dcsimg

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

provided by AnAge articles
Maximum longevity: 22.8 years (wild)
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Joao Pedro de Magalhaes
editor
de Magalhaes, J. P.
partner site
AnAge articles

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Great grets communicate through elaborate courtship rituals, and with vocalizations that are a harsh low “corr”. Much of the way these birds communicate is illustrated by their elaborate courtship dances, and territoriality. When defending their territory they may squawk harshly, leap at, or jab their beak at the intruder.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Jones, J. 2002. "Ardea alba" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ardea_alba.html
author
Jessica Jones, Western Maryland College
editor
Randall L. Morrison, Western Maryland College
author
Alaine Camfield, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Prior to the 20th century, the population of great egrets was nearly decimated by the demand for their lacey plumage for women’s hats and other fashionable garments. With great concern for the welfare of great egrets, legal restrictions were placed on the harvesting of this animal. Great egrets were placed under the protection of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act in 1918. By the mid 1900's populations of great egrets were steadily on the rise. Today, populations are doing well. However, there are still many human-induced threats to the survival of great egrets. Loss of habitat, water pollution, and various air pollutants all contribute to the dangers faced by great egrets. Hydrocarbons are especially problematic because they cause great egrets to lay thinner eggs that are more susceptible to cracking or damage before the young hatch. Mercury has been found at high levels in the feathers of numerous avian species including great egrets. The amount of mercury found depends on age, sex, geographic location, and mercury concentrations in the habitat around them including the air, soil and organisms they consume. These contaminations have also been found to negatively effect behavior, physiology, and reproduction.

US Migratory Bird Act: protected

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Jones, J. 2002. "Ardea alba" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ardea_alba.html
author
Jessica Jones, Western Maryland College
editor
Randall L. Morrison, Western Maryland College
author
Alaine Camfield, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Cycle

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Nestlings are virtually helpless and covered with a layer of long white down feathers and begin to fly at about 42 days after hatching (Illinois Department of Natural Resources [INHS] 1998).

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Jones, J. 2002. "Ardea alba" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ardea_alba.html
author
Jessica Jones, Western Maryland College
editor
Randall L. Morrison, Western Maryland College
author
Alaine Camfield, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

There are no known adverse affects of great egrets on humans.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Jones, J. 2002. "Ardea alba" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ardea_alba.html
author
Jessica Jones, Western Maryland College
editor
Randall L. Morrison, Western Maryland College
author
Alaine Camfield, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Prior to the 20th century there was great demand for the lacey plumage of great egrets for women's hats and other fashionable garments.

Positive Impacts: body parts are source of valuable material

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Jones, J. 2002. "Ardea alba" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ardea_alba.html
author
Jessica Jones, Western Maryland College
editor
Randall L. Morrison, Western Maryland College
author
Alaine Camfield, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

As predators great egrets affect the populations of their prey.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Jones, J. 2002. "Ardea alba" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ardea_alba.html
author
Jessica Jones, Western Maryland College
editor
Randall L. Morrison, Western Maryland College
author
Alaine Camfield, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Frogs, snakes, crayfish, fish, mice, crickets, aquatic insects, grasshoppers, and many other insects constitute the typical diet of a great egret. Other large wading birds have similar feeding habits and compete with great egrets for food resources.

As opportunistic predators, great egrets usually feed on smaller aquatic and terrestrial insects and vertebrates and are considered to be heterotrophs. Wading slowly through the water, they are extremely successful at striking and catching fish or insects. Studies found that, standing still, great egrets were able to ingest more prey of intermediate size than if they moved around. This suggests that their goal is not to catch the largest quantity of food, but to catch high quality food.

Animal Foods: mammals; amphibians; reptiles; fish; insects; aquatic crustaceans

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Jones, J. 2002. "Ardea alba" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ardea_alba.html
author
Jessica Jones, Western Maryland College
editor
Randall L. Morrison, Western Maryland College
author
Alaine Camfield, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Great egrets are found in the Nearctic as far south as Texas, the Gulf coast states, and Florida up the Atlantic coast to Maine and southern Canada, and west to the Great Lakes.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Jones, J. 2002. "Ardea alba" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ardea_alba.html
author
Jessica Jones, Western Maryland College
editor
Randall L. Morrison, Western Maryland College
author
Alaine Camfield, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The ideal location for great egrets is near any form of water. Streams, lakes, ponds, mud flats, saltwater and freshwater marshes are inhabited by this beautiful bird. Wooded swamps and wetlands are the preferred location for great egrets and other heron species.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial ; saltwater or marine ; freshwater

Aquatic Biomes: lakes and ponds; rivers and streams; coastal ; brackish water

Wetlands: marsh ; swamp ; bog

Other Habitat Features: riparian ; estuarine

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Jones, J. 2002. "Ardea alba" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ardea_alba.html
author
Jessica Jones, Western Maryland College
editor
Randall L. Morrison, Western Maryland College
author
Alaine Camfield, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Great egrets have a lifespan of about 15 years in the wild (22 in captivity).

Range lifespan
Status: wild:
22.8 (high) years.

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
15 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
22 years.

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
274 months.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Jones, J. 2002. "Ardea alba" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ardea_alba.html
author
Jessica Jones, Western Maryland College
editor
Randall L. Morrison, Western Maryland College
author
Alaine Camfield, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Great egrets are less then 1 meter long from bill to tail, 1 meter tall, have a wingspan of 1.5 meters, and weigh about 912 to 1140 g. On average, males are larger than females. They are completely white with a long yellow bill and dark gray legs. During flight their neck is usually in an “S” shaped curve. They are very elegant birds with plumage resembling lace.

Range mass: 912 to 1140 g.

Average length: 1 m.

Average wingspan: 1.5 m.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; ornamentation

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Jones, J. 2002. "Ardea alba" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ardea_alba.html
author
Jessica Jones, Western Maryland College
editor
Randall L. Morrison, Western Maryland College
author
Alaine Camfield, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Adult great egrets have no non-human predators and now have some legal protection against humans. However, eggs and nestlings are exposed to numerous predators including crows (family Corvidae), vultures (family Cathartidae), and raccoons (Procyon lotor, which are the most threatening).

Known Predators:

  • jays and crows (Corvidae)
  • vultures (Cathartidae)
  • raccoons (Procyon lotor)
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Jones, J. 2002. "Ardea alba" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ardea_alba.html
author
Jessica Jones, Western Maryland College
editor
Randall L. Morrison, Western Maryland College
author
Alaine Camfield, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Great egrets are seasonally monogamous animals. Male egrets are responsible for selecting a territory and performing a series of rituals in order to attract a female. Copulation occurs within the males’ territory.

Mating System: monogamous

Typically, great egret nests are built with other heron nests in a colony in wetlands and wooded swamps. Nests are a flimsy platform constructed of sticks, twigs, and stems built as high as possible. The eggs are a pale greenish blue, and are incubated by both the male and female for about 23 to 24 days. Nestlings usually fledge 2-3 weeks after hatching. With a clutch size of only 3-4 eggs, great egrets will lay replacement eggs if any of the first eggs are damaged. Great egrets are capable of reproducing after two years and raise one brood per year. The breeding season begins mid-April.

Breeding interval: Great egrets breed once per year.

Breeding season: Breeding season begins in mid-April.

Average eggs per season: 3-4.

Average time to hatching: 23-24 days.

Average fledging age: 2-3 weeks.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 2 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 2 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; oviparous

Both male and female great egrets participate in incubating and feeding the semi-altricial young. Nestlings are initially fed by regurgitation, followed by bill-grabbing, where the parent holds prey over the nestling to grab at as it eats.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; pre-fertilization; pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female)

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Jones, J. 2002. "Ardea alba" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ardea_alba.html
author
Jessica Jones, Western Maryland College
editor
Randall L. Morrison, Western Maryland College
author
Alaine Camfield, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Status in Egypt

provided by Bibliotheca Alexandrina LifeDesk

Regular passage visitor and winter visitor.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Bibliotheca Alexandrina
author
BA Cultnat
provider
Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Ardea alba

provided by DC Birds Brief Summaries

With its long, white breeding plumes, orange-yellow bill, and green facial skin, the Great Egret at the height of the breeding season is stunning to behold. Even at other times of the year, when it loses its plumes and its face and bill return to their typical dull yellow, this large, white wader is difficult to overlook. Male and female Great Egrets are similar (38 inches) at all times of the year. The Great Egret is widely distributed across warmer parts of the globe. In North America, the Great Egret breeds primarily in the southeastern United States, with smaller pockets of breeding territory in the Great Plains, the northeast, and in the west. Most of the Great Egrets in the southeast are permanent residents, but those in cooler climates migrate south for the winter, where they may be found along the coast of California, in the southwest, and in Texas. This species also breeds in Eurasia from southern Europe east to east Asia, wintering in North Africa, India, and Southeast Asia. Populations also exist in South America, Australia and New Zealand. Great Egrets live in and around small bodies of water. In summer, Great Egrets nest in colonies, called ‘rookeries,’ in trees surrounding lakes and ponds. This species utilizes similar habitats during the winter. Great Egrets mainly eat fish, but may also take crustaceans and small vertebrates (such as frogs, lizards, and mice) when the opportunity arises. Great Egrets may be best observed wading in shallow water, where they may be seen plunging their bills into the water to catch fish. It is also possible to see Great Egrets at their rookeries, especially when they return to roost at sunset, or while flying with their feet extended and their necks pulled in. Great Egrets are primarily active during the day.

Threat Status: Least Concern

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Smithsonian Institution
author
Reid Rumelt

Ardea alba

provided by EOL authors

With its long, white breeding plumes, orange-yellow bill, and green facial skin, the Great Egret at the height of the breeding season is stunning to behold. Even at other times of the year, when it loses its plumes and its face and bill return to their typical dull yellow, this large, white wader is difficult to overlook. Male and female Great Egrets are similar (38 inches) at all times of the year. The Great Egret is widely distributed across warmer parts of the globe. In North America, the Great Egret breeds primarily in the southeastern United States, with smaller pockets of breeding territory in the Great Plains, the northeast, and in the west. Most of the Great Egrets in the southeast are permanent residents, but those in cooler climates migrate south for the winter, where they may be found along the coast of California, in the southwest, and in Texas. This species also breeds in Eurasia from southern Europe east to east Asia, wintering in North Africa, India, and Southeast Asia. Populations also exist in South America, Australia and New Zealand. Great Egrets live in and around small bodies of water. In summer, Great Egrets nest in colonies, called ‘rookeries,’ in trees surrounding lakes and ponds. This species utilizes similar habitats during the winter. Great Egrets mainly eat fish, but may also take crustaceans and small vertebrates (such as frogs, lizards, and mice) when the opportunity arises. Great Egrets may be best observed wading in shallow water, where they may be seen plunging their bills into the water to catch fish. It is also possible to see Great Egrets at their rookeries, especially when they return to roost at sunset, or while flying with their feet extended and their necks pulled in. Great Egrets are primarily active during the day.

References

  • Ardea alba. Xeno-canto. Xeno-canto Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012.
  • Great White Egret (Egretta alba). The Internet Bird Collection. Lynx Edicions, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012.
  • Mccrimmon, Jr., Donald A., John C. Ogden and G. Thomas Bancroft. 2011. Great Egret (Ardea alba), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/570
  • eBird Range Map - Great Egret. eBird. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, N.d. Web. 20 July 2012.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-4.0
copyright
Smithsonian Institution
bibliographic citation
Rumelt, Reid B. Ardea alba. June-July 2012. Brief natural history summary of Ardea alba. Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
author
Robert Costello (kearins)
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Great egret

provided by wikipedia EN

The great egret (Ardea alba), also known as the common egret, large egret, or (in the Old World) great white egret[2] or great white heron[3][4][5] is a large, widely distributed egret, with four subspecies found in Asia, Africa, the Americas, and southern Europe, recently also spreading to more northern areas of Europe. Distributed across most of the tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world, it builds tree nests in colonies close to water.

Taxonomy and systematics

Like all egrets, it is a member of the heron family, Ardeidae. Traditionally classified with the storks in the Ciconiiformes, the Ardeidae are closer relatives of pelicans and belong in the Pelecaniformes, instead. The great egret — unlike the typical egrets — does not belong to the genus Egretta, but together with the great herons is today placed in Ardea. In the past, however, it was sometimes placed in Egretta or separated in a monotypic genus Casmerodius.

The Old World population is often referred to as the "great white egret". This species is sometimes confused with the great white heron of the Caribbean, which is a white morph of the closely related great blue heron.

The scientific name comes from Latin ardea, "heron", and alba, "white".[6]

Subspecies

Four subspecies are found in various parts of the world, which differ but little.[7] Differences among them include bare-part coloration in the breeding season and size. The smallest subspecies, A. a. modesta, is from Asia and Australasia and some taxonomists consider it to be a full species, the eastern great egret (Ardea modesta), but most scientists treat it as a subspecies.

Description

 src=
Adult In flight

The great egret is a large heron with all-white plumage. Standing up to 1 m (3.3 ft) tall, this species can measure 80 to 104 cm (31 to 41 in) in length and have a wingspan of 131 to 170 cm (52 to 67 in).[8][9] Body mass can range from 700 to 1,500 g (1.5 to 3.3 lb), with an average around 1,000 g (2.2 lb).[10] It is thus only slightly smaller than the great blue or grey heron (A. cinerea). Apart from size, the great egret can be distinguished from other white egrets by its yellow bill and black legs and feet, though the bill may become darker and the lower legs lighter in the breeding season. In breeding plumage, delicate ornamental feathers are borne on the back. Males and females are identical in appearance; juveniles look like nonbreeding adults. Differentiated from the intermediate egret (Mesophoyx intermedius) by the gape, which extends well beyond the back of the eye in case of the great egret, but ends just behind the eye in case of the intermediate egret.

It has a slow flight, with its neck retracted. This is characteristic of herons and bitterns, and distinguishes them from storks, cranes, ibises, and spoonbills, which extend their necks in flight. The great egret walks with its neck extended and wings held close. The great egret is not normally a vocal bird; it gives a low, hoarse croak when disturbed, and at breeding colonies, it often gives a loud croaking cuk cuk cuk and higher-pitched squawks.[11]

Owing to its wide distribution across so much of the Americas, as well as Africa, Europe and Asia, the great egret shares its habitat with many other similar species. For example, the little egret (Egretta garzetta), intermediate egret (Ardea intermedia), Chinese egret (Egretta eulophotes), and the western reef heron (Egretta gularis). In the Americas, the snowy egret (Egretta thula) — a medium-sized heron that shares the same habitat as the great egret — is one such species. The snowy egret is readily distinguished from the great egret because it is noticeably smaller, and it has a more slender bill which is black in color and yellow feet, whereas the great egret has a yellow bill and black feet. Another species that — in North America — is easily confused with the great egret is the white morph of the great blue heron (Ardea herodias). The great blue heron is a bit larger, and has a thicker bill than that of the great egret.[12]

Distribution and habitat

 src=
Adult sitting on a bridge in California

The great egret is generally a very successful species with a large and expanding range, occurring worldwide in temperate and tropical habitats. It is ubiquitous across the Sun Belt of the United States and in the Neotropics.[1]

Conservation

In North America, large numbers of great egrets were killed around the end of the 19th century so that their plumes, known as "aigrettes", could be used to decorate hats.[13][14] Numbers have since recovered as a result of conservation measures. Its range has expanded as far north as southern Canada. However, in some parts of the southern United States, its numbers have declined due to habitat loss, particularly wetland degradation through drainage, grazing, clearing, burning, increased salinity, groundwater extraction and invasion by exotic plants. Nevertheless, the species adapts well to human habitation and can be readily seen near wetlands and bodies of water in urban and suburban areas.[1]

The great egret is partially migratory, with northern hemisphere birds moving south from areas with colder winters. It is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.

In 1953, the great egret in flight was chosen as the symbol of the National Audubon Society, which was formed in part to prevent the killing of birds for their feathers.[15][16]

On 22 May 2012, a pair of great egrets was announced to be nesting in the UK for the first time at the Shapwick Heath nature reserve in Somerset.[17] The species was a rare visitor to the UK and Ben Aviss of the BBC stated that the news could mean the UK's first great egret colony had become established.[17][18] The following week, Kevin Anderson of Natural England confirmed a great egret chick had hatched, making it a new breeding bird record for the UK.[19] In 2017, seven nests in Somerset fledged 17 young,[20] and a second breeding site was announced at Holkham National Nature Reserve in Norfolk where a pair fledged three young.[21] In January 2021, Bird Guides, a UK website and magazine which reports sightings of rare birds, dropped the species from its list of nationally rare birds because sightings had become so numerous.[22]

In 2018, a pair of great egrets nested in Finland for the first time, raising four young in a grey heron colony in Porvoo.[23]

Ecology

The species breeds in colonies in trees close to large lakes with reed beds or other extensive wetlands, preferably at height of 10–40 feet (3.0–12.2 m).[11] It begins to breed at 2–3 years of age by forming monogamous pairs each season. Whether the pairing carries over to the next season is not known. The male selects the nest area, starts a nest, and then attracts a female. The nest, made of sticks and lined with plant material, could be up to 3 feet across. Up to six bluish green eggs are laid at one time. Both sexes incubate the eggs and the incubation period is 23–26 days. The young are fed by regurgitation by both parents and they are able to fly within 6–7 weeks.[24]

Diet

 src=
Spearing a fish

The great egret forages in shallow water or in drier habitats, feeding mainly on fish, frogs, small mammals, and occasionally small reptiles, crustaceans[25] and insects. This species normally impales its prey with its long, sharp bill by standing still and allowing the prey to come within the striking distance of its bill, which it uses as a spear. It often waits motionless for prey, or slowly stalks its victim.

Parasites

A long-running field study (1962–2013) suggested that the great egrets of central Europe host 17 different helminth species. Juvenile great egrets were shown to host fewer species, but the intensity of infection was higher in the juveniles than in the adults. Of the digeneans found in central European great egrets, numerous species likely infected their definitive hosts outside of central Europe itself.[26]

In culture

The great egret is depicted on the reverse side of a 5-Brazilian reais banknote.[27]

The great egret is the symbol of the National Audubon Society.[28]

An airbrushed photograph of a great egret in breeding plumage by Werner Krutein is featured in the cover art of the 1992 Faith No More album Angel Dust.[29]

In Belarus, a commemorative coin has the image of a great egret.[30] The great egret also features on the New Zealand $2 coin and on the Hungarian 5-forint coin.[31]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2019). "Ardea alba". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T22697043A155465940. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T22697043A155465940.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ "Great White Egret Facts | Ardea alba". The RSPB.
  3. ^ Bewick, Thomas (1809). "The Great White Heron (Ardea alba, Lin. – Le Heron blanc, Buff.)". Part II, Containing the History and Description of Water Birds. A History of British Birds. Newcastle: Edward Walker. p. 52.
  4. ^ Bruun, B.; Delin, H.; Svenson, L. (1970). The Hamlyn Guide to Birds to Britain and Europe. London. p. 36. ISBN 0753709562.
  5. ^ Ali, S. (1993). The Book of Indian Birds. Bombay: Bombay Natural History Society. ISBN 0195637313.
  6. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 37, 54. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  7. ^ Gill, F.; Donsker, D., eds. (2014). "IOC World Bird List (v 4.4)". doi:10.14344/IOC.ML.4.4. Retrieved 28 December 2014. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. ^ "Great Egret". All About Birds. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  9. ^ "Animal Bytes – Egrets". Seaworld. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  10. ^ Dunning Jr., John B., ed. (1992). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
  11. ^ a b "Great Egret". Audubon Guide to North American Birds. July 10, 2016.
  12. ^ "Similar Species for Great Egret". All About Birds. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. 2021. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  13. ^ Souder, William. "How Two Women Ended the Deadly Feather Trade". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
  14. ^ "Aigrette definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary". www.collinsdictionary.com.
  15. ^ "Timeline of Accomplishments". National Audubon Society. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  16. ^ "Historical Highlights: Signature Species". National Audubon Society. Archived from the original on 30 March 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  17. ^ a b Aviss, Ben (22 May 2012). "Great white egrets nest in UK for first time". BBC Nature. BBC. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  18. ^ Aviss, Ben (31 May 2012). "Great white egrets breed in UK for first time". BBC Nature. BBC. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  19. ^ Hallett, Emma (31 May 2012). "Rare great white egret chick hatches in UK for first time". The Independent. Independent Print Limited. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  20. ^ Adrian Pitches (2017). "England's Mediterranean Breeding Season". British Birds. 110 (9): 430.
  21. ^ "Great White Egret breeds successfully in Norfolk for the first time". Rare Bird Alert. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  22. ^ "Great white egret no longer rare bird as numbers boom across UK and Europe". The Independent. January 4, 2021.
  23. ^ "Jalohaikara pesi ensimmäistä kertaa Suomessa – Porvoossa haudotut poikaset lennähtivät maailmalle". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  24. ^ "Great Egret". All about birds, Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
  25. ^ Jones, J. (2002). "Ardea alba: great egret". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  26. ^ Sitko, J.; Heneberg, P. (2015). "Composition, structure and pattern of helminth assemblages associated with central European herons (Ardeidae)". Parasitology International. 64 (1): 100–112. doi:10.1016/j.parint.2014.10.009. PMID 25449288.
  27. ^ "Current Banknotes - Banco Central do Brasil". www.bcb.gov.br. Retrieved 2021-06-07.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  28. ^ "Great Egret (Ardea alba)". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  29. ^ Putterford, Mark (December 1992). "Faith No More - Dusted". Rip.
  30. ^ "1 Rouble, Belarus". en.numista.com. Retrieved 2021-06-07.
  31. ^ "5 Forint". Numista. Retrieved 17 May 2020.

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Great egret: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The great egret (Ardea alba), also known as the common egret, large egret, or (in the Old World) great white egret or great white heron is a large, widely distributed egret, with four subspecies found in Asia, Africa, the Americas, and southern Europe, recently also spreading to more northern areas of Europe. Distributed across most of the tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world, it builds tree nests in colonies close to water.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN