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Diagnostic Description

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Diagnosis: Damselfishes with 13 dorsal-fin spines indicate Abudefduf as well as the deep-water Chromis enchrysura, C. insolata, and C. scotti. Abudefduf saxatilis have a mode of 13 dorsal-fin soft rays and 12 anal-fin soft rays (D-XIII,13 A-II,11-12 Pect-18-19). A. taurus have fewer median-fin soft rays, with a mode of 12 dorsal-fin soft rays and 10 anal-fin soft rays (D-XIII,12 A-II,10 Pect-18-19). The Chromis species have modes of 12/11 or 12/12. (ML)

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Diagnostic Description

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Greenish yellow above, shading to white below, with 5 prominent vertical black bars that narrow toward belly (Ref. 26938). A faint sixth bar may be present posteriorly on caudal peduncle; a black spot at upper base of pectoral fin. The adult male becomes dark bluish, the black bars thus less conspicuous on the body (Ref. 13442).
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Recorder
Grace Tolentino Pablico
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Life Cycle

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Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
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Susan M. Luna
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 13; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12 - 13; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 10 - 12
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Grace Tolentino Pablico
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Trophic Strategy

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Inhabits inshore and offshore coral or rocky reefs (Ref. 7247). Juveniles are common in tide pools while adults found over shallow reef tops. Adults frequently form large feeding aggregations of up to several hundred individuals. It feeds primarily as a browsing herbivore (Ref. 275). Food items include algae, small crustaceans and fish, and various invertebrate larvae (Ref. 3139). Feeds on spinner dolphins’ feces and vomits at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, southeast Atlantic. The offal feeding may be regarded as a simple behavioral shift from plankton feeding to drifting offal picking. Also, juveniles hold cleaning stations together with the doctorfish (Acanthurus chirurgus) and the blue tang (Acanthurus coeruleus) and graze algae as well as pick molted skin and parasites from green turtles (Chelonia mydas ). This behavior is preceded by a characteristic inspection usually followed by feeding nips on the turtles’ skin (head, limbs, and tail), as well as on the carapace. The most inspected and cleaned body parts are the flippers (Ref. 48727, 51385).
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Pascualita Sa-a
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Biology

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Juveniles are common in tide pools while adults are found over shallow reef tops. Adults frequently form large feeding aggregations of up to several hundred individuals. Food items include algae, small crustaceans and fish, and various invertebrate larvae (Ref. 3139). At Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, this species feeds on spinner dolphins’ feces and vomits. The offal feeding may be regarded as a simple behavioral shift from plankton feeding to drifting offal picking. Also, juveniles may hold cleaning stations together with the doctorfish (Acanthurus chirurgus) and the blue tang (Acanthurus coeruleus) and graze algae as well as pick molted skin and parasites from green turtles (Chelonia mydas ). This behavior is preceded by a characteristic inspection usually followed by feeding nips on the turtles’ skin (head, limbs, and tail), as well as on the carapace. The most inspected and cleaned body parts are the flippers (Ref. 48727, 51385). Adult males adopt a bluish ground color when guarding eggs. Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Attracted to divers who feed fish. Marketed fresh (Ref. 3139). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35420).
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Rainer Froese
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Importance

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fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial; price category: unknown; price reliability:
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Rainer Froese
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Sergeant major (fish)

provided by wikipedia EN

The sergeant major or píntano (Abudefduf saxatilis) is a species of damselfish. It grows to a maximum length of about 22.9 centimetres (9.0 in).[2]

Distribution and habitat

Abudefduf saxatilis is found in the Atlantic Ocean.[2] Populations in the western part of the Atlantic Ocean are found from the north eastern coast of the United States south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Bahamas, islands around the Caribbean Sea, the eastern coast of Central and South America all the way to Uruguay.[2] In the eastern Atlantic Ocean, they are found from Portugal, Azores, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and western Africa.[2] Juveniles are common in tide pools while adults are found over coral reefs.[2] Sergeant majors are found at depths of 0 to 40 metres (0 to 131 ft).[2] It has been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea in both eastern and western areas, it was originally thought to be the Red Sea species Abudefduf vaigiensis which was thought to be a Lessepsian migrant from the Red Sea through the Suez Canal but it has been found that the majority, if not all, of the specimens from the Mediterranean are of A. saxatilis.[3]

Description

Adults can grow up to 22.9 centimetres (9.0 in) at maximum length.[2] Normally, they would grow up to 15 centimetres (5.9 in).[2] The largest recorded specimen weighed had a weight of up to 200 grams (7.1 oz).[2] Abudefduf saxatilis has 13 dorsal spines, 12 to 13 dorsal soft rays, 2 anal spines, and 10 to 12 anal soft rays.[2] This fish is white with a yellow top. It has 5 vertical stripes which are black. A faint sixth stripe might be present on the caudal peduncle.[2] Adult males have a more bluish coloration and its stripes are less visible.[2] There is a dark spot around its pectoral fin.

Ecology

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School of sergeant majors, Jamaica

Diet

This fish feed upon the larvae of invertebrates, zooplankton, smaller fish, crustaceans, and various species of algae.[2] It is also known to feed on the waste and vomit of spinner dolphins.[2]

Behavior

Individuals of this species form aggregations of about several hundreds of individuals.[2] Sometimes, they get cleaned of parasites by fish species such as gobies in the genus Gobiosoma, Bodianus rufus, Elacatinus figaro, and Thalassoma noronhanum.[2] Sergeant majors also clean green sea turtles with Acanthurus chirurgus and Acanthurus coeruleus.[2]

Predators

Predators of this fish include Plectropomus leopardus, Thalassoma bifasciatum, Cephalopholis cruentata, Epinephelus striatus, Mycteroperca venenosa, and Rachycentron canadum.[2]

In the aquarium

They are found in the aquarium trade but are regarded as difficult to breed.[4]

Reproduction

The sergeant majors is an oviparous species in which the males create nests where the females to lay their egg masses on rocks, reef outcrops, shipwrecks, and pilings.[5] The males actively chase the females in courtship before the female releases approximately 200,000 ref, ovoid eggs which are attached to the substrate by a filament, the eggs turn greenish after a few days and are guarded by the male. As he guards the eggs the male becomes bluish in colour, guarding them for about a week.[6]

Etymology

Sergeant majors earn their name from its brightly striped sides, known as bars, which are reminiscent of the insignia of a military sergeant major.[6]

References

  1. ^ Rocha, L.A. & Myers, R. (2015). "Abudefduf saxatilis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T188581A1896808. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T188581A1896808.en.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2014). "Abudefduf saxatilis" in FishBase. December 2014 version.
  3. ^ Rami Tsadok; Maxim Rubin-Blum; Eli Shemesh & Dan Tchernov (2015). "On the occurrence and identification of Abudefduf saxatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) in the easternmost Mediterranean Sea" (PDF). Aquatic Invasions. 10 (1): 101–105. doi:10.3391/ai.2015.10.1.10.
  4. ^ Matthew L. Wittenrich. "Raising Sergeant Majors (Full Article)". Tropical Fish Hobbyist Magazine. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  5. ^ Melany P. Puglisi (1 August 2008). "Abudefduf saxatilis". Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory. Smithsonian Maine Station at Fort Pierce. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  6. ^ a b Cathleen Bester. "Sergeant Major". Discover Fishes. Florida Museum. Retrieved 4 October 2018.

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Sergeant major (fish): Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The sergeant major or píntano (Abudefduf saxatilis) is a species of damselfish. It grows to a maximum length of about 22.9 centimetres (9.0 in).

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Description

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Usually found in shallow waters to around 15 meters, juveniles are common in tide pools while adults school over shallow reeftops. Adults frequently form large feeding aggregations of up to several hundred individuals. Food items include algae, small crustaceans and fish, and various invertebrate larvae. Adult males adopt a bluish ground colour when guarding eggs. Attracted to divers who feed fish. Generally common (Ref. 9710).
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Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Edward Vanden Berghe [email]
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Edward Vanden Berghe [email]

Diet

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Food items include algae, small crustaceans and fish, and various invertebrate larvae
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Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Kennedy, Mary [email]
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Kennedy, Mary [email]

Distribution

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Atlantic Ocean: 40.9°N to Uruguay in the western Atlantic, abundant on Caribbean reefs; around islands of the mid-Atlantic, Cape Verde, and along the tropical coast of western Africa south to Angola
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Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Kennedy, Mary [email]
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Kennedy, Mary [email]

Habitat

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Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Kennedy, Mary [email]
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Kennedy, Mary [email]

Habitat

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Adults frequently form large feeding aggregations of up to several hundred individuals.
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Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Kennedy, Mary [email]
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Kennedy, Mary [email]