티스타


TSAR

텔로네마류

SAR 할바리아

부등편모조류

   

피하낭류

     

리자리아

   
     

디스코바

단편모생물

아메바류

오바조아

아푸소모나스목

후편모생물

홀로미코타(균류 포함)

   

홀로조아(동물 포함)

         

다음은 포디아타의 계통 분류이다.[7][8][9]

Scotokaryotes/
Opimoda/Neozoa  

메타모나다

     

말라이모나스속

  Sulcozoa/포디아타/
Sarcomastigota  

CRuMs(콜로딕티온과, 만타모나스과, 리기필라목)

  Amorphea/
단편모생물

아메바류

오바조아

브레비아타류

     

아푸소모나스목

   

후편모생물

             

다음은 후편모생물의 계통 분류이다.[10][11][12][13]

후편모생물 홀로미코타 크리스티디스코이데아

누클레아리아류

   

폰티쿨라류

    균류/
오피스토스포리디아

BCG2[14]

       

진균류

   

아펠리디움류

       

BCG1[14]

  Rozellomyceta/
Cryptomycota  

로젤라목

     

Namako-37

미포자충류

Metchnikovellea

   

미포자충강

                홀로조아

이크티오스포레아

    플루리포르메아

코랄로키트리움속

   

시소모나스속

    필로조아

필라스테레아

  깃편모충류  

동정편모충류

   

동물

           

각주

  1. Copeland, H. F. (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books.
  2. Cavalier-Smith, T. (1987). 〈The origin of fungi and pseudofungi〉. Rayner, Alan D. M. (ed.). 《Evolutionary biology of Fungi》. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. 339–353쪽. ISBN 0-521-33050-5.
  3. Adl, S.M. et al. (2005). The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists. Journal of eukaryotic microbiology 52: 399–451.
  4. Burki, F. (2014). “The eukaryotic tree of life from a global phylogenomic perspective”. 《Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology》 6: 1–17. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a016147.
  5. Burki, Fabien; Kaplan, Maia; Tikhonenkov, Denis V.; Zlatogursky, Vasily; Minh, Bui Quang; Radaykina, Liudmila V.; Smirnov, Alexey; Mylnikov, Alexander P.; Keeling, Patrick J. (2016년 1월 27일). “Untangling the early diversification of eukaryotes: a phylogenomic study of the evolutionary origins of Centrohelida, Haptophyta and Cryptista”. 《Proc. R. Soc. B》 283 (1823): 20152802. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.2802. PMC 4795036. PMID 26817772.
  6. Karnkowska, Anna; Vacek, Vojtěch; Zubáčová, Zuzana; Treitli, Sebastian C.; Petrželková, Romana; Eme, Laura; Novák, Lukáš; Žárský, Vojtěch; Barlow, Lael D. (2016). “A Eukaryote without a Mitochondrial Organelle”. 《Current Biology》 26 (10): 1274–1284. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.03.053.
  7. Brown, Matthew W; Heiss, Aaron A; Kamikawa, Ryoma; Inagaki, Yuji; Yabuki, Akinori; Tice, Alexander K; Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Hashimoto, Tetsuo (2018년 1월 19일). “Phylogenomics Places Orphan Protistan Lineages in a Novel Eukaryotic Super-Group”. 《Genome Biology and Evolution》 (영어) 10 (2): 427–433. doi:10.1093/gbe/evy014. ISSN 1759-6653. PMC 5793813. PMID 29360967.
  8. Lax, Gordon; Eglit, Yana; Eme, Laura; Bertrand, Erin M.; Roger, Andrew J.; Simpson, Alastair G. B. (2018년 11월 14일). “Hemimastigophora is a novel supra-kingdom-level lineage of eukaryotes”. 《Nature》 (영어) 564 (7736): 410–414. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0708-8. ISSN 0028-0836.
  9. Ruggiero, Michael A.; Gordon, Dennis P.; Orrell, Thomas M.; Bailly, Nicolas; Bourgoin, Thierry; Brusca, Richard C.; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Guiry, Michael D.; Kirk, Paul M. (2015년 6월 11일). “Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms”. 《PLOS ONE》 10 (6): e0130114. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130114. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5159126. PMID 26068874.
  10. Peterson, Kevin J.; Cotton, James A.; Gehling, James G.; Pisani, Davide (2008년 4월 27일). “The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic and the geological fossil records”. 《Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences》 363 (1496): 1435–1443. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2233. PMC 2614224. PMID 18192191.
  11. Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Lahr, Daniel J. G.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Katz, Laura A. (2011년 8월 16일). “Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks”. 《Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences》 108 (33): 13624–13629. doi:10.1073/pnas.1110633108. PMC 3158185. PMID 21810989.
  12. Hehenberger, Elisabeth; Tikhonenkov, Denis V.; Kolisko, Martin; Campo, Javier del; Esaulov, Anton S.; Mylnikov, Alexander P.; Keeling, Patrick J. (2017). “Novel Predators Reshape Holozoan Phylogeny and Reveal the Presence of a Two-Component Signaling System in the Ancestor of Animals”. 《Current Biology》 27 (13): 2043–2050.e6. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.06.006. PMID 28648822.
  13. Tedersoo, Leho; Sánchez-Ramírez, Santiago; Kõljalg, Urmas; Bahram, Mohammad; Döring, Markus; Schigel, Dmitry; May, Tom; Ryberg, Martin; Abarenkov, Kessy (2018). “High-level classification of the Fungi and a tool for evolutionary ecological analyses”. 《Fungal Diversity》 (영어) 90 (1): 135–159. doi:10.1007/s13225-018-0401-0. ISSN 1560-2745.
  14. BCG1 = basal clone group 1, BCG2 = basal clone group 2
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