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Batoidea

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Spotted eagle ray, Aetobatus narinari

Batoidea is a superorder of cartilaginous fishes, commonly known as rays. They and their close relatives, the sharks, comprise the subclass Elasmobranchii. Rays are the largest group of cartilaginous fishes, with well over 600 species in 26 families. Rays are distinguished by their flattened bodies, enlarged pectoral fins that are fused to the head, and gill slits that are placed on their ventral surfaces.

Anatomy

Batoids are flat-bodied, and, like sharks, are cartilaginous fish, meaning they have a boneless skeleton made of a tough, elastic cartilage. Most batoids have five ventral slot-like body openings called gill slits that lead from the gills, but the Hexatrygonidae have six.[2] Batoid gill slits lie under the pectoral fins on the underside, whereas a shark's are on the sides of the head. Most batoids have a flat, disk-like body, with the exception of the guitarfishes and sawfishes, while most sharks have a spindle-shaped body. Many species of batoid have developed their pectoral fins into broad flat wing-like appendages. The anal fin is absent. The eyes and spiracles are located on top of the head. Batoids have a ventrally located mouth and can considerably protrude their upper jaw (palatoquadrate cartilage) away from the cranium to capture prey.[3] The jaws have euhyostylic type suspension, which relies completely on the hyomandibular cartilages for support.[4] Bottom-dwelling batoids breathe by taking water in through the spiracles, rather than through the mouth as most fish do, and passing it outward through the gills.

Reproduction

Batoids reproduce in a number of ways. As is characteristic of elasmobranchs, batoids undergo internal fertilization. Internal fertilization is advantageous to batoids as it conserves sperm, does not expose eggs to consumption by predators, and ensures that all the energy involved in reproduction is retained and not lost to the environment.[5] All skates and some rays are oviparous (egg laying) while other rays are ovoviviparous, meaning that they give birth to young which develop in a womb but without involvement of a placenta.[6]

The eggs of oviparous skates are laid in leathery egg cases that are commonly known as mermaid's purses and which often wash up empty on beaches in areas where skates are common.

Capture-induced premature birth and abortion (collectively called capture-induced parturition) occurs frequently in sharks and rays when fished.[6] Capture-induced parturition is rarely considered in fisheries management despite being shown to occur in at least 12% of live bearing sharks and rays (88 species to date).[6]

Habitat

Most species live on the sea floor, in a variety of geographical regions – mainly in coastal waters, although some live in deep waters to at least 3,000 metres (9,800 ft). Most batoids have a cosmopolitan distribution, preferring tropical and subtropical marine environments, although there are temperate and cold-water species. Only a few species, like manta rays, live in the open sea, and only a few live in freshwater, while some batoids can live in brackish bays and estuaries.

Feeding

Most batoids have developed heavy, rounded teeth for crushing the shells of bottom-dwelling species such as snails, clams, oysters, crustaceans, and some fish, depending on the species. Manta rays feed on plankton.

Evolution

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Radiation of cartilaginous fishes, based on Michael Benton, 2005.[7]

Batoids belong to the ancient lineage of cartilaginous fishes. Fossil denticles (tooth-like scales in the skin) resembling those of today's chondrichthyans date at least as far back as the Ordovician, with the oldest unambiguous fossils of cartilaginous fish dating from the middle Devonian. A clade within this diverse family, the Neoselachii, emerged by the Triassic, with the best-understood neoselachian fossils dating from the Jurassic. The oldest confirmed ray is Antiquaobatis, from the Pliensbachian of Germany.[8] The clade is represented today by sharks, sawfish, rays and skates.[9]

Classification

The classification of batoids is currently undergoing revision; however, molecular evidence refutes the hypothesis that skates and rays are derived sharks.[10] Nelson's 2006 Fishes of the World recognizes four orders. The Mesozoic Sclerorhynchoidea are basal or incertae sedis; they show features of the Rajiformes but have snouts resembling those of sawfishes. However, evidence indicates they are probably the sister group to sawfishes.[11] Phylogenetic tree of Batoidea:[12]

Chondrichthyes

Holocephali (incl. Chimaera) Chimaera mon.JPG

Elasmobranchii Batoidea

Torpediniformes Torpedo nobiliana.jpg

     

Rhinopristiformes Pristis microdon.jpg

     

Rajiformes Raja montagui2.jpg

   

Myliobatiformes Mobula mobular.jpg

         

Selachimorpha (Sharks) Shark fish chondrichthyes.jpg

     

Order Torpediniformes

Order Rhinopristiformes

* the placement of these families is uncertain

Order Rajiformes

Order Myliobatiformes

Conservation

According to a 2021 study in Nature, the number of oceanic sharks and rays has declined globally by 71% over the preceding 50 years, jeopardising "the health of entire ocean ecosystems as well as food security for some of the world's poorest countries". Overfishing has increased the global extinction risk of these species to the point where three-quarters are now threatened with extinction.[16][17][18]

Differences between sharks and rays

All sharks and rays are cartilaginous fishes, contrasting with bony fishes. Many rays are adapted for feeding on the bottom. Guitarfishes are somewhat between sharks and rays, displaying characteristics of both (though they are classified as rays).

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Myliobatiformes include stingrays, butterfly rays, eagle rays, and manta rays. They were formerly included in the order Rajiformes, but more-recent phylogenetic studies have shown that they are a monophyletic group, and that its more-derived members evolved their highly flattened shapes independently of the skates.[13]
  2. ^ Rajiformes include skates, guitarfishes, and wedgefishes. They are distinguished by the presence of greatly enlarged pectoral fins, which reach as far forward as the sides of the head, with a generally flattened body. The undulatory pectoral fin motion diagnostic to this taxon is known as rajiform locomotion. The eyes and spiracles are located on the upper surface of the body, and the gill slits on the underside. They have flattened, crushing teeth, and are generally carnivorous. Most species give birth to live young, although some lay eggs inside a protective capsule or mermaid's purse.
  3. ^ The electric rays have electric organs in their pectoral fin discs that generate electric current. They are used to immobilize prey and for defense. The current is strong enough to stun humans, and the ancient Greeks and Romans used these fish to treat ailments such as headaches.[14]
  4. ^ The sawfishes are shark-like in form, having tails used for swimming and smaller pectoral fins than most batoids. The pectoral fins are attached above the gills as in all batoids, giving the fishes a broad-headed appearance. They have long, flat snouts with a row of tooth-like projections on either side. The snouts are up to 1.8 metres (6 ft) long, and 30 centimetres (1 ft) wide, and are used for slashing and impaling small fishes and to probe in the mud for embedded animals. Sawfishes can enter freshwater rivers and lakes. Some species reach a total length of 6 metres (20 ft). All species of sawfish are endangered or critically endangered.[15]

References

  1. ^ Aschliman, Neil C.; Nishida, Mutsumi; Miya, Masaki; Inoue, Jun G.; Rosana, Kerri M.; Naylor, Gavin J.P. (2012). "Body plan convergence in the evolution of skates and rays (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 63 (1): 28–42. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.12.012. PMID 22209858.
  2. ^ Martin, R. Aidan (February 2010). "Batoids: Sawfishes, Guitarfishes, Electric Rays, Skates, and Sting Rays". Elasmo research. ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research.
  3. ^ Motta, P.J.; Wilga, C.D. (2001). "Advances in the study of feeding behaviors, mechanisms, and mechanics of sharks". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 60 (1–3): 131–56. doi:10.1023/A:1007649900712. S2CID 28305317.
  4. ^ Wilga, C.A.D. (2008). "Evolutionary divergence in the feeding mechanism of fishes". Acta Geologica Polonica. 58: 113–20.
  5. ^ "Reproduction overall". Risk Section, Bedford Institute of Oceanography & Marine Fish Species. Canadian Shark Research Lab. Skates and rays of Atlantic Canada. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Center. Archived from the original on 16 January 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  6. ^ a b c Adams, Kye R.; Fetterplace, Lachlan C.; Davis, Andrew R.; Taylor, Matthew D.; Knott, Nathan A. (January 2018). "Sharks, rays and abortion: The prevalence of capture-induced parturition in elasmobranchs". Biological Conservation. 217: 11–27. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2017.10.010. Archived from the original on 2019-02-23. Retrieved 2018-12-09.
  7. ^ Benton, M. J. (2005). Vertebrate Palaeontology (3rd ed.). Blackwell. Fig 7.13 on page 185. ISBN 978-0-632-05637-8.
  8. ^ Stumpf, Sebastian; Kriwet, Jürgen (2019). "A new Pliensbachian elasmobranch (Vertebrata, Chondrichthyes) assemblage from Europe, and its contribution to the understanding of late Early Jurassic elasmobranch diversity and distributional patterns". PalZ. 93 (4): 637–658. doi:10.1007/s12542-019-00451-4.
  9. ^ "Chondrichthyes: Fossil Record". University of California Museum of Paleontology. U.C. Berkeley.
  10. ^ Douady, C.J.; Dosay, M.; Shivji, M.S.; Stanhope, M.J. (2003). "Molecular phylogenetic evidence refuting the hypothesis of Batoidea (rays and skates) as derived sharks". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 26 (2): 215–221. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00333-0. PMID 12565032.
  11. ^ Kriwet, Jürgen. "The systematic position of the Cretaceous sclerorhynchid sawfishes (Elasmobranchii, Pristiorajea)" (PDF).
  12. ^ McEachran, J.D.; Aschliman, N. (2004). "Phylogeny of batoidea". In Carrier, J.C.; Musick, J.A.; Heithaus, M.R. (eds.). Biology of sharks and their relatives. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. pp. 79–114.
  13. ^ a b Nelson, J.S. (2006). Fishes of the World (fourth ed.). John Wiley. pp. 69–82. ISBN 978-0-471-25031-9.
  14. ^ a b Bullock, Theodore Holmes; Hopkins, Carl D.; Popper, Arthur N.; Fay, Richard R. (2005). Electroreception. Springer. pp. 5–7. ISBN 978-0-387-23192-1.
  15. ^ a b Faria, Vicente V.; McDavitt, Matthew T.; Charvet, Patricia; Wiley, Tonya R.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Naylor, Gavin J.P. (2013). "Species delineation and global population structure of critically endangered sawfishes (Pristidae)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 167: 136–164. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2012.00872.x.
  16. ^ Pacoureau, Nathan; Rigby, Cassandra L.; Kyne, Peter M.; Sherley, Richard B.; Winker, Henning; Carlson, John K.; Fordham, Sonja V.; Barreto, Rodrigo; Fernando, Daniel; Francis, Malcolm P.; Jabado, Rima W.; Herman, Katelyn B.; Liu, Kwang-Ming; Marshall, Andrea D.; Pollom, Riley A.; Romanov, Evgeny V.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Yin, Jamie S.; Kindsvater, Holly K.; Dulvy, Nicholas K. (2021). "Half a century of global decline in oceanic sharks and rays". Nature. 589 (7843): 567–571. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03173-9. hdl:10871/124531. PMID 33505035. S2CID 231723355.
  17. ^ Briggs, Helen (28 January 2021). "Extinction: 'Time is running out' to save sharks and rays". BBC News. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  18. ^ Richardson, Holly (27 January 2021). "Shark, ray populations have declined by 'alarming' 70 per cent since 1970s, study finds". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
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Batoidea: Brief Summary

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 src= Spotted eagle ray, Aetobatus narinari

Batoidea is a superorder of cartilaginous fishes, commonly known as rays. They and their close relatives, the sharks, comprise the subclass Elasmobranchii. Rays are the largest group of cartilaginous fishes, with well over 600 species in 26 families. Rays are distinguished by their flattened bodies, enlarged pectoral fins that are fused to the head, and gill slits that are placed on their ventral surfaces.

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Raie

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Batoïdes, Batoidea

Les raies ou batoïdes (Batoidea ou Rajomorphii) forment un super-ordre de poissons cartilagineux caractérisés par un corps aplati, de grandes nageoires pectorales solidaires du tronc et des fentes branchiales ventrales. Le super-ordre contient près de 500 espèces réparties en 13 familles.

Un tiers des espèces de raies est aujourd'hui menacé d'extinction, principalement en raison de la surpêche[1].

Description

Les raies se distinguent par leur corps plat avec des nageoires. La plupart des raies ont cinq fentes branchiales ventrales, les Hexatrygonidae en ont six. Les fentes se trouvent sous les nageoires pectorales sur la face inférieure, tandis que celles des requins se situent sur les flancs. La plupart des raies ont un corps fortement aplati avec de grandes nageoires fusionnées avec le tronc formant un disque, ovale, rond, triangulaire ou cunéiforme, à l'exception des poissons-scies et des raies-guitares, tandis que la plupart des requins ont un corps fuselé. De nombreuses espèces de raies ont développé leurs nageoires pectorales en larges appendices en forme d'aile. La nageoire anale est absente. Les yeux et les stigmates sont situés sur le dessus de la tête. Les raies ont une bouche ventrale et peuvent considérablement avancer leur mâchoire supérieure (cartilage palatoquadrate) loin de la boîte crânienne pour capturer leurs proies. Les mâchoires ont une suspension de type hyostylique, qui repose entièrement sur les cartilages hyomandibulaires de soutien. Les raies benthiques respirent en aspirant l'eau par leurs stigmates, plutôt que par la bouche comme la plupart des poissons, l'eau est ensuite expulsée par les branchies.

Certaines espèces disposent d'un dard dont les piqûres sont souvent douloureuses et parfois mortelles pour l'homme.

Histoire évolutive



Selachimorpha


voidBatoideavoid void

Torpediniformes



void

Pristiformes



void

Rajiformes


void

Myliobatiformes






Arbre phylogénétique des raies

Comportement

 src=
raie des Antilles
 src=
Raie à Saint-Martin

Les raies mobula peuvent se rassembler en groupes denses de centaines d'individus [2], elles peuvent bondir hors de l'eau en effectuant des sauts de plusieurs secondes dans l'air [3] ou l'équivalent de sauts périlleux[2]

Écologie

Reproduction

 src=
Capsule d’œuf de raie rejeté sur les plages, il en existe plusieurs types suivant les espèces[4].

Comme tous les élasmobranches, les raies ont une fécondation interne. Ce mode est avantageux car il économise le sperme et n'expose pas les œufs aux prédateurs, toute l'énergie impliquée dans la reproduction est conservée et ne se perd pas dans l'environnement. Certaines raies sont ovipares (ponte d’œufs) tandis que d'autres sont ovovivipares, elles donnent naissance à des juvéniles qui se développent dans un utérus, mais sans placenta. Chaque œuf est contenu dans une capsule très résistante appelée communément bourse de sirène. Plusieurs mois après la ponte, une juvénile va en sortir.

Alimentation

La plupart des raies ont développé de larges dents arrondies pour écraser les coquilles des espèces benthiques comme les gastéropodes, les palourdes, les huîtres, les crustacés et des poissons, selon les espèces. Seules les raies manta se nourrissent de plancton en filtrant l'eau avec leurs branchies.

Répartition et habitat

 src=
Une raie abyssale (Bathyraja abyssicola) aux Galapagos.

La plupart des espèces sont benthiques et vivent dans une grande variété de régions géographiques - principalement dans les eaux côtières, bien que certaines vivent à 3 000 mètres de profondeur. La plupart des raies ont une répartition cosmopolite, préférant les milieux marins tropicaux et subtropicaux, bien qu'il existe des espèces d'eaux tempérées et froides. Seules quelques espèces, comme les raies manta, sont pélagiques, et seulement quelques-unes vivent en eau douce, tandis que certaines raies peuvent vivre dans les estuaires saumâtres et les baies.

Étymologie et dénominations

Toutes les espèces ne comportent pas le terme « raie » dans leur nom vernaculaire, c'est le cas par exemple des pocheteaux.

Systématique

 src=
Raie bouclée (Raja clavata)
 src=
Raie papillon à queue courte (Gymnura micrura)
 src=
Raie pastenague américaine (Dasyatis americana)

Taxinomie

La classification des raies est actuellement en cours de révision. Toutefois, des preuves moléculaires réfutent l'hypothèse que les raies sont dérivées des requins. Fishes of the World de Nelson, 2006, et World Register of Marine Species (11 mars 2016)[5] reconnaissent quatre ordres.

Les raies et l'homme

 src=
Raie manta, de face (Manta birostris)

Espèces menacées

Les raies, à durée de vie longue et à la reproduction lente, sont très sensibles à la pression humaine. Les derniers rapports de l'UICN sont alarmants : 26 % de ces espèces friseraient l'extinction dans l'Atlantique Nord, contre 42 % en Méditerranée, considérée comme la mer la plus dangereuse au monde pour cette faune, notamment pour la mante géante et la raie de Malte. Sur le banc des accusés : la surpêche, qu'elle soit accidentelle ou ciblée. À l'échelle internationale, la législation limitant la capture de ces poissons est quasi inexistante.

Les ailes de raie sont consommées par l'Homme. La pêche au chalut, la surpêche, la pollution marine, la pêche électrique (interdite en Europe car ayant montré des effets négatifs sur les raies[6]) la menacent.

Les raies dans la culture

 src=
La Raie de Chardin
1728 (114 × 146 cm)
Musée du Louvre (Paris)

L'une des plus célèbres est celle de Jean Siméon Chardin (1699-1779), dans un tableau de 1728 (musée du Louvre) où la raie est représentée dans une nature morte, suspendue à un crochet.

Chaïm Soutine (1893-1943) a repris le même thème dans plusieurs tableaux en 1920 (Musée Calvet à Avignon), 1923 (musée des beaux-arts d'Orléans[7]) et vers 1924 (Perls galleries à New-York).

James Ensor (1860-1949) reprend ce thème dans un tableau de 1892[8].

Annexes

Références taxinomiques

Notes et références

  1. « Selon WWF, "le vivant est en train de disparaître" », sur parismatch.com (consulté le 21 mars 2019)
  2. a et b Mobula Rays belly flop to attract a mate Shark: Episode 2 Preview - BBC One
  3. Flying stingrays in Costa Rica ; (Raies volantes) au Costa Rica ,Kanaal van Lousnellebrand, vidéo consulté 2016-09-23, sur Youtube
  4. [PDF]Guide d'identification sur le site Asso-apecs.org.
  5. World Register of Marine Species, consulté le 11 mars 2016
  6. Schark Alliance ; Le point de vue de Shark Alliance sur l’élaboration d’un Plan d’action européen pour la conservation des requins, 2 pages.
  7. Notice de l'oeuvre, musée des beaux-arts d'Orléans
  8. La Raie de James Ensor, huile sur toile, Musées royaux des beaux-arts de Belgique.
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Raie: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Batoïdes, Batoidea

Les raies ou batoïdes (Batoidea ou Rajomorphii) forment un super-ordre de poissons cartilagineux caractérisés par un corps aplati, de grandes nageoires pectorales solidaires du tronc et des fentes branchiales ventrales. Le super-ordre contient près de 500 espèces réparties en 13 familles.

Un tiers des espèces de raies est aujourd'hui menacé d'extinction, principalement en raison de la surpêche.

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가오리

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과
 src= 다른 뜻에 대해서는 가오리 (동음이의) 문서를 참고하십시오.

가오리가오리상목(Batoidea)에 속하는 연골어류의 총칭이다. 어린 개체는 간자미라 부른다.[1] 전 세계에 350여 종이 분포하며 대부분이 바다 밑바닥에서 생활하나 매가오리나 쥐가오리 등의 일부 종은 헤엄치며 생활한다. 몸의 밑에 있는 입에는 넙적하고 튼튼한 이빨이 있는데 이로 연체동물이나 절지동물 따위의 저서동물들을 잡아먹고 산다. 골격이 질기고 탄력있는 연골로 되어 있으며, 아가미로 통하는 아가미구멍이 가슴지느러미 아래에 있다. 몸은 대개 접시 모양으로 납작하며, 날개 같은 커다란 가슴지느러미가 있다. 다른 물고기와는 달리 암컷의 몸 안에서 알이 수정 되며 새끼를 낳는다. 대부분의 가오리는 달팽이, 조개, , 갑각류 및 일부 물고기등을 먹으며 쥐가오리플랑크톤을 먹는다.

분류

참고 문헌

각주

  1. “간자미”. 《국립국어원》. 표준국어대사전. 2018년 4월 8일에 확인함.
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