dcsimg

Brief Summary

provided by EOL authors

Mantodea (or mantises, mantes) is an order of insects that contains over 2,400 valid species and about 430 genera (Otte & Spearman 2012) in 15 families worldwide in temperate and tropical habitats. Most of the species are in the family Mantidae. The English common name for any species in the order is "praying mantis" (Bullock 1812), because of the typical "prayer-like" attitude with folded fore-limbs, although the eggcorn "preying mantis" is sometimes used in reference to their predatory habits (Partington 1837, National Geographic Society 2011). In Europe and other regions, however, the name "praying mantis" refers to only a single species, Mantis religiosa. The closest relatives of mantises are the termites and cockroaches (order Blattodea). They are sometimes confused with phasmids (stick/leaf insects) and other elongated insects such as grasshoppers and crickets.

All Mantids belong to the insect order Mantodea. The etymology of the word Mantodea and of the common name 'mantis' come from the Greek word μάντις (pronounced mantis) meaning prophet. The word Mantodea includes as a suffix the Greek word εἶδος meaning form or shape. The name was coined in 1838 by the German entomologist Hermann Burmeister (Essig 1947, Harper 2001-2012).

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia editors and contributors
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Morphology

provided by EOL authors

Mantises have two grasping, spiked forelegs ("raptorial legs") in which prey items are caught and held securely. In most insect legs, including the posterior four legs of a mantis, the coxa and trochanter combine as an inconspicuous base of the leg; in the raptorial legs however, the coxa and trochanter combine to form a segment about as long as the femur, which is a spiky part of the grasping apparatus. Located at the base of the femur are a set of discoidal spines, usually four in number, but ranging from zero to as many as five depending on the species. These spines are preceded by a number of tooth-like tubercles, which, along with a similar series of tubercles along the tibia and the apical claw near its tip, give the foreleg of the mantis its grasp on its prey. The foreleg ends in a delicate tarsus made of between four and five segments and ending in a two-toed claw with no arolium and used as a walking appendage (Prete 1999).

The mantis thorax consists of a prothorax, a mesothorax, and a metathorax. In all species apart from the genus Mantoida, the prothorax, which bears the head and forelegs, is much longer than the other two thoracic segments. The prothorax is also flexibly articulated, allowing for a wide range of movement of the head and forelimbs while the remainder of the body remains more or less immobile. The articulation of the neck is also remarkably flexible; some species of mantis can rotate the head nearly 180 degrees.

Mantids may have a visual range of up to 20 metres. Their compound eyes may comprise up to 10,000 ommatidia. The eyes are widely spaced and laterally situated, affording a wide binocular field of vision) and, at close range, precise stereoscopic vision. The dark spot on each eye is a pseudopupil. As their hunting relies heavily on vision, mantids are primarily diurnal. Many species will however fly at night, and then may be attracted to artificial lights. Nocturnal flight is especially important to males in search of less-mobile females that they locate by detecting their pheromones. Flying at night exposes mantids to fewer bird predators than diurnal flight would.Many mantises also have an auditory thoracic organ that helps them to avoid bats by detecting their echolocation and responding evasively(Prete 1999).

Mantids can be loosely categorized as being macropterous (long-winged), brachypterous (short-winged), micropterous (vestigial-winged), or apterous (wingless). If not wingless, a mantis will have two sets of wings: the outer wings, or tegmina, are usually narrow, opaque, and leathery. They function as camouflage and as a shield for the hind wings. The hind wings are much broader, more delicate, and transparent. They are the main organs of flight, if any. Brachypterous species are at most minimally capable of flight, other species not at all. Even in many macropterous species the female is much heavier than the male, has much shorter wings, and rarely takes flight if she is capable of it at all.

The abdomen of all mantises consist of ten tergites with a corresponding set of nine sternites visible in males and seven visible in females. The slim abdomen of most males allows them to take flight more easily while the thicker abdomen of the females houses the reproductive machinery for generating the ootheca. The abdomen of both sexes ends in a pair of cerci.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia editors and contributors
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Trophic Strategy

provided by EOL authors

Most mantises are exclusively predatory and exceptions are predominantly so. Insects form their primary prey, but the diet of a mantid changes as it grows larger. In its first instar a mantid will eat small insects such as tiny flies or its own siblings. In later instars it does not or cannot profitably pursue such small prey. In the final instar as a rule the diet of the praying mantis still includes more insects than anything else, but large species of mantis have been known to prey on small scorpions, lizards, frogs, birds, snakes, fish, and even rodents; they will feed on any species small enough for them to capture, but large enough to engage their attention. For example, a large mantis feeding on a bee or bug might be pestered with impunity by jackal flies and biting midges that it would readily have eaten in its first instar. Large prey tends to increase in value with the cube of its dimension: a blowfly four times as long as a jackal fly would represent a meal about 64 times as massive. When a female mantis is into her final growth spurt and is accumulating nutrients to make eggs, the largest available prey that she can manage is the most effective for her to concentrate on.

The majority of mantises are ambush predators, but some ground and bark species will actively pursue their prey. For example, members of a few genera such as the ground mantids, Entella, Ligaria and Ligariella, run over dry ground seeking prey much as tiger beetles do. Species that are predominantly ambush predators camouflage themselves and spend long periods standing perfectly still. They largely wait for their prey to stray within reach, but most mantises will chase tempting prey if it strays closely enough. In pure ambush mode a mantis lashes out at remarkable speed when a target does get within reach, details of the speed and mode attack varying with the species. A mantis will catch prey items and grip them with grasping, spiked forelegs. The praying mantis usually holds its prey with one arm between the head and thorax, and the other on the abdomen. Then, if the prey does not resist, the mantis will eat it alive. However, if the prey does resist, the mantis will often eat it head first, some species of mantises being more prone to the behaviour than others. Unlike sucking predatory arthropods, a mantis does not liquefy prey tissues or drain its prey's body fluids, but simply slices and chews it with its mandibles as convenient, often from one end. If it should happen to have begun feeding on the midsection of the prey it typically ends up eating first one remnant end from one foreclaw then the rest from the other, leaving nothing but accidentally severed fragments such as limbs.

Chinese Mantids have been found to gain benefits in survivorship, growth, and fecundity by supplementing their diet with pollen. In replicated laboratory tests the first instar actively fed on pollen just after hatching, thereby avoiding starvation in the absence of prey. The adults fed on pollen-laden insects, attaining fecundity as high those fed on larger numbers of insects alone (Beckman & Hurd 2003).

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia editors and contributors
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Behavior

provided by EOL authors

Sexual cannibalism is common among mantises in captivity, and under some circumstances may also be observed in the field. The female may begin feeding by biting off the male’s head (as they do with regular prey), and if mating has begun, the male’s movements may become even more vigorous in its delivery of sperm. Early researchers thought that because copulatory movement is controlled by a ganglion in the abdomen, not the head, removal of the male’s head was a reproductive strategy by females to enhance fertilisation while obtaining sustenance. Later, this behavior appeared to be an artifact of intrusive laboratory observation. Whether the behavior in the field is natural, or also the result of distractions caused by the human observer, remains controversial. Mantises are highly visual organisms, and notice any disturbance occurring in the laboratory or field such as bright lights or moving scientists. Research by Liske and Davis (1984) and others found (e.g. using video recorders in vacant rooms) that Chinese mantises that had been fed ad libitum (so that they were not hungry) actually displayed elaborate courtship behavior when left undisturbed. The male engages the female in courtship dance, to change her interest from feeding to mating. Courtship display has also been observed in other species, but it does not hold for all mantises.

The reason for sexual cannibalism has been debated, with some considering submissive males to be achieving a selective advantage in their ability to produce offspring. This theory is supported by a quantifiable increase in the duration of copulation among males who are cannibalized, in some cases doubling both the duration and the chance of fertilization. This is further supported in a study where males were seen to approach hungry females with more caution, and were shown to remain mounted on hungry females for a longer time, indicating that males actively avoiding cannibalism may mate with multiple females. The act of dismounting is one of the most dangerous times for males during copulation, for it is at this time that females most frequently cannibalize their mates. This increase in mounting duration was thought to indicate that males would be more prone to wait for an opportune time to dismount from a hungry female rather than from a satiated female that would be less likely to cannibalize her mate. Some consider this to be an indication that male submissiveness does not inherently increase male reproductive success, rather that more fit males are likely to approach a female with caution and escape (Lelito & Brown 2006a,b).

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia editors and contributors
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Life Cycle

provided by EOL authors

The mating season in temperate climates typically begins in autumn. To mate following courtship, the male usually leaps onto the female’s back, and clasps her thorax and wing bases with his forelegs. He then arches his abdomen to deposit and store sperm in a special chamber near the tip of the female’s abdomen. The female then lays between 10 and 400 eggs, depending on the species.

Eggs are typically deposited in a frothy mass that is produced by glands in the abdomen. This froth then hardens, creating a protective capsule. The protective capsule and the egg mass is called an ootheca. Depending on the species, the ootheca can be attached to a flat surface, wrapped around a plant or even deposited in the ground. Despite the versatility and durability of the eggs, they are often preyed on, especially by several species of parasitic wasps. In a few species, the mother guards the eggs.

As in related insect groups, mantises go through three stages of metamorphosis: egg, nymph, and adult (mantises are among the hemimetabolic insects). The nymph and adult insect are structurally quite similar, except that the nymph is smaller and has no wings or functional genitalia. The nymphs are also sometimes colored differently from the adult, and the early stages are often mimics of ants. A mantis nymph increases in size (often changing its diet as it does so) by replacing its outer body covering with a sturdy, flexible exoskeleton and molting when needed. Molting can happen from five to ten times, depending on the species. After the final molt most species have wings, though some species are wingless or brachypterous ("short-winged"), particularly in the female sex.

In tropical species, the natural lifespan of a mantis in the wild is about 10–12 months, but some species kept in captivity have been sustained for 14 months. In colder areas, females will die during the winter (as well as any surviving males).

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia editors and contributors
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Mantis

provided by wikipedia EN

Mantises are an order (Mantodea) of insects that contains over 2,400 species in about 460 genera in 33 families. The largest family is the Mantidae ("mantids"). Mantises are distributed worldwide in temperate and tropical habitats. They have triangular heads with bulging eyes supported on flexible necks. Their elongated bodies may or may not have wings, but all Mantodea have forelegs that are greatly enlarged and adapted for catching and gripping prey; their upright posture, while remaining stationary with forearms folded, has led to the common name praying mantis.

The closest relatives of mantises are termites and cockroaches (Blattodea), which are all within the superorder Dictyoptera. Mantises are sometimes confused with stick insects (Phasmatodea), other elongated insects such as grasshoppers (Orthoptera), or other unrelated insects with raptorial forelegs such as mantisflies (Mantispidae). Mantises are mostly ambush predators, but a few ground-dwelling species are found actively pursuing their prey. They normally live for about a year. In cooler climates, the adults lay eggs in autumn, then die. The eggs are protected by their hard capsules and hatch in the spring. Females sometimes practice sexual cannibalism, eating their mates after copulation.

Mantises were considered to have supernatural powers by early civilizations, including Ancient Greece, Ancient Egypt, and Assyria. A cultural trope popular in cartoons imagines the female mantis as a femme fatale. Mantises are among the insects most commonly kept as pets.

Taxonomy and evolution

 src=
Green mantis in a backyard in Sydney, 2020

Over 2,400 species of mantis in about 430 genera are recognized.[1] They are predominantly found in tropical regions, but some live in temperate areas.[2][3] The systematics of mantises have long been disputed. Mantises, along with stick insects (Phasmatodea), were once placed in the order Orthoptera with the cockroaches (now Blattodea) and ice crawlers (now Grylloblattodea). Kristensen (1991) combined the Mantodea with the cockroaches and termites into the order Dictyoptera, suborder Mantodea.[4][5] The name mantodea is formed from the Ancient Greek words μάντις (mantis) meaning "prophet", and εἶδος (eidos) meaning "form" or "type". It was coined in 1838 by the German entomologist Hermann Burmeister.[6][7] The order is occasionally called the mantes, using a Latinized plural of Greek mantis. The name mantid properly refers only to members of the family Mantidae, which was, historically, the only family in the order. The other common name, praying mantis, applied to any species in the order[8] (though in Europe mainly to Mantis religiosa), comes from the typical "prayer-like" posture with folded forelimbs.[9][10] The vernacular plural "mantises" (used in this article) was confined largely to the US, with "mantids" predominantly used as the plural in the UK and elsewhere, until the family Mantidae was further split in 2002.[11][12]

One of the earliest classifications splitting an all-inclusive Mantidae into multiple families was that proposed by Beier in 1968, recognizing eight families,[13] though it was not until Ehrmann's reclassification into 15 families in 2002[12] that a multiple-family classification became universally adopted. Klass, in 1997, studied the external male genitalia and postulated that the families Chaeteessidae and Metallyticidae diverged from the other families at an early date.[14] However, as previously configured, the Mantidae and Thespidae especially were considered polyphyletic,[15] so the Mantodea have been revised substantially as of 2019 and now includes 29 families.[16]

Cladogram of Extant Mantodea Families[17][16] Mantodea  

† Extinct Genera

  Eumantodea Chaeteessoidea

Chaeteessidae

  Spinomantodea Mantoidoidea

Mantoididae

  Schizomantodea Metallyticoidea

Metallyticidae

  Artimantodea Amerimantodea Thespoidea

Thespidae

  Acanthopoidea  

Angelidae

     

Coptopterygidae

     

Liturgusidae

     

Photinaidae

   

Acanthopidae

            Cernomantodea Nanomantodea Chroicopteroidea

Chroicopteridae

  Nanomantoidea  

Leptomantellidae

     

Amorphoscelidae

   

Nanomantidae

        Metamantodea   Gonypetoidea

Gonypetidae

  Lobipedia Epaphroditoidea  

Epaphroditidae

   

Majangidae

    Mantimorpha Haanioidea

Haaniidae

  Heteromantodea Eremiaphiloidea  

Rivetinidae

     

Amelidae

     

Eremiaphilidae

   

Toxoderidae

        Pareumantodea Hoplocoryphoidea

Hoplocoryphidae

  Calomantodea Miomantoidea

Miomantidae

  Promantidea Galinthiadoidea

Galinthiadidae

  Mantidea Hymenopodoidea  

Empusidae

   

Hymenopodidae

    Mantoidea  

Dactylopterygidae

     

Deroplatyidae

   

Mantidae

                                   

Fossil mantises

The earliest mantis fossils are about 140 million years old, from Siberia.[15] Fossils of the group are rare: by 2007, only about 25 fossil species were known.[15] Fossil mantises, including one from Japan with spines on the front legs as in modern mantises, have been found in Cretaceous amber.[18] Most fossils in amber are nymphs; compression fossils (in rock) include adults. Fossil mantises from the Crato Formation in Brazil include the 10 mm (0.39 in) long Santanmantis axelrodi, described in 2003; as in modern mantises, the front legs were adapted for catching prey. Well-preserved specimens yield details as small as 5 μm through X-ray computed tomography.[15] Extinct families and genera include:

Similar insects in the Neuroptera

Because of the superficially similar raptorial forelegs, mantidflies may be confused with mantises, though they are unrelated. Their similarity is an example of convergent evolution; mantidflies do not have tegmina (leathery forewings) like mantises, their antennae are shorter and less thread-like, and the raptorial tibia is more muscular than that of a similar-sized mantis and bends back farther in preparation for shooting out to grasp prey.[19] Another example of confusion caused by convergent evolution is Titanoptera, an order of insect that lived in the Triassic period and also shared the Raptorial forelegs of a mantis.

Biology

Anatomy

Mantis wings, the forewing leathery, the hindwing triangular
Wing arrangement of a typical mantis, adult male Raptrix perspicua
Raptorial foreleg of a mantis, armed with long spines
The raptorial foreleg, showing the unusually long coxa, which, together with the trochanter, gives the impression of a femur. The femur itself is the proximal segment of the grasping part of the leg.
Mantis moving on a wall.

Mantises have large, triangular heads with a beak-like snout and mandibles. They have two bulbous compound eyes, three small simple eyes, and a pair of antennae. The articulation of the neck is also remarkably flexible; some species of mantis can rotate their heads nearly 180°.[10] The mantis thorax consists of a prothorax, a mesothorax, and a metathorax. In all species apart from the genus Mantoida, the prothorax, which bears the head and forelegs, is much longer than the other two thoracic segments. The prothorax is also flexibly articulated, allowing for a wide range of movements of the head and fore limbs while the remainder of the body remains more or less immobile.[20][21] Mantises also are unique to the Dictyoptera in that they have tympanate hearing, with two tympana in an auditory chamber in their metathorax. Most mantises can only hear ultrasound.[22]

Mantises have two spiked, grasping forelegs ("raptorial legs") in which prey items are caught and held securely. In most insect legs, including the posterior four legs of a mantis, the coxa and trochanter combine as an inconspicuous base of the leg; in the raptorial legs, however, the coxa and trochanter combine to form a segment about as long as the femur, which is a spiky part of the grasping apparatus (see illustration). Located at the base of the femur is a set of discoidal spines, usually four in number, but ranging from none to as many as five depending on the species. These spines are preceded by a number of tooth-like tubercles, which, along with a similar series of tubercles along the tibia and the apical claw near its tip, give the foreleg of the mantis its grasp on its prey. The foreleg ends in a delicate tarsus used as a walking appendage, made of four or five segments and ending in a two-toed claw with no arolium.[20][23]

Mantises can be loosely categorized as being macropterous (long-winged), brachypterous (short-winged), micropterous (vestigial-winged), or apterous (wingless). If not wingless, a mantis has two sets of wings: the outer wings, or tegmina, are usually narrow and leathery. They function as camouflage and as a shield for the hindwings, which are clearer and more delicate.[20][24] The abdomen of all mantises consists of 10 tergites, with a corresponding set of nine sternites visible in males and seven visible in females. The abdomen tends to be slimmer in males than females, but ends in a pair of cerci in both sexes.[20]

Vision

Head of a mantis with large compound eyes and labrum
Head of Archimantis latistyla, showing the compound eyes and labrum

Mantises have stereo vision.[25][26][27] They locate their prey by sight; their compound eyes contain up to 10,000 ommatidia. A small area at the front called the fovea has greater visual acuity than the rest of the eye, and can produce the high resolution necessary to examine potential prey. The peripheral ommatidia are concerned with perceiving motion; when a moving object is noticed, the head is rapidly rotated to bring the object into the visual field of the fovea. Further motions of the prey are then tracked by movements of the mantis's head so as to keep the image centered on the fovea.[23][28] The eyes are widely spaced and laterally situated, affording a wide binocular field of vision and precise stereoscopic vision at close range.[29] The dark spot on each eye that moves as it rotates its head is a pseudopupil. This occurs because the ommatidia that are viewed "head-on" absorb the incident light, while those to the side reflect it.[30]

As their hunting relies heavily on vision, mantises are primarily diurnal. Many species, however, fly at night, and then may be attracted to artificial lights. Mantises in the family Liturgusidae collected at night have been shown to be predominately males;[31] this is probably true for most mantises. Nocturnal flight is especially important to males in locating less-mobile females by detecting their pheromones. Flying at night exposes mantises to fewer bird predators than diurnal flight would. Many mantises also have an auditory thoracic organ that helps them avoid bats by detecting their echolocation calls and responding evasively.[32][33]

Diet and hunting

Mantis eating a cricket
Tenodera sinensis feeding on a cricket

Mantises are generalist predators of arthropods.[2] The majority of mantises are ambush predators that only feed upon live prey within their reach. They either camouflage themselves and remain stationary, waiting for prey to approach, or stalk their prey with slow, stealthy movements.[34] Larger mantises sometimes eat smaller individuals of their own species,[35] as well as small vertebrates such as lizards, frogs, fish, and particularly small birds.[36][37][38]

Most mantises stalk tempting prey if it strays close enough, and will go further when they are especially hungry.[39] Once within reach, mantises strike rapidly to grasp the prey with their spiked raptorial forelegs.[40] Some ground and bark species pursue their prey in a more active way. For example, members of a few genera such as the ground mantises, Entella, Ligaria, and Ligariella run over dry ground seeking prey, much as tiger beetles do.[20]

The fore gut of some species extends the whole length of the insect and can be used to store prey for digestion later. This may be advantageous in an insect that feeds intermittently.[41] Chinese mantises live longer, grow faster, and produce more young when they are able to eat pollen.[42]

Antipredator adaptations

Mantises are preyed on by vertebrates such as frogs, lizards, and birds, and by invertebrates such as spiders, large species of hornets, and ants.[43] Some hunting wasps, such as some species of Tachytes also paralyse some species of mantis to feed their young.[44] Generally, mantises protect themselves by camouflage, most species being cryptically colored to resemble foliage or other backgrounds, both to avoid predators and to better snare their prey.[45] Those that live on uniformly colored surfaces such as bare earth or tree bark are dorsoventrally flattened so as to eliminate shadows that might reveal their presence.[46] The species from different families called flower mantises are aggressive mimics: they resemble flowers convincingly enough to attract prey that come to collect pollen and nectar.[47][48][49] Some species in Africa and Australia are able to turn black after a molt towards the end of the dry season; at this time of year, bush fires occur and this coloration enables them to blend in with the fire-ravaged landscape (fire melanism).[46]

 src=
Aggressive mimicry: Malaysian orchid mantises are camouflaged pink or yellow, matching the coloration of local orchids.

When directly threatened, many mantis species stand tall and spread their forelegs, with their wings fanning out wide. The fanning of the wings makes the mantis seem larger and more threatening, with some species enhancing this effect with bright colors and patterns on their hindwings and inner surfaces of their front legs. If harassment persists, a mantis may strike with its forelegs and attempt to pinch or bite. As part of the bluffing (deimatic) threat display, some species may also produce a hissing sound by expelling air from the abdominal spiracles. Mantises lack chemical protection, so their displays are largely bluff. When flying at night, at least some mantises are able to detect the echolocation sounds produced by bats; when the frequency begins to increase rapidly, indicating an approaching bat, they stop flying horizontally and begin a descending spiral toward the safety of the ground, often preceded by an aerial loop or spin. If caught, they may slash captors with their raptorial legs.[46][50][51]

Mantises, like stick insects, show rocking behavior in which the insect makes rhythmic, repetitive side-to-side movements. Functions proposed for this behavior include the enhancement of crypsis by means of the resemblance to vegetation moving in the wind. However, the repetitive swaying movements may be most important in allowing the insects to discriminate objects from the background by their relative movement, a visual mechanism typical of animals with simpler sight systems. Rocking movements by these generally sedentary insects may replace flying or running as a source of relative motion of objects in the visual field.[52] As ants may be predators of mantises, genera such as Loxomantis, Orthodera, and Statilia, like many other arthropods, avoid attacking them. Exploiting this behavior, a variety of arthropods, including some early-instar mantises, mimic ants to evade their predators.[53]

Reproduction and life history

The mating season in temperate climates typically takes place in autumn,[54][55] while in tropical areas, mating can occur at any time of the year.[55] To mate following courtship, the male usually leaps onto the female's back, clasping her thorax and wing bases with his forelegs. He then arches his abdomen to deposit and store sperm in a special chamber near the tip of the female's abdomen. The female lays between 10 and 400 eggs, depending on the species. Eggs are typically deposited in a froth mass-produced by glands in the abdomen. This froth hardens, creating a protective capsule, which together with the egg mass is called an ootheca. Depending on the species, the ootheca can be attached to a flat surface, wrapped around a plant, or even deposited in the ground.[54] Despite the versatility and durability of the eggs, they are often preyed on, especially by several species of parasitoid wasps. In a few species, mostly ground and bark mantises in the family Tarachodidae, the mother guards the eggs.[54] The cryptic Tarachodes maurus positions herself on bark with her abdomen covering her egg capsule, ambushing passing prey and moving very little until the eggs hatch.[4] An unusual reproductive strategy is adopted by Brunner's stick mantis from the southern United States; no males have ever been found in this species, and the females breed parthenogenetically.[2] The ability to reproduce by parthenogenesis has been recorded in at least two other species, Sphodromantis viridis and Miomantis sp., although these species usually reproduce sexually.[56][57][58] In temperate climates, adults do not survive the winter and the eggs undergo a diapause, hatching in the spring.[5]

As in closely related insect groups in the superorder Dictyoptera, mantises go through three life stages: egg, nymph, and adult (mantises are among the hemimetabolous insects). For smaller species, the eggs may hatch in 3–4 weeks as opposed to 4–6 weeks for larger species. The nymphs may be colored differently from the adult, and the early stages are often mimics of ants. A mantis nymph grows bigger as it molts its exoskeleton. Molting can happen five to 10 times before the adult stage is reached, depending on the species. After the final molt, most species have wings, though some species remain wingless or brachypterous ("short-winged"), particularly in the female sex. The lifespan of a mantis depends on the species; smaller ones may live 4–8 weeks, while larger species may live 4–6 months.[2][21]

Sexual cannibalism

 src=
Sexual cannibalism in Mantis religiosa

Sexual cannibalism is common among most predatory species of mantises in captivity. It has sometimes been observed in natural populations, where about a quarter of male-female encounters result in the male being eaten by the female.[59][60][61] Around 90% of the predatory species of mantises exhibit sexual cannibalism.[62] Adult males typically outnumber females at first, but their numbers may be fairly equivalent later in the adult stage,[5] possibly because females selectively eat the smaller males.[63] In Tenodera sinensis, 83% of males escape cannibalism after an encounter with a female, but since multiple matings occur, the probability of a male's being eaten increases cumulatively.[60]

The female may begin feeding by biting off the male's head (as they do with regular prey), and if mating has begun, the male's movements may become even more vigorous in its delivery of sperm. Early researchers thought that because copulatory movement is controlled by a ganglion in the abdomen, not the head, removal of the male's head was a reproductive strategy by females to enhance fertilization while obtaining sustenance. Later, this behavior appeared to be an artifact of intrusive laboratory observation. Whether the behavior is natural in the field or also the result of distractions caused by the human observer remains controversial. Mantises are highly visual organisms and notice any disturbance in the laboratory or field, such as bright lights or moving scientists. Chinese mantises that had been fed ad libitum (so that they were not hungry) actually displayed elaborate courtship behavior when left undisturbed. The male engages the female in a courtship dance, to change her interest from feeding to mating.[64] Under such circumstances, the female has been known to respond with a defensive deimatic display by flashing the colored eyespots on the inside of her front legs.[65]

The reason for sexual cannibalism has been debated; experiments show that females on poor diets are likelier to engage in sexual cannibalism than those on good diets.[66] Some hypothesize that submissive males gain a selective advantage by producing offspring; this is supported by a quantifiable increase in the duration of copulation among males which are cannibalized, in some cases doubling both the duration and the chance of fertilization. This is contrasted by a study where males were seen to approach hungry females with more caution, and were shown to remain mounted on hungry females for a longer time, indicating that males that actively avoid cannibalism may mate with multiple females. The same study also found that hungry females generally attracted fewer males than those that were well fed.[67] The act of dismounting after copulation is dangerous for males, for it is the time that females most frequently cannibalize their mates. An increase in mounting duration appears to indicate that males wait for an opportune time to dismount a hungry female, who would be likely to cannibalize her mate.[65] Experiments have revealed that the sex ratio in an environment determines male copulatory behavior of Mantis religiosa which in turn affects the cannibalistic tendencies of the female and support the sperm competition hypothesis because the polyandrous treatment recorded the highest copulation duration time and lowest cannibalism. This further suggests that dismounting the female can make males susceptible to cannibalism.[68]

Relationship with humans

In literature and art

 src=
Bronze ink brush rest in the shape of a mantis, Edo period, Japan, c. 1800

One of the earliest mantis references is in the ancient Chinese dictionary Erya, which gives its attributes in poetry, where it represents courage and fearlessness, and a brief description. A later text, the Jingshi Zhenglei Daguan Bencao ("Great History of Medical Material Annotated and Arranged by Types, Based upon the Classics and Historical Works") from 1108, gives accurate details of the construction of the egg packages, the development cycle, anatomy, and the function of the antennae. Although mantises are rarely mentioned in Ancient Greek sources, a female mantis in threat posture is accurately illustrated on a series of fifth-century BC silver coins, including didrachms, from Metapontum in Lucania.[69] In the 10th century AD, Byzantine era Adages, Suidas describes an insect resembling a slow-moving green locust with long front legs.[70] He translates Zenobius 2.94 with the words seriphos (maybe a mantis) and graus, an old woman, implying a thin, dried-up stick of a body.[71]

Mantises are a common motif in Luna Polychrome ceramics of pre-Columbian Nicaragua, and are believed to represent a deity or spirit called "Madre Culebra".[72]

Western descriptions of the biology and morphology of the mantises became more accurate in the 18th century. Roesel von Rosenhof illustrated and described mantises and their cannibalistic behavior in the Insekten-Belustigungen (Insect Entertainments).[73]

The thin-legged mantis Gongylus gongylodes
In Island, Aldous Huxley reflected on death as a pair of Gongylus gongylodes mated.

Aldous Huxley made philosophical observations about the nature of death while two mantises mated in the sight of two characters in his 1962 novel Island (the species was Gongylus gongylodes). The naturalist Gerald Durrell's humorously autobiographical 1956 book My Family and Other Animals includes a four-page account of an almost evenly matched battle between a mantis and a gecko. Shortly before the fatal dénouement, Durrell narrates:

he [Geronimo the gecko] crashed into the mantis and made her reel, and grabbed the underside of her thorax in his jaws. Cicely [the mantis] retaliated by snapping both her front legs shut on Geronimo's hindlegs. They rustled and staggered across the ceiling and down the wall, each seeking to gain some advantage.[74]

M. C. Escher's woodcut Dream depicts a human-sized mantis standing on a sleeping bishop.[75] The 1957 film The Deadly Mantis features a mantis as a giant monster. In the 1967 film Son of Godzilla and other related films, the kaiju called "Kamacuras" are giant mantis monsters.

A cultural trope imagines the female mantis as a femme fatale. The idea is propagated in cartoons by Cable, Guy and Rodd, LeLievre, T. McCracken, and Mark Parisi, among others.[76][77][78][79] It ends Isabella Rossellini's short film about the life of a praying mantis in her 2008 Green Porno season for the Sundance Channel.[80][81]

Zorak, a character from Space Ghost, is also a mantis, and his species is a Dokarian.

Martial arts

 src=
Grandmasters of the Shaolin Temple, Shi DeRu and Shi DeYang, demonstrating the Southern Praying Mantis style of martial art

Two martial arts separately developed in China have movements and fighting strategies based on those of the mantis.[82][83] As one of these arts was developed in northern China, and the other in southern parts of the country, the arts are today referred to (both in English and Chinese) as 'Northern Praying Mantis'[84] and 'Southern Praying Mantis'.[83] Both are very popular in China, and have also been exported to the West in recent decades.[83][84][85][86]

In mythology and religion

The mantis was revered by the southern African Khoi and San in whose cultures man and nature were intertwined; for its praying posture, the mantis was even named Hottentotsgot ("god of the Hottentots") in the Afrikaans language that had developed among the first European settlers.[87] However, at least for the San, the mantis was only one of the manifestations of a trickster-deity, ǀKaggen, who could assume many other forms, such as a snake, hare or vulture.[88] Several ancient civilizations did consider the insect to have supernatural powers; for the Greeks, it had the ability to show lost travelers the way home; in the Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, the "bird-fly" is a minor god that leads the souls of the dead to the underworld; in a list of 9th-century BC Nineveh grasshoppers (buru), the mantis is named necromancer (buru-enmeli) and soothsayer (buru-enmeli-ashaga).[73][89] Some pre-Columbian cultures in western Nicaragua have preserved oral traditions of the mantis as "Madre Culebra", a powerful predator and symbol of female symbolic authority.[72]

As pets

 src=
Gray adult female Carolina mantis in human hand

Mantises are among the insects most widely kept as pets.[90][91] Because the lifespan of a mantis is only about a year, people who want to keep mantises often breed them. In 2013 at least 31 species were kept and bred in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States.[92] In 1996 at least 50 species were known to be kept in captivity by members of the Mantis Study Group.[93] The Independent described the "giant Asian praying mantis" as "part stick insect with a touch of Buddhist monk",[94] and stated that they needed a vivarium around 30 cm (12 in) on each side.[94] The Daily South argued that a pet insect was no weirder than a pet rat or ferret, and that while a pet mantis was unusual, it would not "bark, shed, [or] need shots or a litter box".[95]

For pest control

Naturally occurring mantis populations provide plant pest control.[96] Gardeners who prefer to avoid pesticides may encourage mantises in the hope of controlling insect pests.[97] However, mantises do not have key attributes of biological pest control agents; they do not specialize in a single pest insect, and do not multiply rapidly in response to an increase in such a prey species, but are general predators.[97] They eat whatever they can catch, including both harmful and beneficial insects.[95] They therefore have "negligible value" in biological control.[97]

Two species, the Chinese mantis and the European mantis, were deliberately introduced to North America in the hope that they would serve as pest controls for agriculture; they have spread widely in both the United States and Canada.[98]

Mantis-like robot

A prototype robot inspired by the forelegs of the praying mantis has front legs that allow the robot to walk, climb steps, and grasp objects. The multi-jointed leg provides dexterity via a rotatable joint. Future models may include a more spiked foreleg to improve the grip and ability to support more weight.[99]

References

  1. ^ Otte, Daniel; Spearman, Lauren. "Mantodea Species File Online". Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d Hurd, I. E. (1999). "Ecology of Praying Mantids". In Prete, Fredrick R.; Wells, Harrington; Wells, Patrick H.; Hurd, Lawrence E. (eds.). The Praying Mantids. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 43–49. ISBN 978-0-8018-6174-1.
  3. ^ Hurd, I. E. (1999). "Mantid in Ecological Research". In Prete, Fredrick R.; Wells, Harrington; Wells, Patrick H.; Hurd, Lawrence E. (eds.). The Praying Mantids. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-8018-6174-1.
  4. ^ a b Costa, James (2006). The Other Insect Societies. Harvard University Press. pp. 135–136. ISBN 978-0-674-02163-1.
  5. ^ a b c Capinera, John L. (2008). Encyclopedia of Entomology. Vol. 4. Springer. pp. 3033–3037. ISBN 978-1-4020-6242-1.
  6. ^ Essig, Edward Oliver (1947). College entomology. Macmillan Company. pp. 124, 900. OCLC 809878.
  7. ^ Harper, Douglas. "mantis". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  8. ^ Bullock, William (1812). A companion to the London Museum and Pantherion (12th ed.).
  9. ^ Partington, Charles Frederick (1837). The British Cyclopædia of Natural History. Vol. 1. W. S. Orr.
  10. ^ a b "Praying Mantis". National Geographic Society. 10 September 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  11. ^ Bragg, P. E. (1996). "Mantis, Mantid, Mantids, Mantises". Mantis Study Group Newsletter, 1:4.
  12. ^ a b Ehrmann, R. 2002. Mantodea: Gottesanbeterinnen der Welt. Natur und Tier, Münster.
  13. ^ Beier, M. (1968). "Ordnung Mantodea (Fangheuschrecken)". Handbuch der Zoologie. 4 (2): 3–12.
  14. ^ Klass, Klaus-Dieter (1997). The external male genitalia and phylogeny of Blattaria and Mantodea. Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut. ISBN 978-3-925382-45-1.
  15. ^ a b c d Martill, David M.; Bechly, Günter; Loveridge, Robert F. (2007). The Crato Fossil Beds of Brazil: Window into an Ancient World. Cambridge University Press. pp. 236–238. ISBN 978-1-139-46776-6.
  16. ^ a b Schwarz CJ, Roy R (2019) The systematics of Mantodea revisited: an updated classification incorporating multiple data sources (Insecta: Dictyoptera) Annales de la Société entomologique de France (N.S.) International Journal of Entomology 55 [2]: 101–196.
  17. ^ Grimaldi, David (28 July 2003). "A Revision of Cretaceous Mantises and Their Relationships, Including New Taxa (Insecta: Dictyoptera: Mantodea)". American Museum Novitates (3412): 1–47. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2003)4122.0.CO;2. hdl:2246/2838.
  18. ^ Ryall, Julian (25 April 2008). "Ancient Praying Mantis Found in Amber". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  19. ^ Boyden, Thomas C. (1983). "Mimicry, predation and potential pollination by the mantispid, Climaciella brunnea var. instabilis (Say) (Mantispidae: Neuroptera)". Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 91 (4): 508–511. JSTOR 25009393.
  20. ^ a b c d e Roy, Roger (1999). "Morphology and Taxonomy". In Prete, Fredrick R.; Wells, Harrington; Wells, Patrick H.; Hurd, Lawrence E. (eds.). The Praying Mantids. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 21–33. ISBN 978-0-8018-6174-1.
  21. ^ a b Siwanowicz, Igor (2009). Animals Up Close. Dorling Kindersley. pp. 38–39. ISBN -978-1-405-33731-1.
  22. ^ Yager, David; Svenson, Gavin (1 July 2008). "Patterns of praying mantis auditory system evolution based on morphological, molecular, neurophysiological, and behavioural data". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Oxford University Press. 94 (3): 541–568. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2008.00996.x.
  23. ^ a b Corrette, Brian J. (1990). "Prey capture in the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia sinensis: coordination of the capture sequence and strike movements" (PDF). Journal of Experimental Biology. 148: 147–180. doi:10.1242/jeb.148.1.147. PMID 2407798.
  24. ^ Kemper, William T. "Insect Order ID: Mantodea (Praying Mantises, Mantids)" (PDF). Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  25. ^ Nityananda, Vivek; Tarawneh, Ghaith; Rosner, Ronny; Nicolas, Judith; Crichton, Stuart; Read, Jenny (2016). "Insect stereopsis demonstrated using a 3D insect cinema". Scientific Reports. 6: 18718. Bibcode:2016NatSR...618718N. doi:10.1038/srep18718. PMC 4703989. PMID 26740144.
  26. ^ Rossel, S (1983). "Binocular stereopsis in an insect". Nature. 302 (5911): 821–822. Bibcode:1983Natur.302..821R. doi:10.1038/302821a0. S2CID 4264254.
  27. ^ Rossel, S (1996). "Binocular vision in insects: How mantids solve the correspondence problem". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 93 (23): 13229–13232. Bibcode:1996PNAS...9313229R. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.23.13229. PMC 24075. PMID 11038523.
  28. ^ Simmons, Peter J.; Young, David (1999). Nerve Cells and Animal Behaviour. Cambridge University Press. p. 8990. ISBN 978-0-521-62726-9.
  29. ^ Howard, Ian P.; Rogers, Brian J. (1995). Binocular Vision and Stereopsis. Oxford University Press. p. 646. ISBN 978-0-19-508476-4.
  30. ^ Zeil, Jochen; Al-Mutairi, Maha M. (1996). "Variations in the optical properties of the compound eyes of Uca lactea annulipes" (PDF). The Journal of Experimental Biology. 199 (7): 1569–1577. doi:10.1242/jeb.199.7.1569. PMID 9319471.
  31. ^ Bragg, P.E. (2010). "A review of the Liturgusidae of Borneo (Insecta: Mantodea)". Sepilok Bulletin. 12: 21–36.
  32. ^ Yager, David (1999). "Hearing". In Prete, Fredrick R.; Wells, Harrington; Wells, Patrick H.; Hurd, Lawrence E. (eds.). The Praying Mantids. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 101–103. ISBN 978-0-8018-6174-1.
  33. ^ Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael, S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-521-82149-0.
  34. ^ Ross, Edward S. (February 1984). "Mantids – The Praying Predators". National Geographic. 165 (2): 268–280. ISSN 0027-9358. OCLC 643483454.
  35. ^ Capinera, John L. (2008). Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer. p. 1509. ISBN 978-1-4020-6242-1.
  36. ^ Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-521-82149-0.
  37. ^ Nyffeler, Martin; Maxwell, Michael R.; Remsen, J. V., Jr. (2017). "Bird predation by praying mantises: a global perspective". The Wilson Journal of Ornithology. 129 (2): 331–344. doi:10.1676/16-100.1. S2CID 90832425.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  38. ^ Battison, Roberto; et al. (2018). "The fishing mantid: predation on fish as a new adaptive strategy for praying mantids (Insecta: Mantodea)". Journal of Orthoptera Research. 27 (2): 155–158. doi:10.3897/jor.27.28067.
  39. ^ Gelperin, Alan (July 1968). "Feeding behaviour of the praying mantis: a learned modification". Nature. 219 (5152): 399–400. Bibcode:1968Natur.219..399G. doi:10.1038/219399a0. PMID 5667084. S2CID 10951932.
  40. ^ Prete, F. R.; Cleal, K. S. (1996). "The predatory strike of free ranging praying mantises, Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister). I: Strikes in the mid-sagittal plane". Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 48 (4): 173–190. doi:10.1159/000113196. PMID 8886389.
  41. ^ Capinera, John L. (2008). Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-4020-6242-1.
  42. ^ Beckman, Noelle; Hurd, Lawrence E. (2003). "Pollen feeding and fitness in praying mantids: the vegetarian side of a tritrophic predator". Environmental Entomology. 32 (4): 881–885. doi:10.1603/0046-225X-32.4.881.
  43. ^ Iyer, Geetha (13 August 2011). "Down to earth". Frontline Magazine. 28 (17).
  44. ^ Jean-Henri Fabre (1921). More Hunting Wasps. Dodd, Mead.
  45. ^ Gullan, P. J.; Cranston, P. S. (2010). The Insects: An Outline of Entomology (4th ed.). Wiley. p. 370. ISBN 978-1-118-84616-2.
  46. ^ a b c Edmunds, Malcolm; Brunner, Dani (1999). "Ethology of Defenses against Predators". In Prete, Fredrick R.; Wells, Harrington; Wells, Patrick H.; Hurd, Lawrence E. (eds.). The Praying Mantids. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 282–293. ISBN 978-0-8018-6174-1.
  47. ^ Cott, Hugh (1940). Adaptive Coloration in Animals. Methuen. pp. 392–393.
  48. ^ Annandale, Nelson (1900). "Observations on the habits and natural surroundings of insects made during the 'Skeat Expedition' to the Malay Peninsula, 1899–1900". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 69: 862–865.
  49. ^ O'Hanlon, James C.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E. (2014). "Pollinator deception in the orchid mantis". The American Naturalist. 183 (1): 126–132. doi:10.1086/673858. PMID 24334741. S2CID 2228423.
  50. ^ Yager, D.; May, M. (1993). "Coming in on a wing and an ear". Natural History. 102 (1): 28–33.
  51. ^ "Praying Mantis Uses Ultrasonic Hearing to Dodge Bats". National Geographic Society. 19 November 2002. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  52. ^ O'Dea, J. D. (1991). "Eine zusatzliche oder alternative Funktion der 'kryptischen' Schaukelbewegung bei Gottesanbeterinnen und Stabschrecken (Mantodea, Phasmatodea)". Entomologische Zeitschrift. 101 (1–2): 25–27.
  53. ^ Nelson, Ximena J.; Jackson, Robert R. (2006). "Innate aversion to ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and ant mimics: experimental findings from mantises (Mantodea)". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 88 (1): 23–32. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2006.00598.x.
  54. ^ a b c Ene, J. C. (1964). "The distribution and post-embryonic development of Tarachodes afzelli (Stal) (Mantodea : Eremiaphilidae)". Journal of Natural History. 7 (80): 493–511. doi:10.1080/00222936408651488.
  55. ^ a b Michael, Maxwell. R. (1999). "Mating Behavior". In Prete, Fredrick R.; Wells, Harrington; Wells, Patrick H.; Hurd, Lawrence E. (eds.). The Praying Mantids. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-8018-6174-1.
  56. ^ Bragg, P.E. (1987) A case of parthenogenesis in a mantis. Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society, 46 (356): 160.
  57. ^ Bragg, P. E. (December 1989). "Parthenogenetic mantid named". Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society. Mantis Study Group. 48 (367): 242. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  58. ^ Dickie, S. (1996) Parthenogenesis in mantids. Mantis Study Group Newsletter, 1: 5.
  59. ^ Lawrence, S. E. (1992). "Sexual cannibalism in the praying mantid, Mantis religiosa: a field study". Animal Behaviour. 43 (4): 569–583. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(05)81017-6. S2CID 53199427.
  60. ^ a b Hurd, L. E.; Eisenberg, R. M.; Fagan, W. F.; Tilmon, K. J.; Snyder, W. E.; Vandersall, K. S.; Datz, S. G.; Welch, J. D. (1994). "Cannibalism reverses male-biased sex ratio in adult mantids: female strategy against food limitation?". Oikos. 69 (2): 193–198. doi:10.2307/3546137. JSTOR 3546137.
  61. ^ Maxwell, Michael R. (1998). "Lifetime mating opportunities and male mating behaviour in sexually cannibalistic praying mantids". Animal Behaviour. 55 (4): 1011–1028. doi:10.1006/anbe.1997.0671. PMID 9632486. S2CID 26887566.
  62. ^ Wilder, Shawn M.; Rypstra, Ann L.; Elgar, Mark A. (2009). "The importance of ecological and phylogenetic conditions for the occurrence and frequency of sexual cannibalism". Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 40: 21–39. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.110308.120238.
  63. ^ "Do Female Praying Mantises Always Eat the Males?". Entomology Today. 22 December 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  64. ^ Liske, E.; Davis, W. J. (1984). "Sexual behaviour of the Chinese praying mantis". Animal Behaviour. 32 (3): 916–918. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(84)80170-0. S2CID 53144893.
  65. ^ a b Lelito, Jonathan P.; Brown, William D. (2006). "Complicity or conflict over sexual cannibalism? Male risk taking in the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia sinensis". The American Naturalist. 168 (2): 263–269. doi:10.1086/505757. PMID 16874635. S2CID 32185318.
  66. ^ Liske, E.; Davis, W. J. (1987). "Courtship and mating behaviour of the Chinese praying mantis, Tenodera aridifolia sinenesis". Animal Behaviour. 35 (5): 1524–1537. doi:10.1016/s0003-3472(87)80024-6. S2CID 53191218.
  67. ^ Maxwell, Michael R.; Gallego, Kevin M.; Barry, Katherine L. (2010). "Effects of female feeding regime in a sexually cannibalistic mantid: fecundity, cannibalism, and male response in Stagmomantis limbata (Mantodea)". Ecological Entomology. 35 (6): 775–787. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.2010.01239.x. S2CID 85923330.
  68. ^ Prokop, P; Václav, R (2005). "Males Respond to the Risk of Sperm Competition in the Sexually Cannibalistic Praying Mantis, Mantis religiosa". Ethology. 111 (9): 836–848. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.2005.01113.x.
  69. ^ Bodson, Liliane (2014). Campbell, Gordon Lindsay (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. pp. 557–558. ISBN 978-0-19-958942-5.
  70. ^ "Entomomancy". Occultopedia. California Astrology Association. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  71. ^ Erasmus, Desiderius; Fantazzi, Charles (1992). Adages: Iivii1 to Iiiiii100. University of Toronto Press. pp. 334–335. ISBN 978-0-8020-2831-0.
  72. ^ a b McCafferty, Geoffrey; McCafferty, Sharisse (1 April 2020). "Praying to the Predator: Symbols of Insect Animism on Luna/El Menco Polychrome from Pre-Columbian Pacific Nicaragua". Latin American and Latinx Visual Culture. 2 (2): 28–46. doi:10.1525/lavc.2020.220004. S2CID 225959388.
  73. ^ a b Prete, Frederick R.; Wells, Harrington & Wells, Patrick H. (1999). "The Predatory Behavior of Mantids: Historical Attitudes and Contemporary Questions". In Prete, Fredrick R.; Wells, Harrington; Wells, Patrick H. & Hurd, Lawrence E. (eds.). The Praying Mantids. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 3–8. ISBN 978-0-8018-6174-1.
  74. ^ Durrell, Gerald (2006) [1956]. My Family and Other Animals. Penguin Books. pp. 204–208. ISBN 978-0-14-193609-3.
  75. ^ Emmer, Michele; Schattschneider, Doris (2007). M.C. Escher's Legacy: A Centennial Celebration. Springer. p. 66. ISBN 978-3-540-28849-7.
  76. ^ Wade, Lisa (29 November 2010). "Shoddy Research and Cultural Tropes: The Praying Mantis". The Society Pages. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  77. ^ "Praying Mantises Cartoons and Comics". CartoonStock. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  78. ^ Parisi, Mark. "Praying Mantis Cartoons". Off the Mark. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  79. ^ McCracken, T. "Praying Mantis Should Be Gay". McHumor Cartoons. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  80. ^ Rossellini, Isabella (2008). "Green Porno". Sundance Channel. Archived from the original on 15 December 2021. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  81. ^ Rossellini, Isabella (2009). "Green Porno: a series of short films by Isabella Rossellini" (Press Kit). Sundance Channel. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  82. ^ "History of Praying Mantis Kung Fu". Praying Mantis Kung Fu Academy. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  83. ^ a b c Hagood, Roger D. (2012). 18 Buddha Hands: Southern Praying Mantis Kung Fu. Southern Mantis Press. ISBN 978-0-9857240-1-6.
  84. ^ a b Funk, Jon. "Praying Mantis Kung Fu". Praying Mantis Kung Fu. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  85. ^ Barnes, Bryan. "Northern Praying Mantis Kung Fu". Shantung Northern Praying Mantis Kung Fu. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  86. ^ Orum, Pete. "Chow Gar". Southern Mantis Kung Fu. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  87. ^ "Insek-kaleidoskoop: Die 'skynheilige' hottentotsgot". Mieliestronk.com. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  88. ^ "Siyabona Africa: Kruger National Park: San". Siyabona Africa. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  89. ^ "Mantid". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  90. ^ "Pet bugs: Kentucky arthropods". University of Kentucky. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  91. ^ Van Zomeren, Linda (16 March 2011). "European Mantis". Keeping Insects. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  92. ^ Breeding Reports: 1st July 2013–1st October 2013 (PDF). UK Mantis Forums Newsletter (Newsletter). UK Mantis Forums. October 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  93. ^ Bragg, P.E. [editor] (1996) Species in culture. Mantis Study Group Newsletter, 1: 2–3.
  94. ^ a b Buckley, Jamie (17 October 2009). "Pet of the week: The giant Asian praying mantis". The Independent. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  95. ^ a b Bender, Steve (30 August 2015). "Pet Your Praying Mantis". The Daily South. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  96. ^ Zhang, Wei; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Kremen, Claire; Carney, Karen; Swinton, Scott M. (2007). "Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture". Ecological Economics. International Society for Ecological Economics (Elsevier). 64 (2): 253–260. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.02.024. ISSN 0921-8009. S2CID 32112906.
  97. ^ a b c Doutt, R. L. "The Praying Mantis (Leaflet 21019)" (PDF). University of California Division of Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  98. ^ "Praying and Chinese Mantises". New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  99. ^ Cardona, Ramon; Touretzky, David. "Leg Design for a Praying Mantis Robot". Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Mantis: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Mantises are an order (Mantodea) of insects that contains over 2,400 species in about 460 genera in 33 families. The largest family is the Mantidae ("mantids"). Mantises are distributed worldwide in temperate and tropical habitats. They have triangular heads with bulging eyes supported on flexible necks. Their elongated bodies may or may not have wings, but all Mantodea have forelegs that are greatly enlarged and adapted for catching and gripping prey; their upright posture, while remaining stationary with forearms folded, has led to the common name praying mantis.

The closest relatives of mantises are termites and cockroaches (Blattodea), which are all within the superorder Dictyoptera. Mantises are sometimes confused with stick insects (Phasmatodea), other elongated insects such as grasshoppers (Orthoptera), or other unrelated insects with raptorial forelegs such as mantisflies (Mantispidae). Mantises are mostly ambush predators, but a few ground-dwelling species are found actively pursuing their prey. They normally live for about a year. In cooler climates, the adults lay eggs in autumn, then die. The eggs are protected by their hard capsules and hatch in the spring. Females sometimes practice sexual cannibalism, eating their mates after copulation.

Mantises were considered to have supernatural powers by early civilizations, including Ancient Greece, Ancient Egypt, and Assyria. A cultural trope popular in cartoons imagines the female mantis as a femme fatale. Mantises are among the insects most commonly kept as pets.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Mantodea

provided by wikipedia FR

Mantoptère

Les mantoptères (Mantodea) sont un ordre d'insectes qui contient 15 familles, 430 genres et plus de 2 400 espèces[1]. Les membres de cet ordre se retrouvent dans les régions tempérées et tropicales. La plupart des espèces font partie de la famille des Mantidae.

Créé par les classifications phylogénétiques récentes, il constitue, avec l'ordre des blattoptères (Blattodea), le super-ordre des Polyneoptera.

Systématique

L'ordre des Mantodea a été décrit par l'entomologiste argentin Hermann Burmeister en 1838.

Le nom « mante » provient du grec μάντις (mantis) « prophétesse, devineresse » qui désignait déjà cet insecte du temps de Théocrite. C'est sans doute son attitude hiératique qui a donné ce nom à cet insecte, la tradition chrétienne ayant ajouté au nom mante l'adjectif « religieuse » caractérisant sa position d'attente semblable à un moine en prière.

Anatomie

Chez les Mantodea, la tête est de forme triangulaire et les yeux sont largement espacés. Ces derniers sont dominants et ils offrent un large champ de vision. Chez certaines espèces, ils peuvent être composés d'un nombre allant jusqu'à 10 000 ommatidies. Ils ont une bonne vision de près et peuvent détailler les objets jusqu'à 20 mètres. La tache sombre sur l'œil se nomme pseudopupille. Les pièces buccales sont de type broyeur et elles se retrouvent à l'avant de la tête. Chez certaines espèces, la tête est capable de tourner sur près de 180 degrés[2].

Les mantes possèdent des pattes préhensibles ravisseuses ou raptoriales. Elles s'en servent pour capturer et maintenir leur proie. Le fémur et le tibia sont pourvus d'épines précédées de tubercules semblables à des dents. Les pattes antérieures possèdent un tarse délicat segmenté en quatre ou cinq segments et qui se termine avec deux griffes.

Le thorax de la mante se compose du prothorax, du mésothorax et du métathorax. À l'exception du genre Mantoida, tous les Mantodea ont un prothorax plus allongé que les deux autres segments thoraciques. Le prothorax est également très flexible et permet une grande liberté de mouvement à la tête et aux pattes antérieures.

 src=
Ailes déployées chez Choeradodis stalii

Au sein de l'ordre, la longueur des ailes est très variable. Les ailes sont composées de deux ensembles : les ailes antérieures et postérieures. Les antérieures sont généralement droites, opaques et coriaces. Elles permettent le camouflage par leur coloration et leur texture et elles protègent les ailes postérieures. Ces dernières sont plus larges, plus délicates et transparentes. Elles sont les principales responsables du vol, lorsqu'elles en sont capables. Les ailes peuvent également servir à impressionner les femelles ou à effrayer les prédateurs. La plupart des femelles sont trop lourdes pour voler[2].

Chez les mantes, l'abdomen se compose de dix tergites (segments dorsaux) et de neuf sternites (segments ventraux) visibles chez le mâle et de sept chez la femelle. Les abdomens du mâle et de la femelle ont des formes différentes. Chez le mâle, il est fin et délicat tandis que chez la femelle il est épais et plus lourd. Celui-ci contient les organes nécessaires à la fabrication de l'oothèque. L'abdomen des deux sexes se termine par une paire de cerques.

Reproduction et développement

Cannibalisme

 src=
Cannibalisme chez Tenodera aridifolia.

Le cannibalisme sexuel est fréquent chez un grand nombre d'espèces de mantes. Ce comportement a été observé en captivité et dans la nature. En général, la femelle débute par la tête du mâle, comme elle le fait avec une proie régulière. Dans certains cas, le mâle peut devenir encore plus vigoureux et cela provoque un meilleur transfert du sperme à l'intérieur de la femelle.

La raison du cannibalisme sexuel a longtemps été débattue et certains pensent qu'il s'agit du résultat de la sélection naturelle. Il semblerait que les mâles qui se font dévorer ont un accouplement beaucoup plus long et améliorent ainsi leurs chances de féconder les œufs. Une autre étude semble démontrer que les mâles craignent les femelles affamées. En les évitant, ils ont la possibilité de s'accoupler avec plus de femelles. Il semblerait que les femelles affamées attireraient moins de mâles que les femelles bien nourries[3]. C'est à la fin de l'accouplement, lors de la séparation des pièces génitales, que le mâle est plus enclin à devenir la victime du cannibalisme. L'augmentation de la durée de l'accouplement a peut-être été influencée par le fait que les mâles attendraient un moment plus opportun pour se retirer.

Accouplement et ponte

Dans les climats tempérés, la période de reproduction commence généralement à la fin de l'été. Lorsqu'un mâle trouve une femelle réceptive, il grimpe sur son dos et agrippe les ailes et le thorax de celle-ci avec ses pattes antérieures. Il cambre alors son abdomen pour le connecter avec le bout de celui de la femelle. Le sperme est ensuite transféré dans une chambre spéciale appelée spermathèque.

 src=
Oothèque de Mantodea
 src=
Sphodromantis lineola en pleine mue

Selon les espèces, la femelle pond entre 10 et 400 œufs[4]. Ceux-ci sont déposés dans une masse mousseuse qui est produite par des glandes spécialisées positionnées dans l'abdomen. Cette mousse durcit et devient une capsule protectrice. L'ensemble (la capsule et les œufs) est appelé une oothèque. Certaines mantes fixent l'oothèque sur une surface plane, l'enroulent autour d'une plante ou même le déposent directement sur le sol. Chez certaines espèces, la femelle garde l'oothèque pour améliorer les chances de survie de sa progéniture[5]. Plusieurs oothèques peuvent être pondues par la même femelle allant jusqu'à une douzaine dans certains cas (surtout en captivité).

Développement et longévité

Les membres de cet ordre ont un développement hémimétabole qui se déroule en trois étapes principales : l'œuf, la nymphe et l'adulte. La nymphe est relativement similaire à l'adulte. Elle est cependant plus petite, ses ailes ne sont pas développées et ses organes sexuels ne sont pas encore à maturité. Dans certaines cas, elles ont une coloration différente des adultes. Au cours de sa croissance, la nymphe augmente en taille et mue entre cinq et 10 fois[4]. Elle ressemblera de plus en plus à l'adulte et c'est à la dernière mue, que les ailes finissent par se déployer complètement (chez les espèces à longues ailes).

Chez certaines espèces tropicales, la longévité est d'environ 10 à 12 mois à l'état sauvage et parfois plus de 14 mois en captivité. Dans les régions tempérées, les mantes adultes meurent lorsque les températures baissent à l'approche de l'hiver. L'oothèque passera l'hiver sous la couche de neige et les petits émergeront au printemps suivant.

Écologie et comportements

Alimentation

 src=
Tenodera sinensis qui s'alimente d'un grillon

La plupart des mantes sont exclusivement des prédatrices généralistes. Elles se nourrissent d'autres insectes et la composition de leur régime alimentaire varie avec l'âge. Chez la nymphe de premier stade, l'alimentation se compose de petits diptères et d'autres minuscules invertébrés. Le cannibalisme entre frères et sœurs est très fréquent à ce stade[4]. Au cours de la croissance, la taille des proies augmente. Au dernier stade, le régime alimentaire se compose essentiellement d'insectes (criquets, sauterelles, chenilles, papillons, punaises, blattes, mouches, coléoptères adultes, abeilles, guêpes, etc.)[4] ou d'autres petits arthropodes, mais les grandes espèces peuvent s'attaquer à de petits scorpions, des centipèdes, des araignées, des lézards[6], des grenouilles[7], des souris[7] et même des oiseaux[8].

Dans la littérature, on retrouve quelques cas de mantes qui s'alimentent également de pollen. Il semblerait que cet apport leur permet d'améliorer leur survie, leur croissance et leur fécondité. En laboratoire, les nymphes de premier stade qui étaient alimentées avec du pollen juste après l'éclosion avaient plus de chances de survie en l'absence de proie. De plus, les adultes qui se nourrissent d'insectes chargés de pollen auraient une meilleure fécondité[9].

Comportement de chasse

Mantis religiosa en alimentation

La majorité des mantes sont des prédatrices embusquées mais certaines espèces terrestres et arboricoles poursuivent activement leurs proies. Par exemple, les mantes des genres Entella, Ligaria et Ligariellea courent sur le sol sec à la recherche de proie, un peu comme le font les cicindèles.

Chez les espèces embusquées, les mantes se camouflent et passent de longues périodes debout et parfaitement immobiles. Elles attendent patiemment que leur proie soit à leur portée et lorsque c'est le cas, elles déploient rapidement leurs pattes ravisseuses sur elle. La vitesse d'attaque peut être remarquable et elle est variable d'une espèce à l'autre. La mante tient habituellement sa proie avec l'une de ses pattes ravisseuses entre la tête et le thorax et l'autre sur l'abdomen. Ensuite, si la proie ne résiste pas, la mante la dévore vivante. Elle la mastique à l'aide de ces pièces buccales du type broyeur.

Défense et camouflage

 src=
Position de défense chez une femelle d'Iris oratoria

En cas de confrontation directe, certaines espèces se dressent, se balancent de gauche à droite, lèvent leurs pattes ravisseuses et créent un éventail avec leurs ailes. Cette position rend la mante plus large et elle semble beaucoup plus menaçante. De plus, dans le but d'impressionner davantage, certaines espèces ont même des couleurs vives et des motifs sur leurs ailes postérieures, sur l'abdomen, sur la face intérieure des pattes avant et sur certaines des pièces buccales. Pour ajouter, ces mantes peuvent également régurgiter un fluide foncé ou produire un sifflement en expulsant l'air de leurs stigmates abdominales. Si le harcèlement persiste, la mante peut frapper avec ses pattes avant et tenter de pincer ou mordre[4].

Certaines espèces nocturnes peuvent détecter l'écholocation produite par les chauves-souris par un organe récepteur situé sur leur thorax, appelé «oreille cyclopéenne»[10]. Ces espèces changent leur comportement de vol à l'approche du prédateur potentiel. Elles cessent donc de voler horizontalement et commencer à amorcer une spirale descendantes vers la sécurité du sol, souvent précédée par une boucle aérienne ou une vrille[11],[12].

Les mantes, comme les phasmes, bougent leur corps de manière rythmée pour mieux se fondre dans la végétation qui bouge au gré du vent. La plupart d'entre elles font usage de leur coloration pour se fondre dans le feuillage ou le substrat. Certaines imitent à la perfection une feuille vivante ou flétrie, une branche, l'écorce d'un arbre, certaines fleurs et même la texture des pierres.

Territorialité

Certaines espèces de mantes deviennent territoriales durant la période de reproduction. Dans les cas documentés, les protagonistes se mettent face à face et en position de défense. Elles peuvent garder cette position pendant plusieurs minutes, jusqu'à ce qu'une d'elles décide de s'éloigner. Dans certains cas, elles passent à l'affrontement[13].

Régénération

Les mantes sont capables de régénérer des appendices perdus (pattes, antennes et cerques). Lorsque la perte se produit dans les premiers stades, l'appendice régénéré pourra atteindre pratiquement la même taille que les autres à l'âge adulte. De plus, chez la patte régénérée le tarse sera composé de quatre articles au lieu de cinq. Si la perte se produit à un stade de croissance plus avancé, l'appendice aura une différence de grosseur par rapport aux membres initiaux[4]. La régénérescence des appendices se produit au moment de la mue; une patte perdue à l'âge adulte ne repoussera donc pas.

Ennemis naturels

 src=
Lézard dévorant une mante

Les mantes font partie de l'alimentation de plusieurs espèces animales qui partagent leurs habitats. On retrouve également des cas de prédation d'oothèque par des larves de dermeste[14], des grillons, des fourmis[15] et des oiseaux. Les adultes et les nymphes sont également des prises pour plusieurs espèces d'animaux insectivores.

Parasitisme

L'oothèque n'est pas infaillible, il peut être proie au parasitisme par de petites guêpes[16]. Les nymphes et les mantes adultes peuvent également se faire parasiter par des hyménoptères ou des mouches (Tachinidae ou certaines Sarcophagidae) parasitoïdes. Par exemple, l'entomologiste Brennan a décrit deux morts en captivité Orthodera novaezealandiae après leur avoir donné des mouches de l'espèce Sarcophaga crassipalpis[17]. Dans les deux cas, des œufs ou des larves de la mouche ont survécu à l'ingestion et ont continué à se développer, dévorant les mantes vivantes.

Plusieurs espèces de mantes sont parasitées par des Nématodes Mermithidae et des Nématomorphes.

Classification

Liste de familles selon NCBI (2 avr. 2012)[18] et Catalogue of Life (2 avr. 2012)[19]

Position au sein des insectes

Espèces introduites

En Amérique du Nord, plus de 20 espèces sont indigènes aux États-Unis[20] et une seule, Litaneutria minor est indigène au Canada[21]. Deux espèces (la mante chinoise et la mante religieuse) ont été délibérément introduites pour servir d'agent de lutte en agriculture. Les espèces Tenodera angustipennis, Tenodera aridifolia et Iris oratoria ont toutes trois été accidentellement introduites aux États-Unis[22].

On retrouve une forte demande pour les espèces de mantes d'Asie, d'Afrique et d'Amérique du Sud dans les commerces d'animaux exotiques. De nombreuses espèces sont élevées en captivité à cette fin.

Références culturelles et mythologie

L'une des premières références de mante se retrouve dans l'ancien dictionnaire chinois Erya. Il décrit les attributs (le courage et l'intrépidité) de celle-ci dans des poèmes avec une brève description de l'insecte. En 1108, un texte par Jingshi Zhenglei Daguan Bencao 經史證類大觀本草 décrit correctement la ponte de l'oothèque, le cycle de développement, l'anatomie et la fonction des antennes. En Occident, la description de la biologie et de la morphologie des mantes est devenue relativement précise au XVIIIe siècle. Roesel von Rosenhof les a illustrées avec précision et les a décrites dans le insekten-Belustigungen.

Deux types d'arts martiaux chinois ont développé des mouvements et des stratégies de lutte fondées sur la mante (voir article : Mante religieuse (art martial)). L'un de ces arts a été développé dans le Nord de la Chine et l'autre dans le Sud du pays. Ils sont appelés « mante religieuse du Nord » et « mante religieuse du Sud ». Les deux arts sont très populaires en Chine et ils ont été importés dans d'autres pays.

La mythologie indigène d'Afrique australe se réfère à la mante comme un dieu dans les mythes de Khoi et San[23]. Le mot pour la mante en Afrikaans est hottentotsgot qui signifie « dieu de la Khoi»[24],[25].

Notes et références

  • (en) Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu de l’article de Wikipédia en anglais intitulé .
  1. Otte, Daniel; Spearman, Lauren. "Mantodea Species File Online". Retrieved 2012-07-17.
  2. a et b Prête, Fredrick R. (1999). The praying mantids. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University. pp. 27–29,101–103. (ISBN 0-8018-6174-8).
  3. (en) Maxwell, Michael R.; Gallego, Kevin M.; Barry, Katherine L. (2010). "Effects of female feeding regime in a sexually cannibalistic mantid: Fecundity, cannibalism, and male response in Stagmomantis limbata (Mantodea)". Ecological Entomology 35 (6): 775–87. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.2010.01239.x.
  4. a b c d e et f (en) Ramsay G. W., Mantodea (insecta), with a review of aspects of functional morphology and biology, New Zealand, Fauna of new Zealand no. 19, 1990
  5. (en) Ene, J. C., « The Distribution and Post-Embyonic Development of Tarachodes afzelii (Stal) (Mantodea: Eremiaphilidae) », Journal of Natural History Series, no 13,‎ 1964, p. 453-511 (lire en ligne)
  6. Burmeister, Η.1838: Kaukerfe: Gymnognatha (erste Halfte; vulgo Orthoptera). p. 235-756 in Handbuch der Entomologie vol. 2(2). Berlin, T.C.F. Enslin. xii+1050 p
  7. a et b Bromley, S. W. 1932: Observations on the Chinese mantid Paratenodera sinensis Saussure. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 27(4): 196-201.
  8. Browne, C. A. R. 1899: A bird killed by a mantis. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 12: 578-579.
  9. Beckman, N., and Hurd, L. E. Pollen Feeding and fitness in praying mantids: The vegetarian side of a tritrophic predator.Environ. Entomol. num. 32, 881-885
  10. Yager, D. D.; Hoy, R. R. 1986: « The cyclopean ear: a new sense for the praying mantis ». Science 221(4739): 727-729.
  11. Yager, D; May, M (1993). "Coming in on a wing and an ear". Natural history 102 (1): 28–33.
  12. "Praying Mantis Uses Ultrasonic Hearing to Dodge Bats". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
  13. MacKinnon, J. 1970: Indications of territoriality in mantids. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 27: 150-155.
  14. Kershaw, J. C. 1910: The formation of the ootheca of a Chinese mantis, Hierodula saussurii. Psyche (Boston) 17(4): 136-141.
  15. Rivard, I. 1965: Recherches sur les prédateurs des insectes à l'Institut de Recherches, Belleville, Ontario. Phytoprotection 46 (3): 135-146
  16. (en) Sureshan P. M., « Podragrion Scylla Fernando (Hymenoptera : Chalcidoidea : Torymidae) Parasitic on ootheca of Hierodula so. (Mantodea : Insecta) first record from India », rec. zool. surv. india, no 98,‎ 2000, p. 127-130 (lire en ligne)
  17. Brennan, P. 1987: Death of a mantid by its own prey. The'weta 10(1): 31.
  18. NCBI, consulté le 2 avr. 2012
  19. Bánki, O., Roskov, Y., Vandepitte, L., DeWalt, R. E., Remsen, D., Schalk, P., Orrell, T., Keping, M., Miller, J., Aalbu, R., Adlard, R., Adriaenssens, E., Aedo, C., Aescht, E., Akkari, N., Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A., Alvarez, B., Alvarez, F., Anderson, G., et al. (2021). Catalogue of Life Checklist (Version 2021-10-18). Catalogue of Life. https://doi.org/10.48580/d4t2, consulté le 2 avr. 2012
  20. (en) Ross H. Arnett, American insects : a handbook of the insects of America north of Mexico, Boca Raton etc., CRC Press, 2000, 1003 p. (ISBN 0-8493-0212-9, lire en ligne)
  21. (en) « Family of Mantodea of British Columbia », sur www.ibis.geog.ubc.ca (consulté le 22 janvier 2015)
  22. (en) « List of non-native arthropods in North America », sur www.bugguide.net, 30 décembre 2014 (consulté le 22 janvier 2014)
  23. "South Africa – Religion". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
  24. "Afrikaans Animal Names". sanparks.org. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
  25. "Defining Mantis". Dictionary.com. Dictionary Reference. Consulté le 25 mai 2013.

license
fr
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia FR

Mantodea: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Mantoptère

Les mantoptères (Mantodea) sont un ordre d'insectes qui contient 15 familles, 430 genres et plus de 2 400 espèces. Les membres de cet ordre se retrouvent dans les régions tempérées et tropicales. La plupart des espèces font partie de la famille des Mantidae.

Créé par les classifications phylogénétiques récentes, il constitue, avec l'ordre des blattoptères (Blattodea), le super-ordre des Polyneoptera.

license
fr
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia FR

사마귀목

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

사마귀목신시하강에 속하는 곤충 목의 하나이다. 바퀴목, 흰개미와 함께 망시류에 포함된다.[1][2][3] 한때 바퀴목(Dictyoptera)의 한 아목으로 취급되었다.[4][5] 육식 곤충 2,400여 종을 포함하고 있다. 앞다리는 먹잇감을 도망가지 못하도록 붙잡기에 알맞도록 낫 모양으로 가시가 많다. 보통 곤충을 잡아먹지만, 동족을 잡아먹기도 하고 심지어 작은 개구리도마뱀, 까지 잡아먹는다. 논에 메뚜기같은 해충을 제거하려고 농약대신 친환경적으로 논에 넣기도 한다.

생태

 src=
항라사마귀의 교미.

사마귀는 번데기 과정을 거치지 않고 어른벌레가 되는 불완전 변태를 한다. 먹이는 살아있는 거미곤충들인데, 곤충학자 앙리 파브르의 《곤충기》에 따르면 사마귀는 먹이의 종류의 구애없이 사냥하며, 목 부위를 먼저 물어뜯어 신경을 마비시킨 뒤 산 채로 잡아먹는다고 한다. 그러나 대부분은 산 채로 씹어먹는다. 사마귀는 사냥을 위해 거리를 재기 위한 3차원적 거리 재기 능력 또한 가지고 있어 곤충 중 최초로 3D 안경을 쓰고 시각을 측정하는 연구도 이루어졌는데, 사마귀 또한 3D화면을 인식할 수 있다고 한다.[6] 사냥의 속도와 정확도를 최적화 하는 방식으로 진화해 왔는데 사냥의 성공률을 높이기 위해 먹이가 회피를 시도할 경우 앞다리를 뻗는 방향을 어느정도 조절할 수 있다.[7]

가을에 짝짓기를 마친 암컷은 짝짓기 한 수컷까지 잡아먹을 정도로 활발한 먹이사냥으로 산란에 필요한 영양을 보충한 뒤, 을 낳는다. 사마귀는 알의 상태에서 겨울을 나기 때문에, 거품으로 알주머니를 만들어서 알을 보호한다. 알주머니 안에는 공기가 들어가서 추운 겨울에도 살아남을 수 있다. 이 되면 애벌레가 부화하는데, 개미, 도마뱀, 도롱뇽, 거미, 여치 등의 사마귀 애벌레 사냥으로 수가 조절된다. 애벌레 사마귀는 번데기 과정 없이 성장하는 불완전변태로 어른벌레가 되며, 유충과 성충 모두 육식성이다.

사마귀 암컷은 교미 후 수컷을 무조건 잡아먹는 것으로 악명 높은데, 이는 산란기로 말미암아 예민한 상태로 알을 키우기 위한 충분한 영양섭취를 위해 눈앞에 닥치는 대로 잡아먹는 것으로 추정된다. 하지만 모든 수컷 사마귀는 아니고 간혹 조심성 없는 수컷 사마귀가 잡아먹히는 것이며 게다가 매번 그런 것도 아니다. 수컷 사마귀는 목숨을 걸고 조심스럽게 암컷에게 접근하지 않으면 교미를 채 하기도 전에 잡아먹힐 수 있다. 짝짓기가 끝이 나면 수컷도 얼마 지나지 않아 죽는다. 시기적으로 일찍 성체가 된 암컷 사마귀가 첫번째 교미할 경우 수컷 사마귀가 잡아먹힐 확률이 크고 두번째 이후부터는 수컷이 먹힐 확률이 감소하며, 늦게 성충이 된 암컷 사마귀들은 반대로 첫번째 교미일 때 수컷 사마귀를 잡아먹을 확률이 낮고 두번째 이후부터는 포식할 확률이 높다고 한다. 계절적으로 수컷 사마귀들의 개체수가 감소하는 시기에 교미하는 경우가 많아 불필요하게 수컷을 포식하는 것을 막기 위함이라고 한다.[8]

또한 다른 곤충을 잡아먹는 육식성 곤충인 만큼 연가시의 기생률이 상당히 높은데, 사마귀에 기생하는 연가시 기생률을 알아보기 위해 2년간 49지역에서 사마귀를 채집해본결과 총 21곳(42.9%)에서 연가시에 감염된 사마귀가 발견됐다고 한다.[9]

방어와 위장

 src=
열대지방 사마귀의 위장술. 수컷 Choeradodis stalii

일반적으로, 사마귀는 숨어서 방어한다. 위협을 할 때에는 높게 서고 날개를 크게 펼치면서 앞다리를 치켜세운다. 날개를 크게 펼치고 앞다리를 치켜듬으로써, 사마귀는 자신의 몸집이 더 커 보이고 무서워 보이게 한다. 몇몇 사마귀들은 날개가 밝은 색이고, 날개에 모양이 있어서 효과가 더 큰 경우도 있다.

천적

사마귀의 대표적인 천적으로는 성충의 몸안에 기생하는 유선형동물(연가시)이 있다. 연가시류 동물은 잠자리여치 등의 먹이 곤충의 몸속에서 기생하고 있다가, 사마귀가 곤충을 잡아먹으면 그때 살 곳을 사마귀의 몸속으로 옮기는 것이다. 그렇게 사마귀에게 기생한 연가시는 사마귀 뱃속에서 양분을 빼앗으며 산다.

사마귀 몸 속에 기생하는 기생벌기생파리 따위의 곤충들도 천적이다. 그 외 사마귀 약충을 잡아먹는 포식성 여치개미깡충거미, 알집에 기생하는 사마귀꼬리좀벌사마귀수시렁이천적이다. 또한 애벌레의 먹이를 마련하기 위해 곤충을 사냥하는 검정말벌, 장수말벌 등의 말벌류나 개구리, 두꺼비 같은 양서류, 도마뱀, 카멜레온 같은 파충류, 참새, 까치, 때까치, 등 곤충을 잡아먹는 조류들도 천적이다.

인간과의 관계

사마귀의 알집은 상표초(桑螵蛸), 상표소(桑螵蛸) 라 하여 한의학에서 약재로 사용하였다.[10][11]

하위 분류

다음은 사마귀목 과의 분지도를 나타낸 것이다.

   

멸종된 속

  Eumantodea Chaeteessoidea

Chaeteessidae

  Spinomantodea Mantoidoidea

Mantoididae

  Schizomantodea Metallyticoidea

Metallyticidae

  Artimantodea Amerimantodea Thespoidea

Thespidae

  Acanthopoidea  

Angelidae

     

Coptopterygidae

     

Liturgusidae

     

Photinaidae

   

Acanthopidae

            Cernomantodea Nanomantodea Chroicopteroidea

Chroicopteridae

  Nanomantoidea  

Leptomantellidae

     

Amorphoscelidae

   

Nanomantidae

        Metamantodea   Gonypetoidea

Gonypetidae

  Lobipedia Epaphroditoidea  

Epaphroditidae

   

Majangidae

    Mantimorpha Haanioidea

Haaniidae

  Heteromantodea Eremiaphiloidea  

Rivetinidae

     

Amelidae

     

Eremiaphilidae

   

Toxoderidae

        Pareumantodea Hoplocoryphoidea

Hoplocoryphidae

  Calomantodea Miomantoidea

Miomantidae

  Promantidea Galinthiadoidea

Galinthiadidae

  Mantidea Hymenopodoidea  

Empusidae

   

애기사마귀과

    Mantoidea  

Dactylopterygidae

     

Deroplatyidae

   

사마귀과

                                   

한국의 사마귀

한국의 사마귀는 모두 2과 9종이 알려져 있다.

계통 분류

다음은 2002년 "생명의 나무 프로젝트"(The Tree of Life Web Project)에 제안된 계통 분류이다.[12]

신시류    

강도래목

   

집게벌레목

   

민벌레목

망시상목

사마귀목

   

바퀴목흰개미목

    무시귀뚜라미붙이목

대벌레붙이아목

   

귀뚜라미붙이아목

       

흰개미붙이목

   

대벌레목

    메뚜기목

여치아목

   

메뚜기아목

           

다듬이벌레목이목

   

총채벌레목

   

노린재목

     

내시상목

     

각주

  1. 박규택 (국립수목원) (2012년 5월 30일). 《한국곤충대도감》. 지오북.
  2. Bullock, William. A companion to the London Museum and Pantherion. 1812. may be downloaded from: http://archive.org/details/companiontomrbul00bull
  3. http://mantodea.speciesfile.org. “order Mantodea”.
  4. 백문기, 황정미, 정광수, 김태우, 김명철 저 (2010년 8월 20일). 《한국 곤충 총 목록, 2010》. 자연과생태. CS1 관리 - 여러 이름 (링크)
  5. http://biomania.co.kr/. “넓적배사마귀”.
  6. PRAYING MANTISES WEARING 3D GLASSES PROVE THAT THEY CAN SEE IN 3D
  7. PREY CAPTURE IN THE PRAYING MANTIS TENODERA ARIDIFOLIA SINENSIS: COORDINATION OF THE CAPTURE SEQUENCE AND MOVEMENTS
  8. Seasonal aspects of sexual cannibalism in the praying mantis(Mantis religiosa)
  9. Study on Chordodes japonensis and Chordodes fukuii (Nematomorpha: Chordodidae) Parasitism of Tenodera angustipennis and Tenodera aridifolia (Mantodea: Mantidae)
  10. 한의학대사전, 2001. 6. 15.
  11. 한약재감별도감 - 외부형태 : 2015, 외부형태, 2014. 2. 28.
  12. Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney. 2002. Strepsiptera. Twisted-wing parasites. Version 24 September 2002. [1] in The Tree of Life Web Project
license
ko
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/