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Leaf beetle

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The insects of the beetle family Chrysomelidae are commonly known as leaf beetles, and include over 37,000 (and probably at least 50,000) species in more than 2,500 genera, making up one of the largest and most commonly encountered of all beetle families. Numerous subfamilies are recognized, but the precise taxonomy and systematics are likely to change with ongoing research.

Leaf beetles are partially recognizable by their tarsal formula, which appears to be 4-4-4, but is actually 5-5-5 as the fourth tarsal segment is very small and hidden by the third.[2] As with many taxa, no single character defines the Chrysomelidae; instead, the family is delineated by a set of characters.[3] Some lineages are only distinguished with difficulty from longhorn beetles (family Cerambycidae), namely by the antennae not arising from frontal tubercles.

Adult and larval leaf beetles feed on all sorts of plant tissue, and all species are fully herbivorous. Many are serious pests of cultivated plants, for example the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), the asparagus beetle (Crioceris asparagi), the cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus), the mustard beetle (Phaedon cochleariae) and various flea beetles, and a few act as vectors of plant diseases. Others are beneficial due to their use in biocontrol of invasive weeds. Some Chrysomelidae are conspicuously colored, typically in glossy yellow to red or metallic blue-green hues, and some (especially Cassidinae) have spectacularly bizarre shapes. Thus, they are highly popular among insect collectors.

Description

The imagos of leaf beetles are small to medium-sized, i.e. most species range from 1.0 to 18 mm in length, excluding appendages, with just a few larger species such as Alurnus humeralis, which reaches 35 mm. The bodies of most species are domed, and oval in dorsal view (though some are round or elongated), and they often possess a metallic luster or multiple colors. In most specimens, the antennae are notably shorter than head, thorax, and abdomen, i.e. not more than half their combined length. The second antennal segment is of normal size (which differentiates leaf beatles from the closely related longhorn beetles). In most species, the antennal segments are of a more or less equal shape, at most they gradually widen towards the tip, although some Galerucinae in particular have modified segments, mainly in males. The first segment of the antenna in most cases is larger than the following ones. The pronotum of leaf beetles varies between species. In most, it is slightly to highly domed and trapezoidal to rounded-squarish in dorsal view. In some subfamilies such as the Cassidinae and to a lesser extent the Cryptocephalinae, the head is covered by the pronotum and thus not visible from above. The first three sternites are not fused, instead being linked by mobile sutures. Most species possess wings, although the level of development and thus flight ability varies widely, including within a single species, and some are flightless with fused elytra.[4]

Subfamilies

The family includes these subfamilies:

Until recently, the subfamily Bruchinae was considered a separate family, while two former subfamilies are presently considered families (Orsodacnidae and Megalopodidae). Other commonly recognized subfamilies have recently been grouped with other subfamilies, usually reducing them to tribal rank (e.g., the former Alticinae, Chlamisinae, Clytrinae, and Hispinae). The extinct subfamily Protoscelidinae, containing fossils described from the Middle to Late Jurassic Karabastau Formation, Kazakhstan, has been transferred to the family Anthribidae.[5]

Natural Enemies

A Finnish researcher published an exhaustive paper describing the natural enemies of the alder leaf beetle Plagiosterna aenea and other species of leaf beetles observed in the field.[6] Predators of chrysomelid eggs include true bugs such as Anthocorus nemorum and Orthotylus marginalis.[7] Hoverflies (e.g. Parasyrphus nigritarsis sometimes lay eggs adjacent to beetle egg clutches and when the fly larva hatches it consumes beetle eggs and young larvae.[7] Larval predators include A. nemorum, the bug Rhacognathus punctatus,[7] and the wasp Symmorphus bifasciatus.[8] Some species of wasps, such as Polistes carolina, have been known to prey upon Chrysomelidae larvae after the eggs are laid in flowers.[9] Adult beetles are consumed by R. punctatus.[7] More information about natural enemies can be found in the articles about the chrysomelid beetles Chrysomela aeneicollis, Phratora laticollis and Phratora vitellinae.

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "Chrysomelidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  2. ^ "Family Identification – Chrysomeloidea". University of Florida. Archived from the original on 2006-10-13. Retrieved 2006-11-29.
  3. ^ Jolivet, Pierre; Verma, Krishna K. (2002). Biology of Leaf Beetles. Andover: Intercept. pp. 5–9. ISBN 1-898298-86-6.
  4. ^ Stresemann, Erwin (1994). Exkursionsfauna von Deutschland. Wirbellose Insekten. Erster Teil (8th ed.). Jena: Gustav Fischer Verlag. ISBN 3-334-60823-9.
  5. ^ Legalov, A.A. (2013). "Review of the family Anthribidae (Coleoptera) from the Jurassic of Karatau: subfamily Protoscelinae. Genus Protoscelis Medvedev". Paleontological Journal. 47 (3): 292–302. doi:10.1134/S0031030113030064.
  6. ^ Kanervo, V. (1946). "Tutkimuksia lepän lehtikuoriaisen, Melasoma aenea L. (Col., Chrysomelidae), luontaisista vihollisista. (Ref.: Studien über die natürlichen Feinde des Erlenblattkäfers, Melasoma aenea L. (Col., Chrysomelidae)". Annales Zoologici Societatis Zoologicae Botanicae Fennicae "Vanamo". 12 (3): 1–202..
  7. ^ a b c d Rank, N. E.; Smiley, J. T.; Köpf, A. (1996). "Natural enemies and host plant relationships for chrysomeline leaf beetles feeding on Salicaceae". In P. H. Jolivet; M. L. Cox (eds.). Chrysomelidae Biology. Vol. 2: Ecological Studies. Amsterdam: SPB Publishing. pp. 147–171.
  8. ^ Blüthgen, P. (1961). Die Faltenwespen Mitteleuropas (Hymenoptera, Diploptera). Berlin: Akademie Verlag.
  9. ^ "Polistes carolina (Linnaeus, 1767)". Biology. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification. doi:10.3752/cjai.2008.05. Retrieved 2014-09-17.
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Leaf beetle: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The insects of the beetle family Chrysomelidae are commonly known as leaf beetles, and include over 37,000 (and probably at least 50,000) species in more than 2,500 genera, making up one of the largest and most commonly encountered of all beetle families. Numerous subfamilies are recognized, but the precise taxonomy and systematics are likely to change with ongoing research.

Leaf beetles are partially recognizable by their tarsal formula, which appears to be 4-4-4, but is actually 5-5-5 as the fourth tarsal segment is very small and hidden by the third. As with many taxa, no single character defines the Chrysomelidae; instead, the family is delineated by a set of characters. Some lineages are only distinguished with difficulty from longhorn beetles (family Cerambycidae), namely by the antennae not arising from frontal tubercles.

Adult and larval leaf beetles feed on all sorts of plant tissue, and all species are fully herbivorous. Many are serious pests of cultivated plants, for example the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), the asparagus beetle (Crioceris asparagi), the cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus), the mustard beetle (Phaedon cochleariae) and various flea beetles, and a few act as vectors of plant diseases. Others are beneficial due to their use in biocontrol of invasive weeds. Some Chrysomelidae are conspicuously colored, typically in glossy yellow to red or metallic blue-green hues, and some (especially Cassidinae) have spectacularly bizarre shapes. Thus, they are highly popular among insect collectors.

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Chrysomelidae

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Les Chrysomelidae, en français Chrysomèles, sont une famille de Coléoptères divisée en dix sous-familles et rassemble environ 37 000 espèces herbivores réparties dans le monde entier. Presque chaque espèce est phytophage oligophage et se nourrit donc exclusivement sur des plantes appartenant à la même famille, voire au même genre[1].

Caractéristiques

Du fait de leur mode de vie sédentaire (elles passent l'essentiel de leur vie à la surface des feuilles d'arbres, arbustes ou plantes herbacées et agrégatives), les chrysomèles sont particulièrement exposées à la prédation. Elles ont développé, au cours de leur évolution, des mécanismes de protection variés contre leurs ennemis naturels[2]. Elles sont souvent brillamment colorées (l'étymologie grecque du mot chrysomèle, de chrysos « doré », et melolanthion « hanneton », signifiant littéralement coléoptère doré) et ce caractère distinctif est un signal d'avertissement de leur toxicité. La défense chimique est en effet très répandue au sein de la famille. Les substances défensives utilisées peuvent être stockées dans le sang et les tissus de l’insecte. Lorsque l'insecte est inquiété, elles peuvent également être émises par saignée réflexe ou depuis des glandes spécialisées. Ces substances sont de véritables armes chimiques qui les protègent de la prédation. Elles doivent agir rapidement et être au moins dissuasives, irritantes voire toxiques. Les composés chimiques présents dans les sécrétions défensives de ces insectes présentent une très grande diversité[3]. La plupart de ces substances sont d'origine autogène mais certaines espèces séquestrent des composés secondaires des plantes pour élaborer leur propre stratégie défensive.

Les chrysomèles sont au cœur d'une communication chimique intense : elles appréhendent leur environnement grâce aux odeurs émises par les plantes et se protègent de la prédation en libérant dans l'atmosphère un bouquet de composés volatils répulsifs ou toxiques. Elles constituent donc un modèle privilégié pour étudier le rôle et l'évolution des médiateurs chimiques dans les relations multi-tritrophiques.

Deux modèles biologiques indépendants ont été exploités afin de comprendre l'évolution des caractères écologiques et chimiques associés aux interactions entre les plantes et les insectes[4]. D'une part les larves de la sous-tribu des Chrysomelina sont un excellent modèle pour évaluer la faculté qu'ont les insectes phytophages spécialisés de migrer sur des plantes hôtes différentes et d'étudier les paramètres qui facilitent ou contraignent ces changements de spécificité alimentaire. D'autre part, les chrysomèles tropicales adultes du genre Platyphora (sous-tribu des Chrysolinina), permettent d'étudier les contraintes et le potentiel d'évolution des affiliations de plantes hôtes, associées à la possibilité de séquestrer des composés phytotoxiques.

Liste des sous-familles

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Chrysomelidae
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Plateumaris sericea, un Chrysomelidae.

Selon ITIS (18 juin 2021)[5] :

Liste des sous-familles et tribus

Selon Catalogue of Life (18 juin 2021)[6] :

Liste des genres

Systématique

Le nom scientifique de ce taxon est Chrysomelidae, choisi par l'entomologiste français Latreille, en 1802[7].

Ce taxon porte en français le nom vernaculaire ou normalisé « Chrysomèles[7],[8] ».

Chrysomelidae a pour synonymes[7] :

Notes et références

  1. Jolivet, 1995
  2. Deroe, 1982
  3. (en) J. M. Pasteels, M. Rowell-Rahier, J. C. Braekman, D. Daloze, S. Duffey , « Evolution of exocrine chemical defense in leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) », Cellular and molecular life sciences, mars 1989, Vol. 45, n° 3, p. 295–300
  4. Termonia, 2001
  5. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), www.itis.gov, CC0 https://doi.org/10.5066/F7KH0KBK, consulté le 18 juin 2021
  6. Bánki, O., Roskov, Y., Vandepitte, L., DeWalt, R. E., Remsen, D., Schalk, P., Orrell, T., Keping, M., Miller, J., Aalbu, R., Adlard, R., Adriaenssens, E., Aedo, C., Aescht, E., Akkari, N., Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A., Alvarez, B., Alvarez, F., Anderson, G., et al. (2021). Catalogue of Life Checklist (Version 2021-10-18). Catalogue of Life. https://doi.org/10.48580/d4t2, consulté le 18 juin 2021
  7. a b et c GBIF Secretariat. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via GBIF.org, consulté le 18 juin 2021
  8. MNHN & OFB [Ed]. 2003-présent. Inventaire national du patrimoine naturel (INPN), Site web : https://inpn.mnhn.fr, consulté le 18 juin 2021

Voir aussi

Article connexe

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original
visit source
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wikipedia FR

Chrysomelidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Les Chrysomelidae, en français Chrysomèles, sont une famille de Coléoptères divisée en dix sous-familles et rassemble environ 37 000 espèces herbivores réparties dans le monde entier. Presque chaque espèce est phytophage oligophage et se nourrit donc exclusivement sur des plantes appartenant à la même famille, voire au même genre.

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fr
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wikipedia FR