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Brief Summary

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Turbot are large flatfish that easily change their outer coloring to match the sea floor. By camouflaging themselves so well, they are able to catch a meal of crustaceans and fish from their hideout. Most flatfish have both their eyes on the original right side of their body. However, turbot have them on the left side. This species can grow quite large, up to one meter long.
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Diagnostic Description

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Body almost circular. Eye side without scales but with large bony tubercles (Ref. 35388).
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Arlene G. Sampang-Reyes
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Diseases and Parasites

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Enteric Redmouth Disease. Bacterial diseases
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Allan Palacio
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Life Cycle

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Spawning usually happens between the months of February and April in the Mediterranean and from May to July in the Atlantic. Sequenced spawning every 2-4 days. Eggs have a single fat drop. Larvae are initially symmetric but, at the end of the metamorphosis (day 40-50, 25 mm), the right eye moves to the left side, losing its initial bilateral symmetry. Egg size 0.9 - 1.2 mm, larval length at hatching 2.7-3.1 mm.
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Susan M. Luna
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Migration

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Rainer Froese
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Biology

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Adults live on sandy, rocky or mixed bottoms; rather common in brackish waters. Feed mainly on other bottom-living fishes (sand-eels, gobies, etc.), and also, to a lesser extent, on larger crustaceans and bivalves. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Spawning season is between April and August; pelagic eggs. May reach 25 kg (Ref. 9988). Highly esteemed food fish. Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
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Importance

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fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
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Turbot

provided by wikipedia EN

The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a relatively large species of flatfish in the family Scophthalmidae. It is a demersal fish native to marine or brackish waters of the Northeast Atlantic, Baltic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. It is an important food fish.[2] Turbot in the Black Sea have often been included in this species, but are now generally regarded as separate, the Black Sea turbot or kalkan (S. maeoticus).[3] True turbot are not found in the Northwest Atlantic; the "turbot" of that region, which was involved in the so-called "Turbot War" between Canada and Spain, is the Greenland halibut or Greenland turbot (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides).[4]

Etymology

The word comes from the Old French tourbout, which may be a derivative of the Latin turbo ('spinning top') a possible reference to its shape.[5] Another possible origin of the Old French word is from Old Swedish törnbut, from törn 'thorn' + -but 'stump, butt, flatfish', which may also be a reference to its shape (compare native English halibut).[6] Early reference to the turbot can be found in a satirical poem (The Emperor's Fish) by Juvenal, a Roman poet of the late 1st and early 2nd centuries CE, suggesting this fish was a delicacy in the Roman empire.

In English, turbot is pronounced /ˈtɜːrbət/ TUR-bət.[7] The French pronunciation of "turbot" is [tyʁbo].

Description

The turbot is a large left eyed flatfish found primarily close to shore in sandy shallow waters throughout the Mediterranean, the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, and the North Atlantic. The European turbot has an asymmetric disk-shaped body, and has been known to grow up to one metre (40 inches) long and 25 kilograms (55 pounds) in weight.[2][8]

Fisheries

Turbot is highly prized as a food fish for its delicate flavour, and is also known as brat, breet, britt, or butt. It is a valuable commercial species, acquired through aquaculture and trawling. Turbot are farmed in Bulgaria, Canada, France, Spain, Portugal, Romania, Turkey, Chile, Norway, and China.[9] Turbot has a bright white flesh that retains this appearance when cooked. Like all flatfish, turbot yields four fillets with meatier topside portions that may be baked, poached, steamed, or pan-fried.

References

  1. ^ Cardinale, M.; Chanet, B.; Martínez Portela, P.; Munroe, T.A.; Nimmegeers, S.; Shlyakhov, V.; Turan, C.; Vansteenbrugge, L. (2021). "Scophthalmus maximus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T198731A144939322. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-2.RLTS.T198731A144939322.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2019). "Psetta maxima" in FishBase. December 2019 version.
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2019). Species of Scophthalmus in FishBase. December 2019 version.
  4. ^ Stephens, T. (2009). International Courts and Environmental Protection. Cambridge University Press. pp. 212–214. ISBN 978-0-521-88122-7.
  5. ^ "turbot, n.", OED Online, Oxford University Press, December 2021, retrieved January 11, 2022
  6. ^ "turbot". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  7. ^ "turbot", dictionary.reference.com
  8. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Turbot" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  9. ^ Psetta Maxima Archived 2011-02-23 at the Wayback Machine Seafood Portal

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Turbot: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a relatively large species of flatfish in the family Scophthalmidae. It is a demersal fish native to marine or brackish waters of the Northeast Atlantic, Baltic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. It is an important food fish. Turbot in the Black Sea have often been included in this species, but are now generally regarded as separate, the Black Sea turbot or kalkan (S. maeoticus). True turbot are not found in the Northwest Atlantic; the "turbot" of that region, which was involved in the so-called "Turbot War" between Canada and Spain, is the Greenland halibut or Greenland turbot (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides).

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