dcsimg

Epinephelus coioides Common Information

provided by EOL authors
Epinephelus coioides has common name "Kerapu Macan" in indonesia or Orange-spotted grouper in FAO name is one of the few species among farmed grouper species. Hamilton (1822) has made Classification to this fish. There are: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Perciformes Family: Serranidae Genus: Epinephelus Species: Epinephelus coioides These fish have a body with common characteristics as: Body color is generally brown, but in the abdomen more brown in color. Parts of the body including the head of reddish-brown patterned spots, teeth on middle side of lower jaw in 2 rows, fourth dorsal spine usually longest, membranes of spinous portion of dorsal fin incised, caudal fin rounded, pelvic fins not reaching anus. Dorsal rays XI, 13-16, anal rays III,8, pectoral rays 18-20. Live in coastal waters around the islands to a depth of 100 m and around coral reefs, Feed on small fishes, shrimps, and crabs. E. coioides includes a group of high-priced groupers. This is a type of grouper fish native to Indonesia who live scattered in various rocky waters of the archipelago. Besides Indonesia, the spread of this fish include waters in the Indo-Pacific region. These fish are usually for daily consumption and also a major export commodity because it has a fairly high sales value in international market. Because this fish has a very high demand, this fish has to be cultivated using techniques of coastal aquaculture so that demand can always be covered.
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Adriani Sunuddin
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Diagnostic Description

provided by Fishbase
This species is distinguished by the following characters: elongated body with greatest body depth at 2.9-3.7 in SL (for specimens 10-78 cm SL); head length 2.3-2.6 in SL. interorbital width 5.0-6.2 in HL; preopercle with enlarged serrae at angle and a broad shallow notch just above angle; upper edge of operculum straight or somewhat convex; maxilla reaches to or slightly past a vertical at rear edge of eye; upper jaw length 17-20% of SL; midlateral part of lower jaw with 2-3 rows of subequal teeth; gill rakers of first gill arch 8-10 + 14-17; pyloric caeca 50-60; lateral body scales rough, with minute auxiliary scales (body scales ctenoid except for nape, back, thorax, abdomen and above anal-fin base with cycloid scales); lateral-line scales 58-65; lateral-line tubes of anterior scales branched in adults. Colour: head and body tan dorsally, shading to whitish ventrally; numerous small brownish orange or reddish brown spots on head, body, and median fins; body with 5 faint, irregular, oblique, dark bars which bifurcate ventrally (irregular H-shaped bars); back with 3-4 blackish saddles; orange spots become poorly defined and darker with growth (Ref. 39231, 90102).
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
Recorder
Rodolfo B. Reyes
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

Diseases and Parasites

provided by Fishbase
Rhexanellosis Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
Recorder
Allan Palacio
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

Diseases and Parasites

provided by Fishbase
Fish Leech Infestation (Hirudinea sp.). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
Recorder
Allan Palacio
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

Life Cycle

provided by Fishbase
Pelagic spawner (Ref. 32184).
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
Recorder
Daniel Pauly
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

Morphology

provided by Fishbase
Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13 - 16; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 8
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
Recorder
Rodolfo B. Reyes
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

Trophic Strategy

provided by Fishbase
Probably make frequent use of shelters, suggesting an 'ambush' method of feeding (Ref. 6390). Inhabit turbid coastal reefs (Ref. 9710) and are often found in brackish water (Ref. 27362) over mud and rubble (Ref. 6390). Juveniles are common in shallow waters of estuaries over sand, mud and gravel and among mangroves (Ref. 6390). Feed on small fishes, shrimps, and crabs. Probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so (Ref. 27352). Eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic (Ref. 6390).
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
Recorder
Pascualita Sa-a
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

Biology

provided by Fishbase
Inhabit turbid coastal reefs (Ref. 9710) and are often found in brackish water (Ref. 27362) over mud and rubble (Ref. 6390). Solitary (Ref 90102). Juveniles are common in shallow waters of estuaries over sand, mud and gravel and among mangroves (Ref. 6390). Feed on small fishes, shrimps, and crabs. Probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so (Ref. 27352). Females mature at 25 to 30 cm (2 to 3 years old), and sexual transition occurs at 55 to 75 cm (Ref. 39231). Eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic (Ref. 6390). Has been tested in several countries as a potential species for mariculture (Ref. 43448). Caught with hook-and-line, traps, trawls, and lift nets. Common and expensive in markets of the region; sold fresh and kept alive at restaurants in Asian countries (e.g. Hong Kong and Taiwan Province of China) (Ref. 39231).
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
Recorder
Estelita Emily Capuli
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

Importance

provided by Fishbase
fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
FishBase
Recorder
Estelita Emily Capuli
original
visit source
partner site
Fishbase

分布

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
分布於印度-西太平洋區,西至非洲東岸、紅海,東至西太平洋,北至日本南部,南至澳洲。台灣西部及南部海域最多。
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
臺灣魚類資料庫
author
臺灣魚類資料庫

利用

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
具經濟性之食用魚,已有實驗性之人工養殖。一般漁法以拖網及一支釣捕獲。清蒸食用佳。
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
臺灣魚類資料庫
author
臺灣魚類資料庫

描述

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
體長橢圓形,側扁而粗壯,標準體長為體高之2.9-3.7倍。頭背部斜直;眶間區微突。眼小,短於吻長。口大;上下頜前端具小犬齒或無,兩側齒細尖,下頜約2-3列。鰓耙數8-10+14-17,隨著成長而逐漸退化。前鰓蓋骨後緣具鋸齒,下緣光滑。鰓蓋骨後緣具3扁棘。體被細小櫛鱗;側線鱗孔數58-65;縱列鱗數100-118。背鰭鰭棘部與軟條部相連,無缺刻,具硬棘XI,軟條14-16;臀鰭硬棘III枚,軟條8;腹鰭腹位,末端延伸不及肛門開口;胸鰭圓形,中央之鰭條長於上下方之鰭條,且長於腹鰭,但短於後眼眶長;尾鰭圓形。頭部及體背側黃褐色,腹側淡白;頭部、體側及奇鰭散佈許多橘褐色或紅褐色小點;體側另具5條不顯著、不規則、斜的及腹側分叉的暗橫帶,第一條在背鰭硬棘前緣,最後一條在尾柄上。
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
臺灣魚類資料庫
author
臺灣魚類資料庫

棲地

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
主要棲息於水質較混濁的沿岸礁區,亦常被發現於汽水域,幼魚則經常出現於砂泥底之河口域、沼澤區或潟湖。以魚類及甲殼類為食。
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
臺灣魚類資料庫
author
臺灣魚類資料庫

Orange-spotted grouper

provided by wikipedia EN

The orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), also known as the brown-spotted rockcod, estuary cod, estuary rockcod, goldspotted rockcod, greasy cod, North-west groper, orange spotted cod or blue-and-yellow grouper, is a species of marine ray-finned fish, a grouper from the subfamily Epinephelinae which is part of the family Serranidae, which also includes the anthias and sea basses. It has an Indo-Pacific distribution and is found in marine and brackish waters.

Description

The orange-spotted grouper has an elongate body which has a standard length that is 2.9 to 3.7 times its depth. The dorsal profile of the head is flat or slightly convex between the eyes, the preopercle has enlarged serrations at its angle and a shallow notch just above the angle. The upper margin of the gill cover may be straight or slightly convex.[3] The dorsal fin contains 11 spines and 13-16 soft rays while the anal fin has 3 spines and 8 soft rays.[2] The membranes between the dorsal fin spines are obviously incised. The caudal fin is rounded. There are 58-65 scales in the lateral line. The head and body are light brown on the back lightening to whitish on the underparts.[3] There are four oblique "H-shaped" dark markings on the flanks and 3-4 dark saddle like blotches along the back while the head, body and fins are covered in numerous small brown or orange spots. The spots are larger and less numerous in juveniles, shrinking in size and multiplying in number as the fish grows.[4] The maximum published total length is 120 centimetres (47 in) and the maximum weight is 15 kilograms (33 lb).[2]

Distribution

The orange-spotted grouper has an Indo-Pacific distribution. It is found along the eastern coast of Africa which extends from the Gulf of Suez south as far as Durban in South Africa. It is also found off Madagascar, Mauritius, and Réunion and in the Persian Gulf eastward into the Pacific Ocean as far as Palua and Fiji. Its range extends north to Japan and south to Australia.[1] In Australia it occurs from Carnarvon, Western Australia along the tropical northern coasts to the Solitary Islands in New South Wales.[4] It has entered the Mediterranean Sea from the Red Sea through the Suez canal as a Lessepsian migrant and has reached as far north as the Adriatic Sea.[5]

Habitat and biology

The orange-spotted grouper occurs in coral reefs, especially those along mainland coasts and large islands. The juveniles are frequently encountered in estuaries where there are sand, mud and gravel substrates and in mangroves. This is a predatory species which preys on fishes, shrimp, crabs and other benthic crustaceans. At night these fish will at least partially bury themselves in the mud. They are diandric protogynous hermaphrodites, some males develop from juveniles to males while others develop from functional females to males when they reach lengths of around 67 centimetres (26 in) and an age of 7.5 years. Off Papua New Guinea they have been reported to gather to spawn in aggregations of around 1,500 individuals and this takes place for 3-4 days each month over a muddy and sandy substrate. In the Persian Gulf there is a spawning season which occurs from March to June.[1] The eggs and larvae are thought to be pelagic. [2]

Importance to humans

Unfortunately, orange spotted groupers have been severely overexploited and fished. In any country where they can be found, their numbers have dwindled or are dwindling. They are mostly targeted using fish traps, and have spectacular tasting flesh which attains a high value in markets. In the UAE, the brunt of the overexploitation is easily visible. It has been assessed that they have been overexploited 7 times the normal level, and fisherman have described: "20 years ago, one net catches you 50kg. Now we use 100 nets and get 10kg of fish". They are slow-growing due to their quite lazy preying methods, mature late, and produce little eggs. The more sought-after larger male fish have been most affected, creating an imbalance between the genders affecting their populations further.

Taxonomy

The orange-spotted grouper was first formally described by the Scottish physician and naturalist Francis Buchanan-Hamilton (1762-1829) as Bola coioides in 1822 with the type locality given as the estuary of the Ganges.[6] This species closely resembles and is probably closely related to E. malabaricus and E. tauvina.[3]

Utilisation

The orange-spotted grouper is a target for commercial fisheries throughout its range where it is esteemed as a food fish. It is sold live as well as fresh and it has been attempted to culture it and breed it in aquaculture.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Amorim, P.; Choat, J.H.; Fennessy, S.; et al. (2018). "Epinephelus coioides". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T44674A2999451. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T44674A2999451.en. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2019). "Epiphenelus coioides" in FishBase. December 2019 version.
  3. ^ a b c Heemstra, P.C. & J.E. Randall (1993). FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date (PDF). FAO Fish. Synopsis. 125. FAO, Rome. p. 130-132. ISBN 92-5-103125-8.
  4. ^ a b Bray, D.J. (2019). "Epinephelus coioides". Fishes of Australia. Museums Victoria. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  5. ^ Paolo Parenti & Nocola Bressi (2001). "First record of the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides (Perciformes : Serranidae) in the northern Adriatic Sea". Cybium. 25: 281–284.
  6. ^ Eschmeyer, William N.; Fricke, Ron & van der Laan, Richard (eds.). "Bola coioides". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Orange-spotted grouper: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), also known as the brown-spotted rockcod, estuary cod, estuary rockcod, goldspotted rockcod, greasy cod, North-west groper, orange spotted cod or blue-and-yellow grouper, is a species of marine ray-finned fish, a grouper from the subfamily Epinephelinae which is part of the family Serranidae, which also includes the anthias and sea basses. It has an Indo-Pacific distribution and is found in marine and brackish waters.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Description

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Inhabits continental shores and large islands. Taken offshore to depths of 100 m. Feeds on small fishes, shrimps, and crabs.
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (02/2021).
contributor
Edward Vanden Berghe [email]