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Brief Summary

provided by Ecomare
Sand gobies are small gobies (up to ten centimeters). They can grow up to 10 centimeters in length. They have a suction cup on their belly to attach themselves to stones on the sea bottom. Sand gobies usually lay their eggs in empty shells, which the male guards until they hatch. These gobies eat copepods, gammarids, chameleon shrimp and fish larvae. Sand gobies themselves form an important source of food for large fish such as cod. These predators approach the coast at night to hunt their prey.
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Diagnostic Description

provided by Fishbase
Elongated body (Ref. 51442). The relative great eyes are placed high and close together (Ref. 51442). Joint pelvic fins forming an oval ventral disc (Ref. 51442). Elongated caudal peduncle (Ref. 51442). Predorsal area and nape covered by scales (Ref. 59043). Scales on the back, in front of the first dorsal fin (Ref. 35388). Dark spot on the hind end of first dorsal fin; Dark area on the front part of pectoral fins indistinct or missing.
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Recorder
Arlene G. Sampang-Reyes
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Diseases and Parasites

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Cestoda infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Susan M. Luna
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Life Cycle

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High mortality rate during the first year. Also Ref. 53335.
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Migration

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Amphidromous. Refers to fishes that regularly migrate between freshwater and the sea (in both directions), but not for the purpose of breeding, as in anadromous and catadromous species. Sub-division of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.Characteristic elements in amphidromy are: reproduction in fresh water, passage to sea by newly hatched larvae, a period of feeding and growing at sea usually a few months long, return to fresh water of well-grown juveniles, a further period of feeding and growing in fresh water, followed by reproduction there (Ref. 82692).
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Susan M. Luna
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 6 - 8; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10 - 12; Analspines: 1; Analsoft rays: 9 - 12; Vertebrae: 32 - 34
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Trophic Strategy

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Feeding on little crustaceans (Ref. 51442).
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Biology

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This occasionally schooling species is found in inshore sandy and muddy areas. Also found in ecotones near hard bottoms (Ref. 92840). Juveniles found in lower estuaries. Mainly diurnal, this species feeds on small polychaetes, amphipods (corophiids, caprellids), cumaceans and mysids (Ref. 4696). Spawns in summer in shallow waters. Male lures the female into an empty bivalve shell where she lays a portion of eggs. Guarded by the male for 10 days until larvae about 3 mm long. Larvae are pelagic at first. Young fish only start to live at the bottom when 17-18 mm (Ref. 35388).
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Importance

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fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
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Sand goby

provided by wikipedia EN

The sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), also known as a polewig[2] or pollybait,[2] is a species of ray-finned fish native to marine and brackish waters European waters from the Baltic Sea through the Mediterranean Sea and into the Black Sea where it occurs in sandy or muddy areas of inshore waters at depths of from 4 to 200 metres (13 to 656 ft). This species can reach a length of 11 centimetres (4.3 in) TL. This species is sometimes kept in public aquariums.[3] The sand goby is of a sandy colour, with darker markings on the sides and a creamy-white underside. In the breeding season the male fish has blue spot at the rear of the first dorsal fin, ringed with white. The fish has a slender body, and the head is about a quarter of the total length.

Description

The sand goby has two dorsal fins with a wider gap between them than the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps), the anterior one consisting of six soft spines and the posterior one eight to eleven soft rays. The pelvic fins are fused with the anal fins. There are 58 to 72 scales along the lateral line and these scales are rather smaller than those of the common goby. The caudal fin is rounded. In males, there is a conspicuous dark spot on the anterior dorsal fin and in both sexes there is a black patch on the caudal peduncle. The general colour is sandy brown with indistinct dark blotches and reticulations on the dorsal surface and dark striations on the pale fins. The colour of the male darkens during the breeding season and his fins become more coloured. The average size is about 4 to 5 cm (1.6 to 2.0 in).[4]

Behaviour

The sand goby normally lives at greater depths than the common goby. It feeds on small invertebrates living on the seabed especially amphipods. It is well camouflaged and lies motionless on the bottom waiting for its prey to approach. It breeds in the summer, the male building a nest usually under a shell (which can be turned over if necessary). The female lays the eggs on the underside of this.[4]

References

  1. ^ Herler, J.; Williams, J.T.; Kovacic, M. (2014). "Pomatoschistus minutus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T198668A45109442. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T198668A45109442.en. Retrieved 20 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Polewig" and "pollybait" in Webster's Unabridged Dictionary
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Pomatoschistus minutus" in FishBase. June 2013 version.
  4. ^ a b "Sand goby: Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas)". NatureGate. Retrieved 2013-12-18.
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Sand goby: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), also known as a polewig or pollybait, is a species of ray-finned fish native to marine and brackish waters European waters from the Baltic Sea through the Mediterranean Sea and into the Black Sea where it occurs in sandy or muddy areas of inshore waters at depths of from 4 to 200 metres (13 to 656 ft). This species can reach a length of 11 centimetres (4.3 in) TL. This species is sometimes kept in public aquariums. The sand goby is of a sandy colour, with darker markings on the sides and a creamy-white underside. In the breeding season the male fish has blue spot at the rear of the first dorsal fin, ringed with white. The fish has a slender body, and the head is about a quarter of the total length.

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Biology

provided by World Register of Marine Species
In the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus (Teleostei; Gobiidae), a distribution-wide study showed that spatial variation at the rhodopsin gene (RH1) matches the characteristics of specific light environments. This match suggests that populations are locally adapted to selective light regimes targeting the RH1 gene.

Reference

Larmuseau, M.H.D.; Vancampenhout, K.; Raeymaekers, J.A.M.; Van Houdt, J.K.J.; Volckaert, F.A.M. (). Differential modes of selection on the rhodopsin gene in coastal Baltic and North Sea populations of the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus Mol. Ecol. (): -

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bibliographic citation
Larmuseau, M.H.D.; Vancampenhout, K.; Raeymaekers, J.A.M.; Van Houdt, J.K.J.; Volckaert, F.A.M. (2010). Differential modes of selection on the rhodopsin gene in coastal Baltic and North Sea populations of the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus Mol. Ecol. 19(11): 2256-2268
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Annelies Goffin [email]
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Annelies Goffin [email]